Skip to main content

Full text of "The story of the Fifteenth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry in the Civil War, 1861-1864"

See other formats


EMORY UNIVERSITY 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF 




BREVET MAJ.-GEN. CHARLES DEVENS, JR. 
COLONEL 15TH REG'T MASS. VOLS. 



THE STORY 



OF THE 



FIFTEENTH REGIMENT 



Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry 



IN THE 



CIVIL WAR 



1 86 1 - 1 864 



BY ANDREW K. FORD 



CLINTON: 
Press of \V. J. Coulter, ::::::::: Courant Office 

1898 



PREFACE 



The officers of the Fifteenth Regiment Massachusetts 
Volunteer Infantry held reunions October 21, 1S64 and 1865. 
October 22, 1866, the regimental association was definitely 
organized. At the annual meetings of this association, 
which have been held on the anniversary of the battle of 
Ball's Bluff, the question of preparing a regimental history 
has often been discussed. As no one was found ready to 
write such a history-, .it was many years before anything 
resulted from this discussion. During this time many of 
the members of the regiment trtdst capable of telling its 
story, or furnishing material therefor, had passed away, and 
the prospects that this ever would be told, by any one who 
had served in the regiment, had grown exceedingly slight. 
Still there were many who believed some account of the 
services of the regiment should be handed down to coming 
generations. 

At a regimental reunion held October 21, 1894, "Captain 
David M. Earle advocated the immediate adoption of meas- 
ures for the preparation of a history of the regiment. General 
John W Kimball favored the suggestion, and moved that a 
committee consisting of Colonel John M. Studley, Captains 
David M. Earle, J. Evarts Greene and Thomas J. Hastings, 
Sergeant Edward A. Rice, Colonel Edward J. Russell, Ser- 
geant-Major Francis A. Walker, and Captain George W 
Rockwood, be appointed to arrange for the preparation of a 
regimental history. The name of General John W Kimball 



4 PREFACE. 

was added to the list, and the motion prevailed. This com- 
mittee met and appointed Captains David M. Earle. Thomas 
J. Hastings and J. Evarts Greene as a sub-committee, and 
gave into their hands the entire charge of the historical 
work." At the regimental reunion held October 21, 1896, 
Captain Amos Bartlett, Colonel George C. Joslin, Colonel 
Henry S. Taft and George \V Mirick were added to the 
general committee. 

On account of the difficult)' of finding a historian, little 
was accomplished by this committee until the spring of 1897. 
At that time, through the suggestion of William J. Coulter, 
the committee was brought into communication with Andrew 
E. Ford of Clinton, and an arrangement was made with him 
for writing and publishing a history of the regiment, to be 
completed within two years from the date of the contract. 

As the committee were thus obliged to engage the serv- 
ices of one outside of the regiment to prepare its history, it 
was deemed best that material furnished by members of the 
regiment — such as diaries and letters written from the front 
or papers prepared at a later date — should be used to as 
great an extent as was consistent with the unity of the work. 

The author would hereby acknowledge his indebtedness 
to those whose writings have been quoted, and also to many 
other members of the regiment, a number too numerous to 
mention individually, who have assisted him. He would 
especially acknowledge the aid received from the members 
of committee in the way of material, suggestion and cor- 
rection. 



CONTENTS 



The Origin of the Regiment. - - 9-31 

From Camp Scott to Camp Foster. 32-65 

June 28-October 19, 1861. 

Battle of Ball's Bluff. - 66-97 

October 20-21, 1861. 

The Losses at Ball's Bluff. - 98-125 

October 21, 1861. 

At Poolesville. — In the Shenandoah Valley. - 126-143 
October 21, i86i-March 23, 1862. 

The Peninsular Campaign. - - - 144-184 

March 29-AuGUST 25, 1862. 

Antietam Campaign. - - 185-210 

August 26-September 22, 1862. 

Under Burnside. - - - 211-231 

September i8-December 15, 1862. 

Winter and Spring at Camp Falmouth. - 232-252 

December 16, 1862-JuNE 10, 1863. 

The Gettysburg Campaign. ----- 253-284 
June h-July 4, I863. 

From the Potomac to the Rapidan. — Bristoe 

Station. — Robertson's Tavern. - 285-315 

The Final Campaign. - 316-344 

Individual Record. - - 345-411 



PORTRAITS 



Colonel Charles Devens. 
Colonel George Hull Ward. 



Frontispiece 
Opposite page 281 



MAPS 



General Map. 
Ball's Bluff and Vicinity. 
Battle of Ball s Bluff. 
" Fair Oaks. 
" " Antietam. 

" " Fredericksburg. 

" Gettysburg. 
" " Bristoe Station. 



Opposite page 9 

81 

85 

- - 165 

191 

226 

Opposite page 265 

297 



FIELD AND STAFF OFFICERS. 



Charles Devens, col.; b. Charlestown, res. cr. Worcester; 41; s.; law- 
yer; major 3d- Batt. Rifles April 19, '61; m. o. July 20, '61; col. 15th 
Regt. July 15, '61; wd. B. B.; brig.-gen. April 15, '62, ass. April 27,'62; 
com. 3d brig. 3d div. 4th A. C, 18th div. 18th A. C, 1st div. 18th A. C, 
3d div. 24th A. C; wd. F O., Chancellors ville; brevet maj.-gen. U. S. 
V April 3/65; com. Dist. N. E. Va., and Dist. S. C; m. o. June 2/66. 

George Hull Ward, lieut.-col; b. res. cr. Worcester; 36; m.; machin- 
ist; brig.-gen. M. V. M., ass. 5th brig. 3d div. before war; lieut.-col. 
15th Regt. July 24, '61 ; lost leg B. B.; com. recruiting camp, Worces- 
ter, Feb. '62-Jan. '63; com. 1st brig. 2d div. 2d A. C. during much of 
the time Feb-July '63; brevet brig.-gen. U. S. V. July 2, '63; d. July 
3, wds. rec'd July 2d, Gett. 

George C. Joslin, capt. Co. I; b. Leominster, res. cr. Worcester; 2d 
lieut. 3d Batt. Rifles April 19, '61; m. o. Aug. 3, '61; capt. Co. I Aug. 
5; wd. wrist Ant.; major Nov. 13, '62; lieut.-col. April I7,'63; col. Nov. 
1, '63, never m.; pris. Nov. 27,'63; ex. Aug. '64; m. o. Aug. 9, '64. 

John White Kimball, capt. Co. B, M.V.M. com.; major Aug. 1, '61; 
lieut.-cot. April 29, '62; com. 15th Regt. in ab. superior off . April 28- 
Nov 23, '62; col. 53d Regt. Nov. 10, '62, m. Dec. 3, '62; m. o. Sept. 2, 
'63; recruiting off. Wor. Co.; brevet brig.-gen. U. S. V March 13/65. 

Chase Philbrick, capt. Co. H; b. Sanbornton, N. H.; res. cr. North- 
bridge; 38; m.; stone-cutter; major April 29, '62; lieut.-col. Nov. 13, 
'62; wd. Dec. 13, '62; com. 15th Regt. in ab. superior off. Nov. 23- 
Dec. 13, '62; m. o. April 16, '63. 

I. Harris Hooper, 2d lieut. Co. K; p. 13th N.Y. Vols. April 23-Aug. 6, 
'61; m. i. 15th Regt. Oct. 8, '61; b. res. cr. Boston; 29; s.; business; 
1st lieut. adjt. June 9, '62; major April 17/63; lieut.-col. July 4, '63, 
never m.; asst. inspector gen. 2d A. C. Aug. '63; pris. B. B.; pris. 
July 26, '63, escaped Feb. '64, and rejoined regt. March 28, '64; com. 
15th Regt. March 28-June 22, '64, in ab. superior off.; wd. body Dec. 
13, '62, arm June 22, '64; m. o. 

Lyman H. Ellingwood. See Co. F, I. R. Major July 4, '63; never m. 

Walter Gale. See Co. C, I. R. Major July 14, '64; never m. 

George A. Hicks, 1st lieut. adjt.; 3d lieut. 3d Batt. Riflemen May 19, 
'61; m. o. Aug. 3, '61; 1st lieut. adjt. 15th Regt. Aug. 8, '61; b. Brook- 
lyn, N.Y.; res. cr. Boston; 33; capt. asst. adjt. gen. U. S. V Nov. 16, 
'61, Gen. Burns' staff; brevet maj. U. S. V July 30, '64; m. o. Nov. 
22, '65. 

George W Baldwin, 1st lieut. adjt.; m. i. Nov. 27, '61; b. New Haven, 
Ct.; res. cr. Worcester; 29; s.; lawyer; capt. asst. adjt. gen. U. S. 
Vols, on staff Gen. Devens June 9, '62; both legs broken by fall of 
his horse down embankment at Fredericksburg; re. April 1863. 

W. G. Waters, 1st lieut., Albert Prince, 1st lieut.. E. J. Russell, 1st 
lieut., acting adjt. during winter '62 and '63; D. M. Earle, 1st lieut., 
acting adjt. during Gett. campaign. 

Dwight Newbury, p. Co. A; m. i. Dec. 5, '61; b. res. cr. Worcester; 23; 
m.; bookkeeper; sergt.-major April 9, '63; 1st lieut. adjt. July 4, '63; 
k. Nov. 27. 

Nelson V. Stanton. See Co, H, I. R, Adjt. Dec. 1, '63. 



S FIELD AND STAFF OFFICERS. 

George O. Wilder. See Co. C, I. R. ist lieut. com. Dec. 3, '63; m. 

and appointed adjt. June 4, '64. 
Church Howe, ist lieut. q. m.; b. unknown, res. Princeton, cr. Worces- 
ter; 23; s.; accountant; ord. off. Corps Observation Jan. 21, '62; aide 

Gen. Sedgwick; capt. ass. Co. K Jan. 17/63; brevet major March 13. 

'65; re. April 10, '63. 
William B. Storer, ist lieut. q. m.; m. i. Jan. 28, '62; b. unknown; res. 

cr. Cambridge; ass. Co. E; aide Gen. Devens May 11, '62; re. Jan. 2, 

'63; com. capt. asst. adjt. gen. L T . S. V. June 7, '64; declined com. 
Charles H. Eager. See Co. 1), I. R. O. M. May 11, '62-Oct. 10, '62. 
William R. Wheelock, Co. C wagon master; 1st lieut. q. m. Oct. 10, 

'62; capt. ass. Co. G July 5, '63; q. m. 1st brig. 2d div. 2d A. C. Dec. 

30, '63-April 6, '64; com. pioneers 2d div. 2d A. C. April 7/64; m. o. 
William Bixby. See Co. H, I. R. Q. M. July 5, '63-m. o. 
Francis A. Walker, sergt.-major; b. Boston, res. cr. North Brookfield: 

21; s.; student; 2d lieut. Aug. 12, '61, com. declined; capt. asst. adjt. 

gen. U. S. V Sept. 14, '61, ass. staff Gen. D. N. Couch; major Aug. 

11, '62; lieut.-col. Jan. 1, '63; wd. Chancellorsville; pris. Aug. 25, '64; 

brevet col. U. S. V- Aug.' 1, '64; brevet brig.-gen. U. S. V March 13, 

'65; re. Jan. 9, '65. 
John S. Hall. See Co. D, I. R. Sergt.-maj. Sept. 25, '61-Jan. 6, '62. 
Henry G. Bigelow. See Co. D, I. R. Sergt.-maj. Jan. 6, '62. There 

were several acting sergeant-majors while he was absent from wds. 

received at Ant. 
Dwight Newbury. See adjt. Sergt.-maj. April 9, '63. 
George O. Wilder. See Co. C, I. R. Sergt.-maj. Oct. 22, '63. 
Daniel W. Freeman. See Co. C, I. R. Sergt.-major June 4, '64. 
William R. Steele, q. m. sergt.; b. res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 24, 

'6i; 19; s.; merchant; 2d lieut. May 11, '62; ist lieut. Oct. 28/62; 

brevet capt. and maj. March 13, '65; aide Gen. Webb; m. o. 
William Bixby. See Co. H, I. R. Q. M. sergt. May 1/62. 
Edward A. Rice. See Co. D, I. R. Q. M. sergt. Dec. 8, '63. 
William G. Waters, com. sergt.; b. unknown, res. cr. Gorham, Me.; 
Joshua Freeman. See Co. C, I. R. Com. sergt. Jan. 1/63. 
George W. Faulkner. See Co. E, I. R. Com. sergt. Oct. 22, '63. 
Henry L. Dearing, hospital steward; b. unknown, res. cr. Boston; m. 

i. Aug. 5, '61 ; m. o. May 25, '63. 
Albert H. Gleason. See Co. A, I. R. Hospital steward April '63. 
Joseph N. Bates, surgeon; m. i. Aug. 5, '61; b. Princeton, res. cr. Wor- 
cester; 50; m.; physician; dismissed July 17, '62. 
Samuel F Haven, Jr., ist lieut. asst. surgeon; m. 1. Aug. 5/61; b. Ded- 

ham, res. cr. Worcester; 30; s.; physician; major, surgeon July 21, 

'62; k. Dec, 13, '62. 
F L. Baron Monroe, surgeon; b. unknown, res. cr. Medway; 26; phy- 
sician; ist lieut. asst. surgeon ist Batt. L. Art. May 18, '61; m.o. Aug. 

2/61; ist lieut. asst. surgeon ist Regt. Sept. 3/61; major, surgeon 

15th Regt. Dec. 29, '62, reported for duty Jan. 25, '63; med. insp. gen. 

2d A. C. July 23, '63; m. o. July 29, '64. 
Charles F. Chebore, com. asst. surgeon July 21, '62; declined com. 
Henry Rockwood, ist lieut. asst. surgeon; m. i. Aug. 7/62; b. unknown, 

res. cr. Westford; dis. Sept. 14, '63. 
Theodore O. Cornish, ist lieut. asst. surgeon; b. res. unknown, cr. 

Millbury; m. i. Aug. 11, '62; m. o. July 29/64. 
William G. Scandlin, chaplain; b. England, res. cr. Grafton; m. i, 

Aug. 5/61; 33; m.; clergyman; re. Aug. 12/62. 



j3«° 



< 



< 

Z 

ft 




<u fl 



+> s ._ 

m a <d 

cos 

SAT 

d <U 



6b § 



^ 


a 


P2 


U 






M 




<N 




i-j 


a) 


<1> 




4J 


.— i 


n 


;> 




t/i 


o 


HI 


O 


o 




o 


- 


^ 








w 




<e 




X 


Etc 


H 






a S " s-, « "* 

■S^Sg g-5^ 

^ oj . - .5 'n 
• S E? £ g ^ -a 

e .. pL, a> ^ g m 

^ 5 |s*5 . • 9 c 



0) 03 



u <r< %■" ■* • .?> CO >, 5 



.A +3 a --. ?* 



Si K >>.? 

> 3 d 
O rt T J) N.i"+Jm 3S " 

■ffio ft g? >> F : -^ ° > ro 
£ >,£.^ c«g 3 """ a£< 



ft X 1 



4_»cD7'iSroaCQd .^'^ +jQ^>,t>iO . 
SS°S,_eo n g£ d d-g - S rS 2 



O e 



S vo rt 8 g .SP £ s n ; - - ~ -• J5 ~ ~ 
-! *s "• *r, , , hi S "£ a-^So^,; 



S U N -5 5 CD " g 

* -> >>'o ^"' "3 -a ■£ „ 
35 * SB . > e o se^ 



o 2,"~ 



bSft£&|«|i ? j^£o 

<P ^ CM S" < 4 



d - <, +j - . ^ ^ ^ i"; 

CO [_, < 

d ft a oj > >, CD 
' S-g ^ ft- - w 






h/5 nJ 



° S E 






H^ 



p-4 >-^ — 1.U » . 

ohnO 

a - .„ f> 

CO (J ' 

-*- v^-< . • "• . 

S d g gu -"Sis 

nl ^ SS y CD .-•" — 



%3t m S « £/ 

oj i_ a *^ 

e -J5 „ m . ri o 

ft <* 3 -5 * c rt 

' o 



■*,*' -2 ri m > 

^ " ^ a £ 
t/5 re ^ cj fcjj i_ 
p xi o -g a ^ 

s'-< £ S 7, y- T 1 
h ,^ cu ^ a i 

>■" ° c 2 « 

»-• ^ i « o bi 

a ^o k a 

S > *> ? o 2 

rt K -' '3 ^ "C -^ 

g V ~ a a c +j 

- rt -S t 9, 

>> a t5 c> >. 

a s i3X)j2 xi _, .. 
^"^ -h fln tfi o co 

cd . a 5 .5 n" j* 

*3 ft d 3 N 

% ^ ET>« g 

m rl ^ ^ " ?„ & 
..." a ^ g« a 

■ - J - ■r" i-" O 



^j -a S ■ 



o ft.fc 



« <> a re°2^ 
a^-S^mJ-S^-g^^acD-Js.n^ 



aajj^CM^a-. op,. 



! C/} 



D 



- V) CD 

ft 5 !-. 
t/} TS 



N rt 



^ OJ' rj'ri- u a 

o f?i " ^ -^ aj _ 

i= • 55 ' 
| cs ft-O 

j r |S S — ft 

' ^ cj -S ~* a aj S . 
, U . - & " -S $ lis" 

•*s --^^ u ft 

:->ac _0Jli~U_,^3^; 

||o|.sl X = ^1°-^ 

X ti^S^ S-^ o ^ S o 
^"ffi-?^ S-h Scoa 



£ 3 5 a S ■- n ^ 
o R * S S* 4i . 
b« ?u S^-s- 5 
go: o,gS5 

» « . .5 - e 13 (5 ,. j $ ^ 
3 i2 u « 

> s^j °.y H . x « 

ja -H-jpn S^r 1 b£ i — i 

„ " ... i* f£| ^ a 

f^ bo cfl _ d . 

*-, U '^ (V, <D O ■/, q) 

i 3j a a .X *" = 
" a to .„ou-i +J > 

"* rC<i bj! & " ' ' 

" >S ft 



uo^'ci 5 2 

iJ CD t, OO O * 

ft S S d _g •- o -; 



_ a; cj - « 
4J n cd n a 

C i— i t3 -o 

ft . g t5 a; ^?j^ 
- ft a; «J o " £ ■" 

„--^; >, ^ ^"S 

... . x a cm ij, 

- h S j a- 3 ^ H 

-• <o >^ _a a ;> . 

^2 ^ <n oo a g t. j 

_ it o o -a . d - - ■ 

a ~ o a . 

> 3 <o * or.---' — 



ai o c; ■— i 

J? .5. rt 

P a .5 co +j 

o ^ d a 

^ a 3 a 

r< . £ i-i £ 

*> SS,.° ° 

« a^§ ^£ 

« ft d g> 5 



* ' aj bb a- <u 5 H .„ 
"" 3 >.=S-a ^ ^i3 

IcquS^^S ar 




,5oV 



_5 >- ■ 3, 



a_ajca 



a 

.y bu o 

bo a ft 
-"■ - js *> cu a " 

td >y 2 -K •" "- 

" o S o 

xj ,q > in to « ^ 



m cd o a - 3 Vi J 

>> SrS i3.y a « 
' J5 JS o da - CD 



THE FIFTEENTH REGIMENT 



CHAPTER I. 
THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT. 

The Union Army was something more than a mere col- 
lection of men. It was an organism, with one vital spirit, 
which animated all its parts, as the life spirit animates all 
parts of the human body. Within this all inclusive organism 
there were other units no less complete in their individuality 
Foremost among these was the regiment. The parts of the 
brigade, the division, the army corps, and the special army 
did not always act together. During the early years of the 
war at least, these organizations were too large, too diverse 
in their origin and too complex in their nature to attract the 
hearts of the men. But the regiment through similarity of 
elements, closeness of association and oneness in action, 
became the most distinctive unit in the volunteer service. 
The regimental flag was the symbol of this unity. 

The flag of the country was always the symbol of nation- 
ality, the shrine of patriotism. The aspirations and the 
memories that clustered about the flag of the regiment, gave 
to it an added sacredness, peculiarly its own. The sight of it 
brought back to the soldiers the emotions which filled their 
hearts when that flag was presented to the regiment. It 
recalled the patriotic fervor, the ambition, the hope, the pain 
of separation from kindred and friends at their final depar- 
ture from home, when that flag floated before them in all its 
fresh beauty. The monotony of camp life, its pleasures and 



10 THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT. 

discomforts, the weariness of the march, the hush before the 
battle and the wild exultation of struggle were all written on 
its folds. Above all, it wakened memories of the comrades, 
with whom they had marched and fought. Although the 
flag worn out in the service may have given place to another, 
still the new was the regimental flag, no less than the old, a 
living thing, inspiring the hearts of all who followed it. It 
is this spirit which the flag typifies, the spirit of the Fifteenth 
Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, acting as a unit for 
the salvation of the country, which is the subject of our 
story. 

Each regiment had certain peculiar characteristics from 
its date of muster. These characteristics were modified by 
the interaction of the men upon each other, by the nature of 
its own officers and those under whom it served, by the 
duties it was called upon to perform, and by everything the 
scientist includes under the word environment. 

The character which a regiment brought into the 
service was due to the sources from which it was derived 
and the conditions under which it was organized. Men from 
each section of the country brought with them local traits. 
The organization of some regiments was such that in social 
relations there was a sharply drawn distinction between offi- 
cers and men; in others, the officers and men had been 
social equals and all differences of rank were looked upon 
as artificial and temporary. 

The characteristics of the Fifteenth Regiment which 
were due to its origin, were such as belonged in 1861 to 
New England, to Massachusetts, to Worcester County. 
Worcester County has no sea-coast and none of the indus- 
tries which depend upon the sea for their support, but there 
are few other elements which enter into the idea expressed 
in the words New England or Massachusetts which are not 
here represented in all their fullness. Worcester County 
combines within its large area, portions of the marine plains, 
the southern prolongation of the White Mountains and the 



CHARACTERISTICS. II 

interior valley of the Connecticut. In 1861, it stood first in 
agriculture among the counties of New England. There 
were great forests still growing upon its hill-slopes which 
furnished material to the saw-mills and furniture factories 
which were built upon its streams. The abundant water 
power had also given rise to woolen and cotton mills, to little 
comb shops and paper mills. The making of boots and 
shoes had already become a leading industry in many of the 
towns. There were also workers in iron and machinists 
among the inhabitants. A large number of merchants and 
clerks were required to supply the needs of this body of 
farmers and mechanics. The independence of farm life and 
the fact that labor had become little specialized in manu- 
facturing, tended to make the people democratic in spirit. 
In matters of education, Worcester County was no less typi- 
cal of New England as a whole. Here in the fifties the dis- 
trict school and the academy, the recently introduced graded 
school and high school, all flourished in great vigor. Here 
the Evangelical and Unitarian churches gathered within 
their sanctuaries most of those who were able to attend 
divine service. A substantial morality derived from a Puri- 
tan ancestry and fostered by the calm of village life char- 
acterized the people. In politics they had sympathized 
with the Whig party in its efforts to consolidate the country 
Although under the leadership of such men as May and 
Higginson, the anti-slavery movement had taken deep root 
in the county, yet when the crisis came, the determination 
to maintain the integrity of the Union proved a stronger 
incentive to action than the desire to overthrow slavery. 

The Fifteenth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers was 
composed of young men from these farms, factories, mills, 
shops and stores. Most of them had received at least a dis- 
trict school education, many had attended high schools and 
academies, and a few had diplomas from colleges and pro- 
fessional schools. Some were members of churches, and 
nearly all had come under their influence. They had all been 



12 THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT. 

accustomed to social equality, so that those who became 
officers were not separated by any impassable gulf from the 
privates. Many had been deeply stirred by the wrongs of 
the slaves, and all were lovers of their country 

Of the thirty-four infantry regiments of three years troops 
which were organized in Massachusetts previous to 1863, 
and thus served their full term before the fall of the Confed- 
eracy, there were four: the Fifteenth, the Twenty-first, the 
Twenty-fifth, and the Thirty-sixth, which may be considered 
as distinctively Worcester County regiments. Of these, the 
Twenty-first and the Thirty-sixth had a far larger proportion 
of their men from outside of Worcester County than the Fif- 
teenth and the Twenty-fifth. As the Fifteenth lost a large 
number of men early in the war, while the losses of the 
Twenty-fifth came much later, and as these losses of the Fif- 
teenth were repaired by recruits during 1862, the total num- 
ber of volunteers from Worcester County who entered the 
Fifteenth before the close of 1863 was much larger than the 
number of those who entered the Twenty-fifth during the 
same time. The new immigration of the fifties was found to a 
far greater extent in the Twenty-fifth than in the Fifteenth. 
A considerable portion of the soldiers of the Fifteenth were 
descended from men who had fought in the Revolution. 

All but seven of the towns in the county had volunteers 
in its ranks. These towns received credit by the state for 
about fourteen hundred of its men, and many of those who 
were credited to other places were natives of Worcester 
County who had removed from its limits, but joined the 
Fifteenth because they preferred to serve with their friends 
and kindred. The influence of local association in these 
early enlistments has been aptly presented by General Fran- 
cis A.Walker: "It is a surprising fact that among the 
thirty-one soldiers from this town (North Brookfield) who 
fell the victims of battle and disease, are found the repre- 
sentatives of nineteen different regiments, belonging to as 
many as seven states. How strangely this indifference, 



CHARACTERISTICS. 1 3 

manifested in the later years of the war, as to the circum- 
stances of service, contrasts with the sentiment which ani- 
mated the North Brookfield soldiers in 1861, when we united 
with two neighboring towns to form Company F, of the 
Fifteenth Regiment. Why, in those days, hardly one of our 
number would have thought that he could bring his mind to 
enlist in a strange regiment, or even in another company 
from that to which his schoolmates and his townsmen be- 
longed. But we well know how soon that feeling wore off 
under the teaching of actual service, and that soldiers became 
almost strangely indifferent to the accidents of circumstances 
and surroundings, having learned that war is war anywhere 
and everywhere; that in its tremendous experience the petty 
fact of previous acquaintance goes for very little; that in the 
hardships and dangers of campaign, men lay the foundations 
of deeper and more intimate friendships than are possible in 
this peaceful and self-indulgent life of ours." 

General Charles Devens once said: "This Fifteenth Reg- 
iment was peculiarly a Worcester County regiment, and 
within its limits, although its military designations were the 
same with all others, yet the companies were more frequently 
known by the name of the town where they were raised and 
had their headquarters before being consolidated into the 
regimental organization. I can no doubt repeat them all 
today: thus, Company A, was the Leominster company; B, 
the Fitchburg; C, the Clinton; D, the Worcester; E, the Ox- 
ford; F, the Brookfields; G, the Grafton; H, the Northbridge; 
I, the Webster; and K, the Blackstone. It had, it is true, 
many gallant soldiers who did not come from these towns, 
but from their immediate vicinity; but they were all of the 
county, and representative of the whole county, for there 
was no section that did not furnish some brave men to its 
ranks." In a broader way the regiment was also representa- 
tive of the old Yankee stock as modified by the industrial, 
educational, religious, political and moral movements which 
belonged to the middle of this century 



14 THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT. 

Worcester County had entered with intense enthusiasm 
into the political campaign of i860, and had given an over- 
whelming majority of her presidential votes for Abraham 
Lincoln. When South Carolina on the 20th of December 
had declared her connection with the Union dissolved, her 
action formed the one all-absorbing topic of discussion 
throughout the county When, on the 5th of January. John 
A. Andrew in his inaugural address declared: "Until we 
complete the work of rolling back this wave of rebellion, 
which threatens to engulf the government. . • ., we cannot 
turn aside and will not turn back," the citizens of the county 
as one man stood ready to follow whithersoever he might 
lead. When Major Anderson took possession of Fort Sum- 
ter they rejoiced; when the Star of the West was fired upon 
by the secessionists, they were stirred with patriotic indig- 
nation; when the Confederacy was organized, they could 
scarcely restrain their impatience; when Lincoln at last be- 
came president, they watched the course of events with the 
deepest anxiety, and when on the 12th of April Sumter was 
attacked, the zeal of the people for action knew no bounds. 
The following week the whole county was seething with 
excitement. On the 14th, Sumter fell; on the 15th, Lincoln 
issued his call for seventy-five thousand troops. Immedi- 
ately some of the militia organizations which were ready 
were hurried away and steps were taken for forming new 
ones. On Friday, the 19th, the Massachusetts Sixth was 
attacked in the streets of Baltimore. In every town from 
Blackstone to Winchendon, the Saturday and Sunday which 
followed were days of patriotic fervor never before equalled. 
Meetings were called which were crowded by citizens. Men 
spoke with tongues of fire. Resolutions were passed, pledg- 
ing property and life to the defense of the Union. Physi- 
cians offered their services free of charge to the families of 
all those who would volunteer. The eagerness for enlist- 
ment could scarcely be restrained and every need, real or 
imaginary, of those who were about to go forth was abund- 



THE OLD MILITIA. 1 5 

antly supplied. On Sunday, the pulpit proclaimed in no 
doubtful tones that the voice of patriotism was the voice of 
God. The towns in their corporate capacity were no whit 
behind their individual citizens. Town meetings were held 
as soon as due notice could be given. Party lines were ob- 
literated. The most liberal appropriations were unanimously 
made. The comfortable support of the families of volun- 
teers was guaranteed. Thus with one feeling and one pur- 
pose, the citizens of Worcester County prepared to take 
their part in maintaining the integrity of the Union. Such 
were the conditions under which the Fifteenth Regiment 
was born. 

The military nucleus around which the Fifteenth Regi- 
ment was organized is to be found in three companies of the 
Ninth Regiment of the Massachusetts Militia as it existed 
in the years before the war. This Ninth Regiment, together 
with the Third Battalion Riflemen, and Third Battalion In- 
fantry formed the Fifth Brigade of the Third Division. In 
the year preceding the war, there were five companies in the 
Ninth Regiment: Company A of Leominster, Company B 
of Fitchburg (known as the Fitchburg Fusiliers), Company 
C of Clinton (known as the Clinton Light Guard), Company 
E of Fitchburg (known as the Washington Guards), and 
Company G of Ashburnham. 

The militia companies were the pride of the communities 
in which they existed. The military spirit found here an 
opportunity for exercise and soldierly ambition was fostered. 
The annual muster was made a patriotic celebration, and 
thus the militia served to keep alive the memories of those 
who had fought for their country On the Fourth of July 
and other national holidays, it took part in many imposing 
pageants. In the Cornwallis it reenacted the final overthrow 
of the British armies. In the receptions to Kossuth and the 
Prince of Wales it represented the State of Massachusetts. 
The soldiers gained in drill something of physical culture 
and military discipline. In their social events the ideas 



l6 THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT. 

which the uniforms symbolized gave them distinction. The 
most enterprising young men served in its ranks and were 
ambitious to be numbered among the officers. 

The enthusiasm with which the militia had been sup- 
ported in earlier times had rapidly declined in the later 
fifties, so that many militia companies had been disbanded, 
but the condition of affairs at the presidential election of 
i860 re-awakened the old military spirit. In the first gen- 
eral order of 1861, issued January 5, Governor Nathaniel P 
Banks said: "The impending calamities that momentarily 
threaten the peace of our country will renew the attachment 
of the people to the militia, strengthen their faith in its 
necessity and their reliance upon its power." 

January 16 came Governor John A. Andrew's famous 
General Order No. 4: "Events which have recently occurred 
and are now in progress, require that Massachusetts should 
be at all times ready to furnish her quota of troops upon 
any requisition of the President of the United States, to aid 
in the maintenance of the laws and the peace of the Union. 
His Excellency, the Commander-in-chief, therefore orders: — 

"That the commanding officer of each company of the 
volunteer militia examine with care the roll of his company, 
and cause the name of each member, together with his rank 
and place of residence, to be properly recorded and a copy 
of the same to be forwarded to the office of the adjutant 
general. Previous to which the commanders of the com- 
panies shall make strict inquiry whether there are men in 
their commands, who from age, physical defect, business or 
family causes, may be unable or indisposed to respond at 
once to the orders of the Commander-in-chief, made in 
response to the call of the President of the United States ; 
that they may be forthwith discharged, so that their places 
may be filled by men ready for any public emergency which 
may arise, whenever called upon." The order further calls 
for filling up all vacancies, drilling the men, and seeing that 
they have proper uniforms. 



THE OLD MILITIA. IJ 

By General Order No. 12, the formation of the com- 
panies, regiments, brigades and divisions of the Massachu- 
setts militia was brought into harmony with that of the 
United States troops. This order made some slight changes 
in the number of officers. Thus the rank of the third and 
fourth lieutenant was dropped. The minimum strength of 
a company was fixed at eighty-three, the maximum strength 
at one hundred and one. All commissioned officers were to 
be appointed by the Governor, although, as a matter of fact, 
the desire of the men of the company was generally recog- 
nized. In accordance with this order, all troops while in the 
service of the United States ceased to be a part of the 
militia of Massachusetts. 

It was natural that the patriotic enthusiasm of the com- 
munities which had militia companies should seek its 
expression in affording them every means and incentive to 
enter at once into service. When the first threats of 
secession were heard, each of the companies of the Ninth 
Regiment was re-organized, so as to be ready for emer- 
gencies. In accordance with the order above mentioned, 
all who were unfit for active service were dropped from the 
rolls, and men who were able and willing to take up arms in 
defense of the Union enlisted in their places. All of the 
companies voted to hold themselves in readiness for any 
demands which might be made upon them by the govern- 
ment, and their commanders reported to Governor Andrew 
in January that their men "were not only ready, but anxious 
to serve." Thus it will be seen that though these men were 
not the first to go to the front, they were among the first to 
volunteer, long before any call had been issued by the 
President, and even weeks before Lincoln was inaugurated. 

Although the men of the Ninth Regiment were thus 
eager to enter the service, yet in selecting the four regiments 
which formed the quota from Massachusetts under the 
President's call for seventy-five thousand troops, it was 
passed over in favor of organizations which were more com- 



15 THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT. 

plete. Its brigade associates, the Third Battalion Rifles and 
Company B, Third Battalion Infantry (attached to Sixth 
Regiment), were among those who served for three months 
under this call. 

Some of the companies of the Ninth Regiment would 
have been incorporated in the Sixth if some of the officers 
of the division and brigade had not insisted so strenuously 
on maintaining the integrity of the regiment. Yet, notwith- 
standing their efforts, the number of the regiment was 
eventually given to a new organization of three years' troops 
formed in Boston and vicinity and mustered in June n, 
1861, under the President's call of May 3, and while three 
companies of the Ninth, A, B and C, were incorporated in 
the Fifteenth, two, E and G, were organized with the 
Twenty-first. By the re-organization of some of the com- 
panies the old Ninth was kept up as a state militia regiment 
for some two years after the beginning of the war. 

Before the services of any companies of the old Ninth 
Regiment were accepted, the government had seen the folly 
of enlisting men for three months, and had decided to 
receive no more enlistments for a shorter time than three 
years. The form of agreement required from each volunteer 
was as follows: "We, the undersigned, by our signature 
hereto annexed, do hereby severally agree to serve as mem- 
bers of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, in the Army of 
the United States, as volunteers, for the term of three years, 
unless sooner discharged, from the date of our being 
mustered into said service, in accordance with the terms of 
the proclamation of the President of the United States, 
issued May 3, 1861." The first requisition for three years' 
troops called for six regiments from Massachusetts. The 
First, Second, Seventh, the new Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh 
were ordered out, and so the companies of the old Ninth 
were again passed by. 

Any complete statement of the conditions under which 
each of the companies of the Fifteenth Regiment was 



COMPANY A 19 

organized, equipped and made ready for service, would in- 
volve much unnecessary repetition. Therefore a glance at 
the record of each must suffice. 

The militia company in Leominster had originally been 
a company of artillery, and had been chartered in 1787. 
During the war of 1812, it had served at Boston for three 
months in defense of the coast. Later it was changed into 
an infantry company, and at the beginning of the Civil War 
it was Company A of the Ninth Regiment and was under 
the command of Captain George W Rockwood. The spirit 
which animated the town of Leominster justified the 
assertion which was made at a town meeting held May 6 : 
"The love of right so nobly vindicated by citizens of their 
native town in 1776, is still cherished here in 1861." Leom- 
inster furnished sixty-four men to the regiment at the out- 
set, and ten later recruits. 

The first sergeant of the company made this record con- 
cerning the final departure to camp: 

"Leominster, June 28, 1861. 
"Agreeably to orderj, the company met at their armor)' 
at 8 o'clock A. m., and putting on their new uniforms, 
fitting some new members, after a short drill under the cap- 
tain, numbering seventy officers and privates, they were dis- 
missed till n^ A. M - When they met again, forming in line 
before the old armory, they gave it three rousing cheers 
before leaving for the seat of war. The company then 
marched into the street, where a large delegation of the citi- 
zens of Leominster under command of Mr. Ward M. Cotton, 
formerly captain of the old artillery company, forming a 
guard of honor, escorted the company to the Town Hall 
where a collation was in readiness for the members of the 
company and their friends. • At I2J^ o'clock p. M. order 
was given to "fall in" and, escorted by the guard of honor, 
the company marched through the principal streets to the 
depot on the Fitchburg and Worcester Railroad where a halt 



20 THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT. 

was made. The last "Good-bye" and "God bless you" were 
whispered to the soldiers by rosy lips and there was a last 
heart)- grip of the hands between friends. 
" Recorded by 

" H. P JORGENSEN, 

" isl Sergeant of Co. A." 

The company known as the Fitchburg Fusiliers was 
formed from the "Old South Company." It received a char- 
ter under the name of " Fitchburg Fusiliers" December 14, 
1816. The company was organized February 3, 1817. It 
was Company B of the old Ninth Regiment, and at the 
beginning of 1861, was commanded by Captain John W 
Kimball. 

The news from Baltimore on the 19th of April roused the 
people of Fitchburg to the highest pitch of excitement. 
The next day a citizens' meeting full of most intense enthu- 
siasm was held. April 27, a town meeting voted to appro- 
priate ten thousand dollars for the soldiers and their families. 
On the same day there was a military parade in which Com- 
pany A from Leominster participated. 

May 16 was given up to a patriotic celebration in which 
the school children took part. On the evening of the same 
day the ladies presented to each of the companies a flag. 
In the course of Captain Kimball's eloquent acceptance of 
the flag for the Fusiliers, he caused his men to take an oath 
that "it should never trail in the dust while a single arm 
was left to uphold it." Meanwhile Co. B of the Second 
Regiment was recruited at Fitchburg, although most of its 
members were from other towns. This regiment was mus- 
tered in May 11, 1861. On the same day the Fusiliers voted 
to volunteer under the terms of agreement before given. 
The company was assigned to the Fifteenth Regiment, and 
ordered to report at Camp Scott June 28. The Washington 
Guards wished to belong to the same regiment as the 
Fusiliers, but were denied the privilege, and assigned to the 



COMPANIES B AND C. 21 

Twenty-first Regiment. On the morning of June 28, the 
people of Fitchburg gathered at the Town Hall to bid the 
Fusiliers good-bye. Speeches were made ; each soldier was 
presented with a New Testament ; a dinner was served ; the 
company was escorted to the station by men who had served 
in its ranks in former years; the last farewells were said, 
and the soldiers went forth into the unknown. Governor 
A. H. Bullock said in 1866: "Fitchburg distingushed herself 
by the promptness, by the alacrity, .by the prodigality of 
means and of men with which she entered upon the opening 
solemn drama in the early days of the war." Fitchburg 
furnished sixty-one of the members of the Fifteenth as 
mustered into service in July, 1861. Twelve more recruits 
were added at later times. Winchendon gave twenty-four 
men to the regiment in the summer of 1861 and three later 
recruits. In general these twenty-seven men served in 
Company B. 

On the 12th of Ma)-, 1853, Col. Upton of the Ninth 
Regiment of the State Militia had organized a company of 
fifty men in Clinton. This company was known as the 
Clinton Light Guard, or as Company C, of the Ninth Regi- 
ment. At the regular annual meeting of the Town of 
Clinton, March 4, 1861, it was voted: "That one thousand 
dollars be appropriated for the benefit of the Clinton Light 
Guard, to be placed in the hands of the selectmen, to be 
paid out upon order of the officers of the Guards." By this 
vote, Clinton, according to the report of the adjutant- 
general, was the first town in Massachusetts to appropriate 
money in anticipation of a call for troops. As it was after- 
wards found that the towns had no authority to make an 
appropriation for such a purpose, permission was sought 
from the legislature, and granted by a special act, April 2. 
April 23, the one thousand dollars was appropriated for 
uniforms in accordance with this act. Sunday, April 21, a 
dispatch was received from Governor Andrew, ordering the 
Light Guard to be ready to go forward at twenty-four hours 



22 THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT. 

notice. The local paper said: "Last Sunday was a day that 
will be remembered by us and our children. At noon 
Captain Henry Bowman of the Clinton Light Guard, re- 
ceived word that in all probability his company would be 
called out within fort) -eight hours. Notices had been read 
in the churches in the morning, requesting our women to 
assemble at the vestry of the Baptist Church on Monday 
morning to make flannel shirts for the soldiers ; but neither 
our wives, daughters, .nor other women residing in town, 
thought it prudent to wait until Monday morning, and 
within an hour and a half the vestry was filled and crowded 
with workers, so that many resorted to the vestry of the 
Orthodox Church. Every yard of suitable flannel in town 
was soon cut and a messenger dispatched to Worcester for 
more." The men of the Light Guard were mustered July 
12 into Company C, Fifteenth Regiment. Clinton furnished 
sixty-three of the original members of the regiment, and 
ten more were afterwards recruited in this town. The other 
men of Company C were for the most part recruited from 
Northboro, Lancaster and Worcester. 

While all other companies of the Fifteenth were the first 
fruits of the patriotic impulse of the respective communities 
which they represented, the company furnished by Wor- 
cester had been preceded to the seat of war by several 
organizations from that city The news of the attack on 
Fort Sumter reached Worcester Saturday, April 13. On 
the evening of the following day a telegram was received, 
stating that the fort had surrendered. The "Daily Spy" of 
Monday, the 15th, said: "Nobody remembers a similar 
excitement in Worcester. In the evening we found it 
necessary to print the dispatch in extras, which disappeared 
in the crowd as fast as they could be printed, for several 
hours. It would have been difficult for a stranger to tell 
which of the vehement Union men in the crowd were 
Republicans, and which were Democrats. They all showed 
an immovable purpose to stand by the country and defend 



COMPANY D. 23 

it to the last against traitors and all other enemies." There 
were at this time in the city two regularly organized com- 
panies of militia : the City Guards, Co. A, Third Battalion 
Rifles, and the Light Infantry. These companies were 
immediately filled and prepared for service. The Emmet 
Guards had previously tendered their services to the govern- 
ment. The city was prompt in making the necessary 
appropriations for supplying the needs of the soldiers. At 
a meeting of citizens held April 16, Hon. Alexander H. 
Bullock said: "Under no circumstances will there be a 
yielding to submission or disgrace. Better that the earth 
should engulf us, than yield our capital to the rebels who 
would seize it." A newspaper report says: "The meeting 
was unanimous, heart}- and enthusiastic. All shades of 
opinion were represented, and for the first time within 
memory, Worcester was a unit on a great political subject." 
On the 17th, the Light Infantry, which was the first volun- 
teer company mustered into the service of the United States, 
left Worcester to join its regiment, the Sixth. Two days 
later this regiment was attacked in the streets of Baltimore. 
The Light Infantry had passed through the city before the 
attack, and did not know of it until it was over. This com- 
pany was one of the very first armed and equipped to enter 
Washington. When the news of the attack in Baltimore 
reached Worcester, as the particulars were unknown, a feel- 
ing of deep personal anxiety was added to the patriotic 
indignation that filled all hearts. Meanwhile, the Emmet 
Guards had been chartered as a part of the regular militia 
of the state, and joined to the Third Battalion Rifles. On 
the evening of the 20th, while the excitement caused by the 
attack on the Sixth Regiment was still at its height, this 
battalion, with its two Worcester companies, the City 
Guards and the Emmet Guards, left the city for the field. 
Thus within a week after the call of the President for 
seventy-five thousand men, Worcester had three companies 
in actual service. 



24 THE ORIGIN HF THE RKlIIMEN'l'. 

By the 1st of May, a new militia company was formed, 
which was really an overflow of the City Guards, and it 
began to drill under the youthful Lieutenant John William 
Grout, better known as "Willie Grout." Albert H. Foster 
was made captain, but for some reason he was not com- 
missioned, and Captain John M. Studley was placed in 
command. Albert H. Foster served honorably in the war 
as a captain of the Twenty-fifth Regiment. It was this, the 
first of the companies newly organized in the city for active 
service, which became Company D of the Fifteenth. As 
the Sixth Regiment and Third Battalion Rifles each served 
only three months, the men of this company were the first 
from the city to enlist as an organized body for a term of 
three years. The company drilled for nearly two months in 
Brinley Hall, afterwards G. A. R. Hall, on the site where the 
State Mutual Building now stands. There were nearly 
enough other Worcester men scattered through the regi- 
ment to form, if they had been united, a second company. 
Worcester gave in all to the Fifteenth two hundred and 
seventy-four men, one hundred and sixty-eight before 
August S, one hundred and six later. 

The spirit of patriotism was no less strong in the towns 
of the count}' which had no militia organizations. All 
through the opening months of 1861, every community was 
eagerly watching the course of events, ready to spring to 
arms at a moment's warning. Young men had everywhere 
begun to study and practice the elements of military tactics 
under the guidance of those who had served in the militia, 
and thus, when the time of organization came, a considerable 
number of men were found capable of becoming acceptable 
officers of the respective companies. 

The people of Oxford held a meeting on the 19th of 
April, at which Hon. Alexander UcWitt presided. A com- 
mittee was chosen to organize a company of volunteers and 
by April 22, enough men had offered their services to assure 
the success of the organization. A town meeting, held 



COMPANIES E AND F. 25 

May 6, voted to raise a sum not exceeding four thousand 
dollars toward paying the expenses of a volunteer military 
company in town, compensating its members, procuring 
uniforms and aiding families. The company was called the 
DeWitt Guards and the organization was completed May 4 
under the militia laws of the state. May 6, arms were 
received from the state. It was voted at the town meeting 
of May 6, that the men be paid " one dollar a day for a time 
not exceeding twenty-four days — provided the company 
be required to drill six hours each day, the first roll- 
call to be at 8 o'clock a. m., unless the committee otherwise 
directed, and the last roll-call at 6 p. m." This was a 
common vote in other towns sending companies to the 
Fifteenth. It was also voted to purchase a suitable uniform 
for the company This uniform was received and the equip- 
ments completed before June 1. On this date the DeWitt 
Guards visited Worcester. The Palladium said: "They are a 
hardy, able-bodied set of men, and as they marched through 
the principal streets on their arrival, their appearance was 
creditable to themselves, and especially to Captain Watson, 
under whose instruction they have been for the last three 
weeks." It is claimed that this company was "the first new 
organization in the state to appear armed and equipped in 
response to the President's call." While most of the 
original members were residents of Oxford, a few came 
from Charlton, Auburn, Millbury, Sutton and other neigh- 
boring towns. Worcester furnished eight men before the 
day of muster. In all Oxford gave sixty-two men to the 
Fifteenth at first, and twenty more later. The company 
drilled at Oxford until June 28 under the command of its 
captain, Charles H. Watson, who had some previous ex- 
perience in military affairs. On that date it went to Camp 
Scott, Worcester, and the organization was afterwards known 
as Company E. 

As soon as the news of the attack of the Massachusetts 
Sixth was received at North Brookfield, April 19, great 
placards were prepared with words like these : 

3 



26 THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT. 

"WAR! WAR!! WAR!!! 

"Our Massachusetts citizens have been murdered in the 
streets of Baltimore, while marching on their way to 
Washington to protect the capital of our country. 

"All our citizens are requested to meet at the town hall 
this evening to see what can be done." 

At this meeting the hall was filled with men eager for 
action. The first steps were taken toward forming Company 
F, and a number of names were enrolled. The next evening 
there was another still more crowded meeting, and citizens 
of the neighboring towns were present. The brass band 
from Brookfield played national airs, and amid bursts of 
patriotic eloquence new names were added to the roll. A 
town meeting, held on the earliest practicable date, April 
29, liberally furnished the necessary supplies for volunteers. 

April 30, 1861, a town meeting was held in Brookfield, 
and it was voted: "That every person belonging to this town 
who should enroll himself in the company now being raised 
in this town and vicinity, for the purpose of volunteering its 
service to the Government, subject to the call of the 
Governor, shall, as soon as said company is accepted by the 
Governor, receive one dollar for every day he is called out 
to drill by the drill-master, or such officers as are authorized 
so to order." Sardus S. Sloan, who had served in the 
militia, was made captain of the company Provision was 
made for the purchasing of uniforms in conjunction with 
North Brookfield, and for getting an army blanket and 
revolver for each man. June 15, aid for soldiers' families 
was voted. Brookfield originally gave forty men to the 
regiment and North Brookfield, twenty-seven. The former 
sent thirty later recruits and the latter, six. The other men 
of Company F came from West Brookfield, New Braintree, 
Sturbridge and other neighboring towns. 

In Grafton a meeting was held at four p, m., April 20. A 
soldier of the Revolution ninety-eight years of age was on 



COMPANY G. 27 

the platform, and his presence helped to give point to the 
patriotic speeches. It was decided to form a military com- 
pany at once. A town meeting was called April 29, and the 
sum of four thousand dollars was appropriated for organiz- 
ing and equipping the company. Walter Forehand was 
made captain. The drilling of the men occupied the time 
until summons came to join the regiment in Worcester. 
On the morning of the Sunday before the departure Rev. 
W G. Scandlin, the Unitarian clergyman, who afterwards 
became the chaplain of the regiment, preached to the 
soldiers and their friends. In the afternoon Rev. Thomas 
C. Biscoe preached from the text, "Quit you like men," and 
a pocket Bible was given to each volunteer. The organi- 
zation was mustered as Company G, and had sixty-seven 
men from Grafton. There were nine men from the town in 
the regiment in other companies before it left Worcester, 
and twenty-one recruits were added later, making ninety- 
seven in all who joined the regiment from this town. This 
places Grafton next to Worcester in the number of repre- 
sentatives in the Fifteenth. 

Twenty-nine men from Sutton enlisted in the regiment 
at the outset. This is a larger number than came in the 
beginning from any other town not furnishing a company 
They were mostly enrolled in the Oxford and Grafton com- 
panies. At a town meeting, April 30, six thousand dollars 
were appropriated for uniforming such inhabitants of the 
town as should serve in the armies and for providing for 
their families. At the same meeting it was resolved: "That 
in this most unnatural contest waged against our country by 
a band of traitors in the Southern States, we the inhabitants 
of Sutton, believing that the whole strength of the country 
should be exerted to put down the Rebellion, call upon the 
government to make no terms or compromises with traitors." 

Captain Henry S. Taft gives the following reminiscences 
of the organization of Company H at Northbridge: "Early 
jn January, 1861, I drew up a paper for the signatures of any 



28 THE ORHilN OF THE RKGIMEXT. 

desiring to sign, pledging the signers to the defense of the 
government in case of need. That paper, though preserved, 
I cannot now find, and I am obliged to state from recollec- 
tion its purport, which as well as I can recall is as follows : 
'We the undersigned, believing that the integrity of the 
Union of the United States is being threatened and in danger 
of being assailed by traitorous hands and that an appeal to 
arms appears inevitable between the people of the Northern 
and Southern States, hereby pledge ourselves, our lives and 
sacred honor in the defense of our country and our flag 
and promise to obey any call to arms which may be made by 
the President of the United States for the defense of the 
Union.' 

"This paper was signed by seventeen men, residents of 
Northbridge, and immediately drilling was commenced in 
the country store known as ' Plummer's Basin' during the 
evenings of the winter preceding the firing on Sumter. 
Having no guns, the men were instructed in marching, 
keeping step, etc., and from this nucleus the body of 
patriots composing Company H was formed. 

"When the first call for troops was made by President 
Lincoln, the writer at once commenced to recruit a full 
company, and very quickly the young men of Northbridge, 
Uxbridge, Douglas, Sutton and Upton came pouring in, 
and the roll of the company was promptly filled with the 
flower of the five towns above named. Headquarters were 
established at Plummer's Corner, and the company was 
drilled upon the open plain in front of the Plummer 
Quarries, on the main highway from Providence to Wor- 
cester. We secured the services as drill-master of one of 
the most able and experienced military men in the State 
Captain John M. Studley of Worcester, who came down every 
Saturday and took command of the company, drilled them 
in formations, marching, manual of arms, the latter without 
guns, and military tactics, and on each of the drill days lar"- e 
numbers of the inhabitants from the surrounding towns 



COMPANIES H AND I. 20, 

gathered about the field and along the roadside to witness 
the evolutions of the soldiers and patriots." 

From other sources we learn that a meeting was held in 
the chapel at Whitinsville, April 22. Pecuniar}- assistance 
was pledged, and fifty men volunteered. The first meeting 
of Northbridge as a town, to consider war matters, was held, 
May 8. It was voted: "To appropriate such sums of money 
as may be required, not exceeding four thousand dollars, to 
aid in uniforming and in obtaining such articles as ma)- be 
needful for the comfort of such residents of the town as 
shall have enrolled themselves into a company of volunteer 
militia, to be formed in this town and vicinity." The 

company was finally organized with Chase Philbrick as 
captain, May 27. Northbridge gave sixty-four men to the 
regiment at first, with thirteen later recruits. Uxbridge, 
which gave fourteen men to the regiment at this time and 
five later recruits, was next to Northbridge in the numbers 
of its representatives in Company H. 

A mass meeting was held in Lancaster, April 22. 
"Earnest feeling broke forth in impassioned speeches, and 
many lips became unwontedly eloquent under the inspiration 
of the occasion." Thirty men enlisted on the same evening, 
and there were ten later recruits. In addition to the forty 
men from Lancaster, there were enough from Bolton and 
Harvard to bring the total up to seventy-eight, and a com- 
pany was formed, known as the Fay Light Guard. Thomas 
Sherwin, Jr. was chosen captain. After drilling for three 
weeks in Lancaster, the company went to Camp Scott to be 
joined to the Fifteenth as Company I. For some reason 
unknown Governor Andrew refused to commission Thomas 
Sherwin, Jr., as commander, and the men were so indignant 
that they refused to be sworn in under any other captain. 
Thomas Sherwin afterwards served with distinguished merit 
in the Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry, which regi- 
ment he commanded at the battle of Gettysburg. Thirteen 
Lancaster men enlisted in Company C and six in other com- 
panies of the Fifteenth. 



30 THE DRICIN OF THE RECtMENT. 

The place of the disbanded company was taken by a 
company from Webster, which did not join the regiment 
until August 6, two days before it started for the front. 
Sixty-two persons had enrolled their names in this Webster 
company April 20. It was known as the Slater Guards, and 
devoted itself to drilling from the time of enlistment until it 
was summoned to Camp Scott. At a town meeting held 
April 29, the company was taken under the care of the town, 
and such financial measures were passed as were necessary 
for its equipment, maintenance and support. James R. 
Young was chosen captain, but he declined his commission, 
and George C. Joslin was commissioned to this office. He 
had been for three years a member of the City Guards of 
Worcester, and had become a lieutenant in that company 
He had served for three months as a lieutenant in the Third 
Battalion Riflemen. He was selected for the position of 
captain of the company by Colonel Devens, who knew his 
merit in his previous service. This company was not mus- 
tered until August 8. There were seventy-three Webster 
men in the regiment at first, with sixteen later recruits. 

The spirit with which the men from Blackstone enlisted 
is shown by a resolution passed at a town meeting May 1st : 
"We hereby pledge our lives, our fortunes and our sacred 
honor, that come weal or woe, we will never prove recreant 
to the Government to which we justly owe our allegiance, 
and from which we derive so many blessings — a Government 
which is the only formidable foe to despotism and tyranny, 
the last hope of civil and religious liberty in the world. 
That in this irrepressible conflict between freedom and 
slavery, every pulsation of our hearts is for freedom, and in 
her sacred cause we are ready to give battle ; our watchword 
— the Government and the enforcement of laws; our banner 
— the stars and stripes." The customary arrangements for 
organizing and meeting the expenses of a company were 
made at the same meeting. Moses W Gatchell, who had 
been especially instrumental in organizing the company, was 



COMPANY K. 31 

chosen captain. It had at first been proposed to have a 
Dedham company in the regiment, but the Blackstone com- 
pany was substituted for it as Company K. Blackstone 
gave sixty-two men originally to the regiment, with seven 
later recruits. The remaining members of Co. K came from 
Millbury and other neighboring towns in Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island. Millbury gave the regiment twenty men at 
first and seventeen later. 

June 17, Governor Andrew received permission to send 
forward ten more regiments, and immediately steps were 
taken for their organization from the remaining companies 
of the old militia and the new organizations which had been 
recently formed in anticipation of such a call. 

By General Order No. 20, June 25, the companies pro- 
posed for the Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, 
Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twentieth 
and Twenty-first Regiments were directed to report imme- 
diately to the Adjutant General a roll of the men ready for 
active service, giving the age, occupation and residence of 
each. 

This record of the formation of the respective companies 
of the regiment shows in all the towns represented the same 
eagerness for service, the same readiness to make appropria- 
tions, private subscriptions and individual gifts for the good 
of the country. There was the same prevalence of local 
attachments influencing enlistments. The details of organi- 
zation, equipment and final departure were so similar that 
the story of one of the newly organized companies differs 
but little from that of the others, and from April 20, 
onward, the same could be said of the three old militia 
companies as well. Thus, moved by one common impulse, 
supported and encouraged by the universal enthusiasm of 
the communities from which they came, these new com- 
panies united to form the Fifteenth Regiment of Massachu- 
setts Volunteers. 



CHAPTER II. 

FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 
June 28 to October 19, 1861. 

Camp Scott, named in honor of General Winfield Scott, 
was a tract of land of about thirty-nine acres, situated on 
the Brooks Farm in South Worcester, some two miles from 
the City Hall. It was surveyed June 4, by Engineer Davis, 
one of General Ward's staff officers. A storehouse forty 
feet by twenty was erected during the first week in June. 
On the morning of June 28, the members of Company D, 
under the direction of General Ward, set up the tents needed 
by the companies which were to arrive on that day. 
According to the requisition there were sixty company 
tents and forty officers' tents. Church Howe had been 
appointed quartermaster, June 25. He had left Worcester as 
a private in the Sixth Regiment, April 17 The business 
ability which he displayed led to his promotion to the rank 
of commissary sergeant of that regiment. He was granted a 
furlough for the remainder of his term of service in the 
Sixth, that he might enter at once upon the duties of his 
new appointment. By Friday, June 28, he had everything 
in readiness. There were one thousand and forty-six woolen 
blankets, the same number of rubber blankets, bed sacks, 
knives, forks, spoons, tin cups and plates. There were one 
hundred and forty-six mess pans, and seventy camp kettles, 
together with an abundant supply of buckets, tubs, rakes, 
lanterns and other things necessary for camp life. Bread, 



FIRST DAYS IN CAMP. 33 

meat, coffee, sugar and various other articles of food had 
been laid in store. 

Company F, which came first, arrived before one o'clock. 
The other companies reached camp between two and three. 
In all there were eight hundred and one men who came to- 
gether on that June afternoon. With the exception of those 
who had served in the old Fifth Brigade and had met on the 
muster-field, the men of the different companies were for 
the most part strangers to each other and unaccustomed to 
the mode of life upon which they were entering. Although 
we, knowing what they were destined to pass through, may 
imagine that they were filled with deep emotions as they 
first saw their future comrades, yet it is likely that they, 
little foreseeing the future, were especially affected by the 
unfamiliar newness of their surroundings as they approached 
their gleaming canvas homes. 

Order Xo. 1, regulating their camp life, had been already 
prepared. It read as follows: 

"Headquarters Camp Scott, 

_ , , T Worcester, Tune 28, 1861. 

" Order Ao. 1 

"The selection of the above name for this camp has been 
determined by a just appreciation of the distinguished merit 
of one who has for more than half a century been identified 
with the military of our country. 

"It is taken for granted that officers are neither ignorant 
of the first principles of military duty, nor destitute of 
ordinary judgment. A brief synopsis merely is here given 
of some important rules and regulations. These are to be 
regarded as a part of this order, and all officers are hereby 
enjoined to enforce a strict compliance with them. 

"Officers are presumed to have gained some theoretical 
acquaintance with both their rights and their duties, as their 
position demands, and they are hereby reminded that they 
are expected not only to discharge with fidelity the latter, 
but to maintain with firmness and dignity the former. 



34 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

"This order will be duly promulgated and copies dis- 
tributed. By command of 

Brigadier-General George H. Ward. 

George H. Spaulding, Brigadier- Inspector pro tern." 

Hours for Daily Duties. 

"Reveille at five o'clock, a. m. — signal for men to rise, 
when the quarters will be cleaned up, and everything put in 
proper condition. 

"Peas upon a trencher at seven o'clock, a. m. — signal for 
breakfast. 

"Dress parade at eight o'clock, a. m. — guard mounting 
immediately after. 

"Roast beef at twelve o'clock, m. — signal for dinner. 

"Retreat at six o'clock, p. m., at which time the officers 
will be named for duty, and each first sergeant will detail 
the men of his company for the guard of the ensuing day. 
There will be a dress parade at retreat. 

"Tattoo at ten o'clock, p. m. — signal for the soldiers to 
repair to their tents, where they must remain till reveille 
next morning. 

"Taps at half-past ten o'clock, p. m. — signal to extinguish 
lights." 

Roll Calls. 

"Three will be three roll calls daily, the first immediately 
after reveille, the second immediately before retreat and the 
third immediately after tattoo. 

"All officers in uniform may pass the chain of sentinels 
between reveille and retreat. 

"No officer shall, on any account, sleep out of camp 
without permission from the commander of the camp. 

"No officer or soldier shall be absent from any duty 
whatever without permission from the commanding officer. 

" No non-commissioned officer, musician or soldier, shall 



FIRST DAYS IN CAMP 35 

quit camp without a written pass, signed by his captain, and 
approved by the commanding officer. 

"All persons, of whatever rank, are required to observe 
the greatest respect towards sentinels, and no officer or 
other person shall make use of any disrespectful language or 
gesture to a sentinel at his post." 

Until Saturday night the men spent their spare time in 
arranging for their future comfort, especially in the culinary 
department. Each company had a stove, and members 
were detailed to cook the messes. By Monday "everything 
about the encampment appeared as if it was the develop- 
ment of a long studied and well matured plan." The whole 
seemed "like clockwork." 

On Sunday, June 30, in accordance with the command 
of General Ward, few visitors were admitted inside the 
lines. Religious services were conducted by Alonzo Hill, 
D. D., at six o'clock p m. The regiment opened the exer- 
cises by singing "Old Hundred," and closed them with 
"America." Dr. Hill's address developed the thought that 
service for one's country was service for God. On the 
following Sundays other clergymen took charge of the 
meetings. Among these were Rev. Merrill Richardson and 
Rev. Horace James. There were also religious meetings 
held in a neighboring grove, at nine a. m. and four p m. 
These were conducted by the soldiers, many of whom were 
accustomed to take part in prayer and conference meetings 
at home. There was no mid-day drill on Sunday. 

Most of the time spent in Camp Scott was devoted to 
drilling. From six to seven there was the company drill; at 
eight, dress parade followed by guard mounting; from ten 
and a half to twelve and from two to three, company drill ; 
from four to half-past five, battalion drill ; at half-past six 
came dress parade again. General Ward was, through his 
character, his devotion to military pursuits and his long 
experience in the militia, pre-eminently adapted to bring a 



36 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

body of raw recruits into a proper degree of discipline. 
Many of the officers of the various companies were men 
well fitted for their task. With such excellent drill under 
such leaders, the regiment quickly acquired a good degree 
of efficiency. 

July 4, a flag was raised at the headquarters of General 
Ward. Company E also displayed the stars and stripes. 
Several of the other companies within a few days followed 
the example set by that from Oxford. Evergreen was used 
to beautify the tents and streets. There were inscriptions 
on strips of board above the openings of the tents, such as 
"The Happy Family," "Fifth Avenue Hotel," "Old Abe's 
Parlor," "Social Circle," "Liberty Hall." At first the men 
were obliged to go a considerable distance for water, but 
soon two excellent wells were opened which furnished an 
abundant supply for all purposes. This added greatly to 
the neatness of the camp, as well as to the health of the 
men. Gifts of fruit, havelocks, clothing, books and various 
articles to satisfy the appetite and render life more comfort- 
able, came from patriotic people in the city and from friends 
at home. 

The discipline of the camp was excellent, and the men 
were not long in learning that the orders of the officers 
must receive prompt attention, even though there had been 
previously little social distinction between the privates and 
those now in command. It was necessary to make examples 
of a few of those who were most careless ; thus on Sunday, 
July 7, a man was drummed out of camp for disobedience. 
Squads of recruits were constantly arriving to fill up the 
companies. July 8, only fifty-nine men were lacking to 
make the number in the regiment complete. 

Governor John A. Andrew, with three members of his 
staff, visited the camp, Friday, July 12, and witnessed the 
dress parade and battalion drills. They complimented the 
regiment highly for its proficiency. About eleven o'clock 
on the same day, Captain Joseph A. Marshall of the U. S. 



FIRST DAYS IN CAMP. 



!7 



Army came to camp, and the men of the nine companies 
were sworn by him into the service of the United States. 
Only eight of those who had come to camp refused to be 
sworn. 

The field, staff and line officers of the regiment as finally 
mustered were as follows: 

Field and Staff of the Fifteenth Regiment. 



Colonel, 

Lieut. -Colonel, 

Major,. 

Adjutant, 

Quartermaster, 

Surgeon, 

Assistant Surgeon, 

Chaplain, 

Sergeant-Major, 

Or. -Sergeant, 

Com. -Sergeant, 

Bandmaster, 

Hospital Steward, 



Charles Devens, Jr., 
George H. Ward, 
John W Kimball, 
George A. Hicks, 
Church Howe, 
Joseph N. Bates, 
S. Foster Haven, Jr., 
William G. Scandlin, 
Francis A. Walker, 
William R. Steele, 
William G. Waters, 
N. P Goddard, 
Henry Dearing, 



Worcester. 

Worcester. 

Fitchburg. 

Boston. 

Worcester. 

Worcester. 

Worcester. 

Grafton. 

N. Brookfield. 

Worcester. 

Clinton. 

Worcester. 

Worcester. 



Line Officers. 
Co. A, Leominster. Co. F, Brookfield. 

Capt., George W Rockwood. Capt., Sardus S. Sloan. 



Lieuts., Leonard Wood. 
Frank W Polley. 

Co. B, FitcJiburg. 
Capt., Clark S. Simonds. 
Lieuts., J. Myron Goddard. 
Charles H. Eager. 

Co. C, Cli?iton. 

Capt., Henry Bowman. 
Lieuts., Andrew L. Fuller. 
James N. Johnson. 



Lieuts., J. Evarts Green. 

Lyman H. Ellingwood. 

Co. G, Grafton. 
Capt., Walter Forehand. 
Lieuts., Newell K. Holden. 

Stephen L. Kearney. 

Co. H, Nortlibridge . 
Capt., Chase Philbrick. 
Lieuts., Henry S. Taft. 
Richard Derby. 



38 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

Co. D, Worcester. Co. I, Webster. 

Capt, John M. Studley. Capt., George C. Joslin. 

Lieuts., Edwin P Woodward. Lieuts., Amos Bartlett. 
John William Grout. Frank S. Corbin. 

Co. E, Oxford. Co. K, Blackstone. 

Capt., Charles H. Watson. Capt., Moses W Gatchell. 

Lieuts., Nelson Bartholomew. Lieuts., Edwin B. Staples. 

Bernard B. Vassal. I. Harris Hooper. 

In order that we may understand the story of the regi- 
ment, it may be well for us to glance at the previous record 
of some of these men who were to have so deep an influence 
on its character. 

Charles Devens was born in Charlestown, Mass., April 4, 
1820. He attended the Boston Latin School. He was 
graduated at Harvard College in 1838. Two years later he 
was admitted to the bar. He practiced as a lawyer, first in 
Northfield and later in Greenfield. He was state senator in 
1848 and 1849. He was United States marshal from 1848 to 
1853. He was called upon in this office to assist in the ex- 
ecution of the fugitive slave law under circumstances which 
left him no alternative, but the generosity with which he 
offered to give the purchase money of the slave whom he 
had been under legal obligations to return to his master, 
called forth the admiration even of the most ardent Aboli- 
tionists. He opened a law office in Worcester in 1854. In 
December, 1856, he became the law partner of George F 
Hoar and J. Henry Hill. He was city solicitor 1856-8. 

Monday, April 15, 1861, when Lincoln's call for seventy- 
five thousand volunteers reached Worcester, he left un- 
finished a trial in which he was engaged, hurried away, and 
offered his services to the government. He became major 
of the Third Battalion Rifles Massachusetts Volunteers, a 
three months' organization. April 20, he went to the South, 
and was stationed at Annapolis and Fort McHenry. He 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL GEORGE HULL WARD. 39 

was appointed to the command of the Fifteenth Regiment, 
July 15. 

He was in the prime of life. He brought to the position 
a lofty patriotism and an ambition for military glory derived 
from ancestors who had served the country in the Revolution 
and the War of 1812; a great heart, responsive no less to 
the call of the humble soldier than to the demands of 
country and humanity; an intellect, powerful by nature and 
developed by the broadest culture and a wide range of 
practical experience. As he represented all that was noblest 
in the traditional character of New England, he was well 
fitted to become the leader of its most representative 
regiment. 

The picture of the lieutenant-colonel, George Hull Ward, 
has been drawn by his friend, General A. B. R. Sprague: 

"Colonel George Hull Ward was born at Worcester, 
Mass., on the 26th da)- of April, 1826. He was from good 
military stock. His father, Col. Artemas Ward, was enrolled 
as a soldier in the militia in 1S21, was made captain of the 
Worcester Light Infantry, and rose to the command of his 
regiment the same year our gallant friend was born. He 
was named after one of the early pastors of the Old South, 
of which his parents were honored members, and it was their 
intention that he should be educated for the ministry, but 
after passing with honor through the common and high 
schools, he gained their consent to choose his own vocation, 
and after years of close application, at the age of twenty-one 
he became a skilful machinist. At the age of sixteen the 
death of his mother and sister brought a burden of sorrow 
which bore heavily upon him and made him thoughtful as 
well as self-reliant beyond his years. At twenty-one he en- 
listed in the Worcester City Guards, and through various 
grades rose to the command in 1852. His thorough knowl- 
edge of the duties of commanding officer eminently fitted 
him to maintain the company in a high state of discipline. 
From its ranks thirty-one field and line officers followed 
the fortunes of the old flag in the armies of the Union. 



40 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

" Colonel Ward was a born soldier, of fine physique and 
commanding presence, quick in movement and speech, a 
gentleman in manner ; his sunny smile shone through the 
repose of his manly face. He had risen to the rank of 
brigadier-general of the Fifth Brigade of Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia just before the war began, and with 
personal knowledge and without fear of contradiction, I 
affirm that in the school of the soldier, the company, the 
battalion and evolutions of the line, as an organizer and 
disciplinarian, he had no superior in the volunteer militia." 

The major, John W Kimball, was chosen from among 
the captains of the companies on account of his pre-eminent 
fitness for the position. He was at this time thirty-three 
years of age, having been born in Fitchburg, February 27, 
1828. His father, Alpheus K. Kimball, had been captain of 
Company B in 1818, two years after its formation. The son 
was educated in the public schools of Fitchburg, and then 
went to work with his father, who was a manufacturer of 
farming tools. He was engaged in this business until the 
beginning of the war. 

John W Kimball's name was entered upon the rolls of 
the company in which his father had served so many years 
before. He went through all the grades of office and became 
captain in 1855. After holding this position for two years, 
he was made adjutant of the Ninth Regiment. When the 
threatening condition of affairs began to awaken the people 
of the North to the necessity of a vigorous militia, he was 
recalled to the command of Company B as being the one 
man most capable of bringing it into the highest state of 
efficiency. When the danger of war became more immi- 
nent, he used his utmost energies to make his company fit 
for service, and it is said that he was the first militia captain 
in the State to send to the Governor a letter signifying that 
his company was in readiness to answer such demands as 
might be made upon it. 

Major Kimball, like Lieutenant-Colonel Ward, may be 



MAJOR JOHN \V. KIMBALL. 4 1 

looked upon as a representative product of the old militia 
system. His association with brother officers in the annual 
musters and other gatherings of troops had given him a wide 
acquaintance and broad outlook, and had made military 
patriotism a predominant characteristic. He had acquired 
a thorough knowledge of the technicalities of the service as 
it existed in time of peace, and had developed his natural 
capacity for directing and controlling men. The sterner 
test of war was to reveal in him all the qualities most needed 
in a regimental commander. He was a strict disciplinarian, 
yet beloved for his goodfellowship. He united inflexibility 
of purpose with unvarying tact. As a subordinate, he yielded 
implicit obedience ; as a commander, he exacted it. He 
joined coolness with bravery and readiness of resource in 
emergencies with the most rigid firmness. 

The chaplain, Rev. William G. Scandlin, was a native of 
England. He had been a sailor, and had served in the 
English navy ten years. After he came to this country he 
was on the U. S. S. Ohio one year, and he was for three 
years employed on whaling voyages. He came under the 
influence of the famous Father Taylor, who was struck by 
his talents, and persuaded him to take a theological course 
at Meadville. When the Civil War opened he was pastor of 
the Unitarian Church in Grafton. When he felt it his duty 
to offer his services to the country, his parish refused to 
accept his resignation, but granted him a temporary leave of 
absence. He was a great, hearty, whole-souled man, 
intensely in earnest in whatever he undertook. A friend 
said of him: "Everything he does is forcible. If he talks 
he does it with emphasis ; if he walks, his boot-heels come 
down with a resonant thump; if he laughs, the merriment is 
infectious." 

The sergeant-major, Francis A. Walker, did little service 

in the regiment, as he was immediately called to higher 

duties elsewhere. Yet to the Fifteenth Regiment belongs 

the honor of first receiving into its ranks this most illustrious 

4 



42 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

soldier and distinguished citizen. The adjutant, George A. 
Hicks, who had previously served in the Third Battalion 
Rifles, also left the regiment November 15, 1861, to become 
Assistant Adjutant General, U. S. Volunteers. Church 
Howe has already been mentioned. The other field, staff 
and line officers we shall have occasion to notice in con- 
nection with the succeeding narrative. The members of the 
regimental band, for the most part, had formerly belonged 
either to Joslyn's Band or to the National Band. It was 
organized under N. P Goddard as leader. It was not 
mustered until August 5. 

July 17, new overcoats, knapsacks and canteens reached 
Camp Scott, and were delivered to the men. It was not 
until the 26th that the full complement of muskets was 
received. These muskets were of the old smooth-bore 
pattern, so badly worn that many of them were unfit for 
use. The men did not at first, however, realize the wrong 
which had been done them. 

The establishment of the Twenty-first Regiment at Camp 
Lincoln, July 19, served to divide the attention of those who 
visited the soldiers merely from curiosity. Yet the crowds 
continued to come from the city by the Norwich and Wor- 
cester Line, by carriages and on foot. July 4, and Sunday, 
July 28, were the great visiting days. The fact that John B. 
Gough was to address the soldiers on the last mentioned 
day, drew many to the camp. 

July 29, Companies C, D, E and G acted as an escort to 
the Thirteenth Regiment as it crossed the city on its way to 
the front. Companies D and H took part in the reception 
of the Sixth Regiment when it returned home August 1, 
and on the following day a detachment from the regiment 
assisted in receiving the Third Battalion Riflemen when that 
organization arrived in Worcester. 

The battle of Bull Run caused the government to hurry 
forward all the troops which were in readiness. So the 
Fifteenth Regiment was summoned. During the first week 



THE PRESENTATION OF THE FLAG. 43 

in August, everybody was busy with preparations for going 
to the front. The regiment received one hundred and 
thirteen horses, twenty-five army wagons, two hospital 
wagons and three ambulance wagons. The regulation army 
uniform also came to the men. It consisted of light blue 
trousers, dark blue coats and black hats. August 4, the 
camp presented a deserted appearance, because so man)' 
men had gone home on their final furloughs. August 8, the 
members of Company I from Webster were sworn into ser- 
vice. Thus the regiment was made complete. 

August 7, a flag was presented to the regiment by the 
ladies of Worcester. As it was a stormy day, the presen- 
tation was made at City Hall, rather than under the open 
sky. as had been originally proposed. The field and staff 
officers of the Fifteenth, together with some of the line 
officers, accompanied by the regimental band, were escorted 
to the hall by the officers of the Twenty-first Regiment. 
Mayor Isaac Davis presided. Alonzo Hill, D. D., offered 
prayer. The ladies, through whose efforts the flag had been 
obtained, were present, and in their behalf Hon. George F 
Hoar gave the flag to Colonel Devens as the representative 
of the regiment. He said : 

"Colonel and Officers of the Fifteenth Regiment: 

"I am deputed by the ladies of Worcester to present 
to you this banner. Eighty-four years ago today there was 
mustering in these streets, the first regiment ever raised in 
Worcester county for actual warfare, the Fifteenth Regi- 
ment of the Massachusetts line. What hard-fought fields at 
Monmouth and at Trenton, what sufferings at Valley Forge, 
what glory and victory at Saratoga and Yorktown, have 
made that name famous, history has recorded. And now 
that, for a second time, Worcester County sends out to 
battle a full regiment of her sons, by a coincidence too 
appropriate to be called accident, the name which your 
fathers rendered illustrious, has been allotted to you. What 
they won for us, it is yours to preserve for us. 



44 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

"The ladies of Worcester desire to testify, that while you 
strive to emulate the courage and self-devotion of your 
fathers, they still cherish the sentiments which animated the 
mothers of the revolutionary times. 

" Take this banner, as a token that there are those at home 
to whom the cause in which you are enlisted is precious. 
As you look upon its folds, blazoned with the dear emblems 
of the country, let it bring the thought of the mothers, 
sisters, wives, without whom country would be worthless. 
Amid the hardships and temptations of the camp and the 
dangers of the battle-field, let it witness to you that there 
are those to whom your welfare is dear. Absent, but with 
most intense spiritual presence, wherever you go, whatever 
you may suffer or dare, they will be with you. And when 
you return, your duty all well done, liberty re-established, 
law vindicated, peace restored, bring back with you this flag. 
Know that 

' There are bright eyes that will mark 



Your coming, and grow brighter when you come.' 

"If, when next they look upon it, they shall see those 
folds, now so beautiful and pure, blackened by smoke, or 
torn by shot and shell, it matters not, if there is no rent in 
the Union of which it is the symbol, no stain on the honor 
of the sons of Worcester to whom it is entrusted." 

After the band had played "The Star Spangled Banner," 
Colonel Devens accepted the flag with these words: 

"Mr Hoar- 

"I accept this beautiful banner, which you have pre- 
sented to the regiment under my command, in behalf of the 
ladies of Worcester. I lay hold of this emblem as the 
symbol of all that is glorious, which has been respected 
wherever it has floated on land and sea, and which I believe, 
from the bottom of my heart, shall yet be respected wher- 
ever it may float, whether it be in the field or the fortress, or 
from the wave-rocked topmast. May God give me strength 



THE PRESENTATION OF THE FLAG. 45 

to perform fully the task this day undertaken, to aid in up- 
bearing that standard in the contest before us, that the fame 
of those who have gone before us, in defending our country 
from foes without and traitors within, be not dimmed. 
There is, indeed, a remarkable coincidence, as you have so 
well said, in the name of the regiment which I have the 
honor to command, being numbered the same as that com- 
manded during the revolutionary war by Colonel Timothy 
Bigelow, over whose remains yonder proud monument was, 
three months ago, erected with such inspiring ceremonies. 
It is indeed a most fortunate omen. I trust that some of the 
spirit which animated our ancestors has descended upon the 
present sons of Worcester county, and that they will be able 
to render an equally good account of their labors. I know- 
that they stand ready to defend that flag, as much dearer 
than life as honor is dearer; that they will not "suffer a 
single star to be obscured, or a single stripe erased' from 
that glorious symbol of our national union. I am unable to 
predict as to our return ; yet this symbol shall be returned 
to the ladies of Worcester untarnished. Defeat, disaster and 
death may come to us, but dishonor never. I know well, 
from three months' experience, how much the aid of ladies 
has contributed to the welfare of troops in the field, and we 
shall be doubly encouraged by them to do everything which 
can be done in the performance of our duty, cheered by 
their approving smiles upon our endeavors." 

Mayor Isaac Davis addressed the officers of the regiment 
in behalf of the city. "Hail Columbia" was played, and the 
waving of the flag from the platform was accompanied by 
cheers for the colors of the Fifteenth Regiment. 

In connection with the allusions to the Fifteenth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment of the Revolution, the introduction of 
Colonel Bigelow to his brother officers by Washington, may 
well be noticed. Washington said : "This gentleman, offi- 
cers, is Colonel Bigelow. and the Fifteenth Regiment of the 
Massachusetts line is under his command.. ..He marched 



46 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

the first company of minute-men from Worcester at the 
alarm from Lexington. He shared largely in the sufferings 
of the campaign against Quebec, and was taken prisoner 
there. After his exchange he raised a regiment in his own 
neighborhood, and joining the northern army under General 
Gates, participated in the struggle with Burgoyne, and 
shares largely in the honor of that victory." In the later 
years of the war Colonel Bigelow and his men served no 
less valiantly.* Such was the regiment whose name and 
character were transmitted to the Fifteenth Massachusetts 
of the Civil War. 

Even before our regiment left the state, the process of 
sifting out those who were physically unfit for service was 
begun. During the early days of August, eleven men were 
discharged for disability. One was recorded as a deserter 
at Camp Scott and two more on the way to Washington. 

August 8, the regiment struck camp. After a parade on 
Main Street which lasted about an hour, the cars were taken 
for Norwich. The Spy says: "Colonel Devens and the staff 
and field officers were mounted. The men wore their new 
army uniforms, and with their handsome banner and their 
military band, made a brave show, and looked worthy to 
bear the regimental number that Worcester County soldiers 
had made famous in the war of the Revolution. The regi- 
mental band was preceded by the tall form of the new drum- 
major, Paul Bauer. Crowds of people followed them to the 
cars, many of them near and dear friends of the departing 

soldiers The train consisting of twenty four long cars 

left the Common while the Old South clock was striking six, 
amid the parting cheers of the assembled thousands." 

The regiment arrived at Norwich soon after eight o'clock 
and went on board the steamer "Connecticut" at Allyn's 
Point at half-past ten o'clock. On account of the storm 
and the time required for the movement of baggage, it was 
after midnight when the boat started. As the cooked food 
was sent on by another route, and some of the men neglected 



AT BALTIMORE. 47 

to put rations in their haversacks, many went supperless. 
The boat reached New York at eleven o'clock. There the 
men breakfasted, some on the boat and some on the wharf. 
The soldiers for the most part spent the day on or near the 
boat, and at six p. u. took the steamer "Transport" for South 
Amboy, whence they went to Philadelphia, where some 
arrived at four a. m. One of the men wrote: "On our way 
to Philadelphia the cars became separated, and the fact was 
not discovered until the advance portion of the train had 
proceeded so far that it was not thought best to go back, 
and so it went on, reaching Philadelphia with only three 
companies on board, losing seven somewhere on the road 
between South Amboy and Philadelphia." It was two hours 
and a half before the other seven companies arrived. Here, 
the men had "the best meal since leaving Massachusetts," 
through the kindness of the patriotic people of that city. 
They also had "a good wash all round." "Philadelphia was 
the first and only city where the pleasing sign met our gaze, 
'Hot Coffee Free to Volunteers /' 

At eleven a. m., the regiment started for Baltimore, where 
it arrived at seven p. m. On the way twenty rounds of am- 
munition were distributed, for the memory of the attack on 
the Massachusetts Sixth was still fresh. W. J. Coulter wrote: 
"After we had left the cars at Baltimore and formed a line, 
Colonel Devens gave the order in his cool, deliberate way, 
'Battalion, load at will, load.' When the order was given 
there was a slight commotion among the spectators as though 
something was going to take place. While loading, a gun 
was accidentally discharged, which caused a general stam- 
pede among the women and children, and was the means of 
collecting a large number of policemen on the spot. No 
one was hurt, however, and then we took up our line of 
march to the depot. On our way we were repeatedly 
cheered, and Jeff Davis was not mentioned except by a few 
small boys. At the depot we were supplied with fresh water 
by the Baltimoreans." Major John W Kimball relates: 



48 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

"The route passed over by the Fifteenth was the same as 
that the Massachusetts Sixth had traversed on the memor- 
able 19th of April when 'the blood of Massachusetts had 
made sacred the paving-stones of Baltimore.' Great crowds 
were on the streets. The Fifteenth halted on the very spot 
where, the Sixth had been attacked. Colonel Devens was 
well known in the city from his previous record at Fort 
McHenry, and there was no open demonstration of hostility 
As the chaplain and I were riding in the rear of the line a 
venerable old man stepped out from the crowd, and asked 
me: "What regiment is this?' I replied, 'The Fifteenth 
Massachusetts.' The man standing reverently, with uncov- 
ered head, solemnly said in tones that could be heard far 
through the hostile crowd: 'God bless the grand old State 
of Massachusetts!' " 

At Baltimore the destination was changed from Harper's 
Ferry to Washington. The Fifteenth was ordered to report 
temporarily to General Rufus King at Camp Kalorama, three 
miles from the capital. The men waited in the station at 
Baltimore until after midnight. Here they had supper, and 
sang "John Brown's Body" and other patriotic songs. They 
rode to Washington in freight cars and had a rough time of it. 
The 9th and 10th had been very hot and sultry days, and the 
men had suffered extremely. At last, at six A. m. on Sunday, 
the nth, they reached Washington. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Ward says: "We formed in line, wheeled into column and 
marched to Pennsylvania Avenue. The regiment looked 
finely upon its arrival and was highly complimented." 

A letter written by Lieutenant Richard Derby of Com- 
pany H, tells the story of the next two days: "We were 
to have marched from Washington City Sunday evening, 
but it rained in torrents for several hours, and we thouo-ht 
it best to remain in the halls and sleep on the bare 
floor, as we had sent our overcoats out to camp by the 
wagons. I had a good night's sleep, and I guess most of 
the men had the same, the}' were so very tired. We marched 



CAMP KALORAMA. 49 

at six o'clock Monday morning, about two miles, out to 
Columbia College grounds, and encamped on high land with 
the Fourteenth Massachusetts, two regiments from Wiscon- 
sin (the Fifth and Sixth), and one from Indiana (the Nine- 
teenth). We were attached to General King's brigade. We 
have made ourselves quite comfortable in spite of the rain. 
Our tent has a good board floor, and we have secured the 
services of a nice colored boy. He understands his business 
'to the letter.' Fruit is cheap and abundant. Melons, toma- 
toes, peaches, and all kinds of berries are brought fresh to 
camp every morning." One of the officers adds, that as the 
regiment passed by the White House, President Lincoln 
was seen looking out upon the moving column, "clad in 
robes to correspond to the complexion of the house." 

In Chaplain Scandlin's diary, August 14, we find this 
entry: "In the afternoon we had an illustration of Colonel 
Devens' determination. He found some men with a wagon 
close up to the line and requested the men to move it further 
off. But they insisted upon it that they only had pickles for 
sale. The order was repeated a third time without seeming 
to move them much, when the Colonel called out a dozen of 
the boys, lifted the boxes from the wagon, smashed some 
ten of the boxes of liquor, replaced the two of pickles, gave 
his name to the parties, pointed out the brigadier-general's 
headquarters, and left." Chaplain Scandlin held his first 
services with the regiment Sunday, August 18. 

Assistant Surgeon Haven says: " Camp Kalorama, August 
18. Properly speaking, we are at Meridian Hill, the resi- 
dence of Commodore Porter, who died in the Mediterranean. 
From his house just outside our lines, there is a magnificent 
view of Washington, Alexandria, Fairfax College and Arling- 
ton Heights. More fickle, disagreeable and trying 

weather I have rarely experienced. One day so cold that 
we wore our overcoats, and the next so hot that we are 
nearly melted. It is wonderful that we have not much sick- 
ness. A large number are more or less affected with diar- 



50 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

rhoea. . ..One man shot a pistol ball through his own hand 
into his thigh." In a later letter, Surgeon Haven said: "The 
first week or ten days of our stay at Kalorama was nothing 
but rain, rain, rain, and we were just beginning to enjoy 
pleasant weather and getting accustomed to the water." The 
visits to and from old acquaintances in other regiments was 
one of the pleasing features in the life of the officers during 
their first months on the banks of the Potomac. 

At this time there were eighteen men to be discharged 
from the regiment on account of unfitness for service. Sur- 
geon Haven was sent with them to Washington to secure the 
necessary papers. By reason of some trouble in military 
technicalities the discharge of these men was delayed, 
although they were left in Washington. The staff horse- 
trappings of the Fifteenth Regiment were so much finer than 
those of the regular army or of the regiments of other states, 
that on this expedition Surgeon Haven was often mistaken 
for a general officer, and in one instance the whole guard 
was turned out, drawn up in line, and made to present arms. 

Here at Camp Kalorama, the regiment spent about two 
weeks in a fair degree of comfort in spite of the rainy 
weather. August 12, the soldiers received pay from the state 
for services from June 28 to July 12. There was much con- 
jecture in regard to future movements. One writes: "It 
doesn't seem at all as though we were so near an enemy; so 
many of us together produces a sense of security; but it is 
reported that the rebels are encamped within eight miles of 
us." The monotonous drill was continued at Camp Kalo- 
rama as at Camp Scott, and such was the proficiency of the 
regiment that it was among the first to be sent to the out- 
posts, since it was "best prepared." When General King 
reviewed the regiment August 24, he was highly pleased, 
and said the men "moved like regulars." 

At half-past four o'clock in the afternoon of August 25, 
the Fifteenth Regiment broke camp, in accordance with 
orders issued by General George B. McClellan, and set out 



ON THE MARCH. 5 1 

on a march of about thirty-five miles to join General Charles 
P Stone's "Corps of Observation," which guarded the Poto- 
mac opposite Leesburg, Virginia. In addition to the regular 
baggage, the fifty-four large army wagons carried the knap- 
sacks of the men. Passing through Georgetown, the regi- 
ment marched seven miles and then encamped for the night 
"in a beautiful wood near a stream of water." Major Kim- 
ball wrote: "Here was the first experience of the bivouac. 
Under a cloudless sky. bright with its ten thousand lights, 
the men, wearied by the unusual toil, threw themselves upon 
the grass-grown earth, to forget in sleep the then-called 
hardships of a soldier's life." 

Monday, which was intensely hot, was spent on the 
march. E. J. Russell wrote : " Monday morning we received 
a short allowance of hard bread and coffee and started. We 
reached Rockville, the county seat of Montgomery County, 
Maryland, about twelve, where we halted in a beautiful grove 
and stopped fifteen minutes, filled our canteens and started 
again. We marched two miles further, then stopped and 
cooked dinner, weak coffee and hard bread and fat bacon, if 
we could find a place at the fire to broil it on a stick. We 
were there two hours and most of the men went to sleep, 
they were so tired. We left our bivouac at three p m. We 
marched five or six miles, where we encamped for the night 
and slept in the open air again." The next morning they 
set out once more. Some of the men became footsore and 
tired out. One of them wrote: " Many were compelled to 
drop by the wayside ; but this caused no delay of the regi- 
ment, for the column moved steadily on, and they were left 
to be picked up by the baggage wagons which were in the 
rear." It is said that Chaplain Scandlin, with his usual self- 
sacrifice, sometimes carried three guns while a tired soldier 
rode his horse. The regiment did not reach Poolesville 
until nearly noon Tuesday. 

Melvin Howland, orderly-sergeant of Company K, died 
of congestion of the lungs at Poolesville about five hours 



52 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

after the arrival of the regiment. He was an educated man, 
and had formerly been a school-teacher. This was the first 
death in the regiment. The notes of Assistant-Surgeon 
Haven in this case will give us a glimpse of one side of 
regimental history: 

"August 24, Camp Kalorama. 

"Orderly-Sergeant Melvin Howland, Company K, age 
twenty-three. Complains of lassitude — dispirited — some 
headache — pains in lungs — has taken some remedies of his 
own. 

"August 25. Feels relieved — rested well. Was placed 
in an ambulance for march to Poolesville — complains of 
fatigue of ride — comfortable. Diet of tea and soft bread. 

"August 26. Endured the march quite well. At night 

was removed without knowledge of surgeon to quarters, 

company bivouac. Was called to visit him at eleven 

o'clock. Found him cold and uncomfortably situated. 

Complained of chills and fever. Administered stimulant of 

brandy. 

"August 27. Slept well during the night and expresses 

himself as feeling better. Complained last evening of 
inability to use lower extremities. Thinks he was numb, 
but not paralyzed. Twelve o'clock — appears quite elated at 
our arrival in camp — remains in ambulance hospital erected, 
at half-past two o'clock. Half-past three o'clock found 
patient out of ambulance — cold and suffering from severe 
chill. Removed directly to hospital tent. Stimulants ad- 
ministered — congestion of spinal column and general con- 
gestion. Died at six o'clock, conscious to ten minutes 
before death." 

The diary of E. J. Russell contains the following entry: 
"I have just been to the funeral of the sergeant, and it was 
the most impressive service I ever witnessed. The whole 
regiment was in attendance, and the chaplain made very 
appropriate remarks. The band played ' Peace, Troubled 
Soul." All the first-sergeants of the regiment were bearers, 



THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. 53 

and the company of which he was a member went in the 
procession with all of the officers of the regiment, the band 
playing 'The Dead March in Saul,' the drum beating a low 
ruffle. As I write now, I hear the salute over the grave of 
our comrade. Peace to his ashes." 

The seventy-five thousand three months' troops had pro- 
tected the capital of the nation, had kept several doubtful 
states from secession, and had checked the aggressions of 
the rebels, but the only attempts which they had made to 
conquer the enemy in battle in Eastern Virginia had resulted 
in failure. The miserable affair at Big Bethel had been a 
mass of blunders. When General Irvin McDowell was 
forced against his judgment by the popular clamor to fight 
at Manassas Junction, the military skill with which his plan 
was laid was brought to naught by General Patterson's 
failure in co-operation and the advantage possessed by the 
rebels in their inside line of defense. General George B. 
McClellan s brilliant success in West Virginia, in contrast 
with the defeat which elsewhere attended the Union armies, 
had made him the hope of the country and given him the 
command of the Army of the Potomac. He realized the 
magnitude of the war, and began to prepare for it on a 
much broader basis than had before been thought of. 

The new levies of troops arriving in Washington were 
assigned according to need or advantage of location or for 
discipline, to the various detachments posted at different 
points along the river from the lower Potomac up as far as 
Williamsport. General George A. McCall was at Langley, 
a few miles from Washington, but west of the river. General 
N. P Banks had his headquarters at Darnestown, eight miles 
to the southeast of Poolesville, but he had detachments 
above Poolesville at Point of Rocks, opposite Harper's 
Ferry, and other places. He was thus above and below 
General Stone. General Stone's command was, however, 
independent of his. General Stone was at this time in the 
prime of life. He was a graduate of West Point and had 



54 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 



C 



served in the Mexican War with marked ability At th 
beginning of the Civil War, the safety of Washington was 
largely due to his wisdom and energy 

According to McClellan's general report, October 15, 
when all the levies had arrived, this division contained : 
Cavalry — Six companies of the Third New York Cavalry 
(Van Alen); Artillery — Kirby's First United States Artillery. 
Vaughn's Battery (B) First Rhode Island Artillery, and 
Bunting's Sixth New York Independent Battery; Infantry — 
Gorman's Brigade, Second New York State Militia (Eighty- 
second Volunteers), First Minnesota, Fifteenth Massachu- 
setts and Thirty-fourth New York Volunteers, and the 
Tammany (Forty-second) New York Volunteers; Lander's 
Brigade, Nineteenth and Twentieth Massachusetts and 
Seventh Michigan Volunteers, and First Company of Massa- 
chusetts Sharpshooters; Baker's Brigade, Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers, then known as the First, Second and Third Califor- 
nia. No other authority is found for the connection of the 
Fifteenth with Gorman's Brigade at so early a date. Colonel 
Devens apparently took his orders directly from General 
Stone as long as he remained in command of the Corps of 
Observation. In early September there were in this corps 
only five infantry regiments, (the Second, Thirty-fourth and 
Forty-second New York, First Minnesota and Fifteenth 
Massachusetts), First United States and Sixth New York 
Batteries and Chambliss' Troop Second Cavalry. 

It was the duty of this division, while acquiring military 
discipline, to keep watch of the rebels at Leesburg and to 
guard the river along the arc which it made here, with 
Poolesville as the center of the chord. Leesburg was some 
over eight miles to the west of Poolesville and was about 
three miles from the river. On the line connecting these 
two places was Harrison's Island, about one hundred and 
fifty yards wide, and containing four hundred acres. It was 
used for farming purposes. A little above the northern end 
of this island was Conrad's Ferry Below the island was 



THE PICKET LINE. 55 

Edward's Ferry, at the mouth of Goose Creek. Each of 
these ferries was approached by roads on both sides. The 
distance between them was about four miles. On the 
eastern side of the river the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal ran 
parallel to it, and somewhat higher, at a distance from the 
river of from three to six rods. On the slope between the 
canal and the river were the picket stations. 

Poolesville, Maryland, had about two hundred inhabitants. 
Camp Foster, so named in honor of Dwight Foster who was 
then attorney-general of Massachusetts, was near the village, 
on the Common. The elevation was such that it gave an 
outlook in some directions of thirty miles. The parade 
ground was large and level. The camp was kept very clean, 
as the surgeon had a squad of fifty men clean it up every 
morning. The situation and neatness aided much in main- 
taining the health of the men. One of them writes: "The 
first essential for pleasant camp-life is an agreeable location; 
and ours is eminently so, being on a high and nearly level 
plain, where fresh air, sunlight and beautiful views are un- 
limited." The regiment had here one hundred and twenty- 
seven tents of the various kinds. 

By order of General Stone, August 29, 1861, "The piquet 
duty along the line of the Potomac between the outposts at 
Conrad's Ferry and the piquets of the First Minnesota 
Regiment thrown out from Edward's Ferry, is entrusted to 
the Massachusetts Fifteenth Regiment." On the same day, 
Companies A and C were ordered upon this duty until 
relieved. A member of Company C writes: "No time has 
passed off so pleasantly to us since our arrival at the South 
as did the ten days we were on the bank of the Potomac. 
While we were on duty there was a continual firing across 
the river, between the pickets, but nothing serious occurred 
from it on our side." September 2, another order was 
received to send an additional company to strengthen the 
line of pickets and a company to remain with Bunting's 
Battery near Conrad's Ferry. Company B was assigned to 



56 FKilM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

the former duty ; Company E to the latter. The other com- 
panies of the regiment served on this picket duty at various 
times. The first relief was sent September 9, Companies H, 
K and G on picket duty, Company I with the battery. 
September 20, Companies E, F and D were assigned to 
picket duty and B in support of the battery. October 8 
and 9, A, G and I were assigned to picket duty and C with 
the battery. After a little the men of the two armies 
ceased by mutual consent to fire at each other while on 
picket, and they talked with each other across the river, 
often guying one another, though sometimes the talk was of 
a most friendly nature. In a letter to the Fitchburg 
Sentinel one of the soldiers says: "We have agreed with 
the pickets on the opposite shore, who are Mississippians, 
not to fire at each other, but be on friendly terms as long as 
they are posted as pickets.- ..Yesterday, one of our boys 
agreed to meet one of the Mississippians half-way across the 

river and exchange newspapers They met in the middle 

of the stream where the water is but waist deep, and after 
shaking hands and exchanging the " Boston Herald" for the 
"Mobile Tribune," they held a social chat. They are of the 
opinion that the shooting of pickets is all foolishness. .... I 
have just learned that one of the Mississipians is coming 
over in a boat to take dinner with the Leominster boys 
today." 

Occasionally pickets were found asleep on their posts; 
three cases are recorded as brought up for discipline during 
September. It is stated that one man who had thus been 
found sleeping a second time, deserted because he "preferred 
to risk his chances with the enemy rather than risk the 
chance of being shot." The men on picket were distributed 
"in squads of thirty or forty" over the three miles. They 
had no tents since these could be seen too easily by the 
rebels, but they made huts with poles and brush and at- 
tempted to thatch them with weeds. In cases of rain, these 
huts afforded no protection. No lights or fires were allowed 



CONTRABANDS. 57 

after dark for fear of disclosing the position. As there was 
little drilling to do, the men lounged about the huts "like 
Indians." The worst annoyance was the great number of 
insects that swarmed over the food and clothing. Another 
duty assigned to the Fifteenth was the guarding of General 
Stone's headquarters. It was sometimes called his "pet 
regiment," and we occasionally find the name "Sunday Pets" 
applied to the men. 

The relations with the negroes formed an interesting fea- 
ture of camp-life. A letter of \V. J. Coulter's illustrates this: 

"The Light Guard have done something in the way of 
'contraband/ One day a negro came down to the water's 
edge and wished to know if he might cross. He was given 
to understand that he could, and he immediately stripped 
and plunged into the river. He was met by a boat and con- 
veyed to the shore. There is a large island lying between 
the two shores, just opposite to where a portion of Company 
C was stationed, owned by a secessionist who is in the 
Southern army, and it was from this island that the negro 
came. By his story it appears that there were fourteen 
slaves and about twenty-five head of cattle on the island a 
few days before, and that a squad of secessionists came over 
to take them by order of his master, the negroes to be put in 
the army. He did not like the idea of being put into the 
army, so he hid in a cornfield which was on this side of the 
island. The rebels did not dare to come on this side of the 
island to hunt after him, for fear of being shot at by our 
pickets, and so they let him go. He remained in the corn- 
field one or two days, not daring to come down to the water 
for fear we would shoot him. At last he raised courage 
enough to show himself, and was permitted to cross over. 
He is a boy of about seventeen years of age, and is what 
they call out this way 'a right smart nigger.' He says that 
he would not go back 'for nothing in the world.' 

"There are plenty of 'Uncle Toms' out this way, of 
course, and it is amusing to hear them talk. Some of them 

5 



58 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

have a great fear of military men, and will make a very low 
bow when they meet a soldier, especially if he carries a gun. 
One morning, a few days ago, an old negro with a bundle 
under his arm, was strolling along the lines of the New York 
Second Regiment, and when he got opposite the guard-tents 
one of the sentinels commenced questioning him, and asked 
him what was in his bundle. Just then the officer of the day 
came in sight, and the order was given to turn out the guard 
for the purpose of saluting him. The old negro, noticing 
the unusual bustle, came to the conclusion that they were 
preparing to arrest him, and dropping his bundle, took to 
his heels, crying, 'Me good nigga!' 'Me good nigga!' and 
kept it up till he was far out of sight. Such amusing inci- 
dents as this are occurring every day, which help to remove 
the monotony clinging to camp life." 

September 23, General Stone ordered soldiers in his 
command not "to incite and encourage insubordination 
among the colored servants in the neighborhood of the 
camps," as had previously been done. He supported his 
course by strong reasons therefor, but was bitterly attacked 
by some ardent antislavery men on account of it. 

Letters to newspapers and to friends at home were 
written more guardedly on account of the following order: 

"Sept. 10, 1861. The General commanding, desires to 
caution all under his command against the unmilitary and 
treasonable practice, too much followed in some corps of the 
army, of writing private reports of military movements and 
operations which may find their way into the newspapers 
and thence to the enemies of the country." 

September 5, the Thirteenth Massachusetts Regiment 
arrived at Poolesville, and stopped there for a few hours 
and received entertainment from the Fifteenth before going 
on to Darnestown to join General Banks. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Ward writes, September 14: "The quiet of our 
camp was pleasantly disturbed by the arrival of the Nine- 
teenth and Twentieth Massachusetts Regiments, also a full 



SMOOTH-BORE MUSKETS. 59 

battery of artillery from Rhode Island. They bivouacked 
near us on the same field. Colonel Lee commanded the 
Twentieth and Colonel Hinks the Nineteenth. P M. — The 
Massachusetts regiments left for their camp-ground near 
Edward's Ferry." 

A letter written to the Worcester Palladium from Pooles- 
ville, September 17, complains bitterly of the quality of the 
guns furnished the Fifteenth. "This regiment, as you well 
know, is armed with the old smooth-bore muskets of the 
pattern of 1842, altered from the flint to the percussion lock. 
With these miserable weapons we are expected to victoriously 
contend with an army that have arms of more than three 
times the length of range of our own." While the rebels 
could shoot effectively across the Potomac and three hun- 
dred yards beyond, our men could seldom send a ball across 
the river. Companies A and C were furnished with Harper's 
Ferry rifles before the Battle of Ball's Bluff, but the other 
companies had to wait until December, before a change was 
made. 

The regimental band is spoken of by a visitor as being 
one of the best in the division. There were many good 
singers in the regiment, and in the evening army songs in 
varying degrees of melodiousness were heard about the 
camp. Occasionally "Charlie May and some of the other 
boys" would bring out their fiddles. An old barn door 
would serve as a floor for dancing, and a jolly evening would 
be spent. A good story-teller was always sure of an 
audience. There was little intemperance, although there 
were a few liquor seizures in the village at a later date. 
October 13, an order was issued against gambling, as it was 
prevailing somewhat in portions of General Stone's Division. 

October 4, the regiment was ordered to take possession 
of Harrison's Island. This duty was assigned to Company 
H. The company started at five p. m. Lieutenant Richard 
Derby writes: "The river has been high, and has just fallen, 
leaving a steep clay bank, softened to the consistency of 



GO FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

butter and overgrown with roots, vines and weeds as thick 
as a hedge. We arrived after dark on the canal path, and 
found only one boat to cross in. It was a metallic life-boat, 
capable of carrying fifteen men, and was in the canal, from 
which we had to drag it into the river- . .The captain went 
in the first boat-load, and landed without resistance. I went 
in the second, and four more loads took us all. When we 
reached the top of the bank a dirtier lot of ninety men you 
never saw. ..On reconnoitering, all the human being we 
found was an old slave who takes care of his master's plan- 
tation. He thought his time had come and, falling on his 
knees, began praying fervently." The inhabitants of the 
island had removed all their stock and valuables to the 
Virginia shore, in anticipation of this movement. October 
17, Lieutenant Derby writes: "We are fortifying the island 
and are to have reinforcements and hold it in case of attack. 
I was up till three o'clock this morning overseeing the 
throwing up of intrenchments. The ruins of the old stone 
barn make a good fort." 

October 7, the Fifteenth was paid off. One of the boys 
writes : "For the last four weeks there has been no question 
asked so often as, 'When are we going to be paid off ?' If a 
stranger. should happen to cross the line of sentinels for the 
purpose of visiting camp, he was surely the paymaster. If 
the boys had been paid off as often as they have had the 
paymaster here, they would be rich enough to buy Jeff 
Davis out." The men were paid up to September 1, and 
each private received about twenty dollars. A large portion 
of this was sent home. Colonel Devens did what he could 
to encourage and facilitate such a disposition of the money. 
George W Mirick, his orderly, received such sums as the 
men could spare and gave in return checks drawn on the 
Worcester County Institution for Savings signed by the 
Colonel. These checks were mailed to their families. 

The editor of the Worcester Spy, who visited the camp 
at Poolesville in October, reported: "The store-keeper at 



RELIGIOUS MEETINGS. 6l 

Poolesville is a shrewd, calculating fellow, who is making a 
great deal of money out of his trade with the soldiers. 
There are enough here who would sell whiskey to the 
soldiers if they dared, but Colonel Devens is a mortal terror 
to all such fellows." 

The religious meetings held by the regiment are thus 
dwelt upon in a letter by YV J. Coulter, September 24, 1861 : 
"Sunday is kept by the soldiers of the Fifteenth almost as 
strictly as it would be if they were at home. On the 
Sabbath all drills are suspended. An inspection takes place 
every Sunday morning at nine o'clock, and after that the 
articles of war are read. At four in the afternoon divine 
services are held, which are very impressive. The platform 
is constructed of a flat box placed on the ground, with a red 
blanket thrown over it; this answers for the chaplain to 
stand on. A little to the left of the box is a stand of arms, 
on which is hung a drum, taking the place of a desk. On 
the right is stationed the national colors, presented to the 
regiment by the ladies of Worcester, and on the left is the 
state flag. The whole regiment is drawn up in line, and then 
marched to the front of the pulpit, which is erected in front 
of the Colonel's quarters. The officers all go forward, and 
are seated in a half-circle in the rear of the chaplain. The 
choir, which is selected from the regiment and the band, is 
stationed on the right. A prayer-meeting is held every 
Sunday evening at half-past seven, and also every Wednes- 
day evening at the same time. You would hardly think, to 
look at the camp of the Fifteenth on Sunday evenings, that 
it was the encampment of a body of men whose purpose is 
what it is. Everything is tranquil, and from many of the 
quarters songs of praise to God float out upon the air. It 
puts one in mind of a camp-meeting more than it does of a 
military encampment, which is thought to be, by a large 
number, the abode of all that is contaminating and impure. 
In some of the tents the boys make a practice of reading a 
chapter every night from the Testaments presented to them." 



62 FROM CAMP SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

On Sunday morning there were religious meetings held 
with the companies near the river. Man)- citizens were 
present at the afternoon service. There was usually an 
attendance of seventy-five or a hundred at the evening 
meetings. Chaplain Scandlin thus speaks of one : "The 
group clustered around my tent in all conceivable positions; 
the star-lit dome of the heavens, resplendent with the 
moon's soft silvery rays; the word of exhortation, blended 
with the prayer of faith and the hymns of praise; the peti- 
tions in behalf of the dear ones left behind in homes of our 
affection, — all these seemed to fuse in one yearning, trusting 
prayer." 

Chaplain Scandlin, in addition to the duties directly con- 
nected with his office, served the soldiers in man}' other 
ways. The mail came three times each week. Chaplain 
Scandlin acted as postmaster for the regiment. This was 
no easy task, as there was an average of six hundred letters 
or papers at each arrival and departure. There was a great 
difference among the men in the number of letters written ; 
some wrote every mail, one is mentioned who served three 
years and never wrote a line. The coming of the mail was 
looked upon as a most important event, and it always found 
a crowd eagerly waiting for its delivery. Home letters were 
the only relief for the homesickness by which some of the 
men were still bitterly afflicted. The chaplain collected a 
library for the regiment, and looked after its circulation. 
In February, 1862, he recorded four hundred volumes as the 
number in this library. 

During September fresh bread was served out three times 
a week with "salt junk," bacon and ham. At other times 
there was no fresh bread, but plenty of pilot bread which 
the boys called "government pies." This bread was satis- 
factory to those who had good teeth, but those who did not 
were unable to eat it easily. There were also rations of 
coffee, sugar, molasses, rice, hominy, beans, pickles, potatoes 
and salt. The food, the weather, the wise care of the officers 



AMBULANCE DRILL. 63 

and the prudence of the men were such that the surgeon 
had little to do. September 24 there were only sixteen 
cases in the regimental hospital. 

In the early part of October, an order was sent out by 
General McClellan for "the regimental surgeon to drill the 
band and ten hospital attendants one hour daily in setting 
up and dismantling the hand-stretchers, litters and ambu- 
lance beds, putting them into the ambulance, taking them 
out, etc., carrying men upon the hand-stretchers (observing 
that the leading bearer steps off with the left foot and the rear 
bearer with the right), in short, in everything that can render 
this service effective and the most comfortable for the 
wounded who are to be transported." The band was not 
pleased with this order. One of the boys wrote, October 
12: "Yesterday the band was ordered to drill an hour a day 
with the ambulances in carrying off the dead, and they 
would not do it, and the general ordered them under arrest, 
and told the colonel not to allow them anything to eat or 
drink until they came to terms. They were all spunky, and 
would die first, but before twenty-four hours were over they 
came to terms." A brigade hospital was finished about 
October 19. 

Very few furloughs were granted before Ball's Bluff, but 
several men were allowed to go home for a short time on 
account of health. October 7, Lieutenant Andrew L. Fuller 
of Company C was obliged to resign his commission as he 
could not endure the exposure. Before entering the army 
he had been a manufacturer, a man of large business 
interests. Such capitalists were rare in the regiment, which 
was for the most part made up of those who neither suffered 
from poverty nor had any considerable share of this world's 
goods. Lieutenant Fuller's genial and generous nature, to- 
gether with his high devotion to principle, made him greatly 
beloved and looked up to by the men of his company, and 
his resignation was deeply regretted. 

Lieutenant Nelson Bartholomew of Company E was 



64 FROM CAM!' SCOTT TO CAMP FOSTER. 

taken sick August 26, with malarial fever, and was never ort 
active duty after that date, although he remained a member 
of the regiment until his death. Early in November he 
started for home in charge of his brother, but was unable to 
go further than Philadelphia, where he died November 21. 
He was born in Hardwick, December 29, 1835. He was 
graduated from Yale College in 1856. He then entered the 
Harvard Law School. He was admitted to the bar in 1858, 
and opened an office in Oxford. When the war broke out 
he determined to enlist, and his patriotism was so great that 
he persisted, although he was warned that he would be 
likely to break down under the strain. A local paper says : 
"Lieutenaut Bartholomew was the life and soul of the com- 
pany E in its formation ... He was the true type of the New 
England soldier." September 23, Edward F Ware of Com- 
pany F died of bilious fever. October 4, Corporal Frank A. 
Hildreth of Company B died after a brief illness of liver 
trouble. October 15, Patrick Kelley 1st, died of heart 
disease. This was the fourth death in the regiment. The 
burial service of Patrick Kelley 1st, was conducted by 
Father Gillan from the Tammany Regiment. The graves of 
these men were pleasantly placed in the cemetery of the 
village, and the grave-stones, arbor vitse and rose bushes 
showed how affectionately they were remembered by their 
comrades of the regiment. 

In addition to those who had died, the regiment had lost 
before October 21 twenty-five men, who had been discharged 
for disability. In all probability most of these men had 
been physically unfit for service when they had been mus- 
tered in. At least, their constitutions had not been such as 
to enable them to endure the comparatively slight exposure 
to which the regiment had been thus far subjected. We 
must not, however, withhold from these men the meed of 
the highest patriotism. Indeed, it showed higher self- 
sacrifice for a man to enlist who knew that his physical con- 
stitution was such that he would be exposed to more peril 



LOSSES OF THE REGIMENT. 65 

than his fellows. One was transferred to the Nineteenth 
Regiment, one resigned his commission, three were dis- 
charged on account of minority, three were recorded as 
deserting. Besides these thirty-seven there are others of 
doubtful record, who "never left the state," or "never joined 
company." Thus some fifty or more names were dropped 
from the rolls of the regiment between July 12 and October 
21. Twenty-one of these, four from death, fourteen from 
disability, one from transfer, one from resignation and one 
from desertion had been lost after reaching Washington. 

Although the Fifteenth had done some valuable service 
on picket duty, yet as a whole the period between June 28 
and October 20 may be looked upon as one of preparation 
and drill. The result reached during the time is well told in a 
letter written by Nathaniel Paine of Worcester, who visited 
the camp at Poolesville. " The improvement in the drill and 
discipline of the regiment is very marked and decided, par- 
ticularly to one who saw them while in camp at Worcester. 
The battalion drill, conducted by Colonel Devens, shows 
great proficiency, as does also the exercise in the manual of 
arms at dress parade, and the high enconiums bestowed on 
the colonel and his regiment by officers of experience, are 
well deserved. Worcester County and Massachusetts have 
reason to be proud of this regiment, and when they shall be 
called upon for more active service in the field they will not 
be found wanting." 



CHAPTER III. 

THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF 
October 20-21, 1861. 

On Monday, October 21, the Fifteenth Regiment was 
called upon to make its first great sacrifice. The battle of 
Ball's Bluff has been called one of the last of the amateur 
battles of the Civil War. Plans formed on the basis of in- 
sufficient or inaccurate knowledge and modified in accord- 
ance with particular circumstances, without taking the gen- 
eral condition of affairs into account ; orders indefinitely 
given, carelessly transmitted, imperfectly understood or 
poorly carried out ; too great authority delegated to subor- 
dinate officers or assumed by them ; changes in command 
made either by order or the hand of death in the midst of 
battle; all these things acting together and tending to pro- 
duce confusion and lack of co-operation, brought disaster 
upon the Union arms and swept from the ranks of the 
Fifteenth Regiment nearly one-half the members who were 
at that time on regular duty. 

October 19, under the order of General McClellan, 
General McCall, who had his headquarters at Langley, near 
Washington, marched to Dranesville, Virginia, which is 
about fifteen miles from Leesburg and on the same side of 
the river. This was done to cover a general reconnaissance 
which was made to learn the position of the enemy and pre- 
pare maps of the region. 

On the morning of the 20th, a telegram came to General 
McClellan from General Banks' headquarters at Darnestown, 



m'clellan's orders. 67 

that the enemy had moved away from Leesburg. In con- 
tinuance of the general reconnaissance, as modified by this 
telegram, the following order was sent : 

"Camp Griffin, Oct. 20, 1861. 
"General McClellan desires me to inform you that General 
McCall occupied Dranesville yesterday and is still there. 
Will send out heavy reconnaissances today in all directions 
from that point. The general desires that you will keep a 
good lookout upon Leesburg to see if this movement has 
the effect to drive them away. Perhaps a slight demon- 
stration on your part would have the effect to move them. 

A. V Colburn, 

Assistant Adjuta?it- General. 
Brig. -General C. P Stoxe, Poolesville." 

General Stone had learned from a contraband mulatto 
teamster that N. G. Evans, the Confederate General who 
commanded the Seventh Brigade of the First Corps, C. S. 
A., located at this point, already alarmed, was planning to 
fight near Leesburg if attacked there, but that the rebels 
had moved their baggage to Goose Creek, which entered 
the Potomac near Edward's Ferry. His belief that the 
enemy was about to withdraw, and that McCall was at 
Dranesville ready to cooperate with him, made General 
Stone more ready for an aggressive movement and less 
prudent in its execution. He at once obeyed the order he 
had received from General McClellan by directing General 
Gorman at Edward's Ferry to display his forces in view of 
the enemy, by commanding the movement of flat-boats 
from the canal into the river, and by an artillery fire upon 
the points where the enemy were supposed to be concealed, 
as if to cover the crossing of the boats. Moved by these 
demonstrations, the enemy retired from their "picket 
position near Edward's Ferry to their intrenchments." 

In connection with this reconnaissance, orders had al- 
ready been sent to Colonel Devens "to reenforce the island 



68 THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 

(Harrison's) by all of his regiment that was at the canal, to 
detach Captain Philbrick with twenty men to cross from the 
island and explore by a path through the woods, little used, 
in the direction of Leesburg, to see if he could find anything 
concerning the enemy's position in that direction, but to re- 
turn and report on discovering any of the enemy." As it 
became dark, General Stone withdrew the forces at Edward's 
Ferry to their original position and reported to General 
McClellan: "Made a feint of crossing at this place this 
afternoon, and at the same time started a reconnoitering 
party towards Leesburg, from Harrison's Island. The 
enemy's pickets retired to intrenchments. Report of recon- 
noitering party not yet received. I have the means of cross- 
ing one hundred and twenty-five men once in ten minutes at 
each of two points. River falling slowly." 

Thus far McClellan's orders had been implicitly obeyed 
by General Stone, but from this point on, according to his 
own statement as made before the Committee on the Con- 
duct of the War, he acted in a considerable measure on his 
own responsibility, without orders, neither did he keep 
General McClellan sufficiently informed of his movements. 

Through Lieutenant Church Howe, General Stone re- 
ceived a report from Colonel Devens, "that Captain Phil- 
brick had returned to the island after proceeding unmolested 
to within about a mile from Leesburg, and that he had there 
discovered, in the edge of a wood, an encampment of about 
thirty tents, which he had approached to within twenty five 
yards without being challenged." On account of this re- 
port, Colonel Devens was ordered by General Stone to cross 
with a portion of his regiment "to the Virginia shore, march 
silently under cover of the night to the position of the camp 
referred to, to attack and destroy it at daybreak, pursue the 
enemy lodged there as far as would be prudent with his 
small force, and return rapidly to the island, his return beino- 
covered by [two companies, I and D,] of the Massachu- 
setts Twentieth, which were directed to be posted on the 



EXPEDITION AGAINST SUPPOSED REBEL CAMP. 69 

bluff directly over the landing place." The capture of the 
little supposed encampment was the chief object of this ex- 
pedition, a more complete reconnaissance, a secondary one. 

Company C, called from its position in support of the 
battery at Conrad's Ferry, and Companies A, G and I called 
from picket duty below Conrad's Ferry, had passed over to 
Harrison's Island Sunday afternoon, in accordance with 
orders from General Stone to General Devens. About mid- 
night, they, with Company H, which had been posted on the 
island, began crossing from the island to the Virginia bank, 
under the lead of Colonel Devens. So poor were the means 
of transportation that it was four o'clock before the last 
company had crossed over. The passage, though hurried, 
took six times as long as General Stone had estimated. 
There were in all three boats, which together conveyed 
about thirty men. Colonel Devens had previously received 
and obeyed orders to have two flat-boats transferred from 
the canal to the river, but these were on the Maryland side 
of the island. Colonel Lee of the Twentieth, who was 
ordered to cross to Harrison's Island with five companies of 
his regiment, was directed to "cause the four-oared boat to 
be taken across the island to the point of departure of 
Colonel Devens." This was done later by men under charge 
of Major Revere. 

Colonel Devens with his five companies of the Fifteenth 
passed down the river about sixty rods by a path discovered 
by the scouts under Captain Philbrick, and then up the bluff 
known as Ball's Bluff. The length of the incline has been 
estimated at from one hundred and fifty yards to four hun- 
dred; its perpendicular height, from fifty feet to one hun- 
dred and fifty Each of these dimensions was variable, yet 
the lower estimates are probably nearer the average. At 
the top of the bluff the men, after passing through a scrubby 
growth, came upon an open field surrounded by woods. 
This field contained about eight acres. It was oblong and 
somewhat irregular in shape. The path from the river con- 



JO THE BATTLE OF BALL S BLUFF. 

tinued along the southern side of this field and led from the 
southwestern corner through the woods to another open 
field. It was at "a row of trees" on the opposite side of the 
second field that Captain Philbrick, deceived by the effect 
of the moonlight, had seen, as he thought, the thirty tents. 
There was a house, known as the Jackson House, near this 
row of trees. The hundred and two men of the Twentieth, 
under Colonel Lee, who were to protect the return of the 
companies of the Fifteenth, had taken their position at the 
edge of the field near the bluff. One of the pickets of this 
supporting force was wounded during the early morning. 
Colonel Devens thus tells the story of his advance: 
"At daybreak we pushed forward our reconnaissance 
towards Leesburg to the distance of about a mile from the 
river to a spot supposed to be the site of the rebel encamp- 
ment, but found on passing through the woods that the 
scouts had been deceived by a line of trees on the brow of 
the slope, the opening through which presented, in an 
uncertain light, somewhat the appearance of a line of tents. 
Leaving the detachment in the woods, I proceeded with 
Captain Philbrick and two or three scouts across the slope 
and along the other line of it, observing Leesburg, which 
was in full view, and the country about it as carefully as 
possible, and seeing but four tents of the enemy. My force 
being well concealed by the woods, and having no reason to 
believe my presence was discovered, and no large number of 
the enemy's tents being in sight, I determined not to return 
at once, but to report to yourself, which I did, by directing 
Quartermaster Howe to repair at once to Edward's Ferry to 
state these facts, and to say that in my opinion I could 
remain until I was reenforced. 

"The means of transportation between the island and the 
Virginia shore had been strengthened, I knew, by a large 
boat, which would convey sixty or seventy men at once, and 
as the boat could cross and recross evey ten minutes, I had 
no reason to suppose there would be any difficulty in send- 



EXPEDITION AGAINST SUPPOSED REBEL CAMP. Jl 

ing over five hundred men in an hour, as it was known there 
were two large boats between the island and the Maryland 
shore, which would convey to the island all the troops that 
could be conveyed from it to the Virginia shore. [The 
means of transportation, as managed, proved very much 
under this estimate.] 

"Mr. Howe left me with his instructions at about six- 
thirty a. m., and during his absence, at about seven o'clock, a 
company of riflemen, who had probably discovered us, were 
reported on our right upon the road from Conrad's Ferry I 
directed Captain Philbrick, Company H, to pass up over the 
slope and attack them, while Captain Rockwood, Company 
A, was ordered to proceed to the right and cut off their re- 
treat in the direction of Conrad's Ferry, and accompany 
Captain Philbrick as he proceeded to execute the order. 
Captain Philbrick's command proceeded over the slope of 
the hill, and the enemy retreated down on the other side, 
taking the direction of a cornfield in which the corn had 
lately been cut and stood in the shocks. [The cornfield 
was, of course, on the west of the road.] The first volley 
was fired by them from a ditch or trench, into which they 
retreated It was immediately returned by our men, and the 
skirmish continued hotly for some minutes. I had ordered 
Captain Forehand, Company G, to reenforce Captain Phil- 
brick, but a body of rebel cavalry being reported on our left, 
I directed Captain Philbrick to return to the wood, lest he 
might be cut off from the main body of the detachment. 
This he did in good order. 

"In the skirmish nine men of Company H were wounded, 
one killed, and two were missing at its close, although the 
field was carefully examined by Captain Philbrick and my- 
self before we left it. They probably were wounded and 
crawled into the bush, which was growing in portions of it. 

"On returning to the wood I remained waiting for an 
attack for perhaps half an hour. At the end of this time, as 
my messenger did not return, I deemed it prudent to join 



*]2 THE BATTLE (IF BALLS BLUFF. 

Colonel Lee, which I did ; but after remaining with him 
upon the bluff a short time, and having thoroughly scouted 
the woods, I returned to my first position." 

A pair of stockings were sent to "the bravest man in the 
battle of Ball's Bluff." Colonel Devens wrote in acknowl- 
ment: "I received the pair of stockings sent by a Massachu- 
setts lady. I can hardly decide who was the bravest man at 
the battle of Ball's Bluff, but I bestowed them upon Captain 
Philbrick, Company H, who commanded the advance guard 
of the Fifteenth Regiment, and told him to wear them until 
I found a braver man in the fight. I think they will be worn 
out before I do." 

The rebels who were engaged belonged to a company of 
the Seventeenth Mississippi, and were under the command 
of Captain W L. Duff. He was joined between eight and 
nine o'clock a. m., after the first skirmish was over, by two 
companies of the Eighteenth Mississippi, one of the 
Thirteenth, and three companies of cavalry, all under the 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel W H. Jennifer, who from 
this point on commanded this skirmishing force as a whole. 
There seems to have been more or less firing between the 
two skirmish lines between the more serious encounters. 

Meanwhile, to take the attention of the rebels from 
Colonel Deven's movement, at about seven a. m. General 
Gorman, under direction of General Stone, sent across two 
companies of the First Minnesota Regiment and thirty-one 
Van Alen Cavalry at Edward's Ferry, under cover of a fire 
from Rickett's Battery This detachment advanced some 
distance from the ferry and met the Thirteenth Mississippi 
Regiment, received its fire, and returned it with pistols at a 
distance of thirty-five yards. No Union men were hurt. 
One rebel was captured. 

Later General Gorman's brigade began to cross as a 
whole. His report says that he had one regiment over 
before the fight of the afternoon began, and then other 
troops followed. General Stone was kept from ordering an. 



CROSSING OF FIVE COMPANIES UNDER WARD. JT) 

advance from Edward's Ferry to Ball's Bluff by his belief 
that there was a rebel battery or intrenchment in the way, 
which would be able to check such a movement. Later 
evidence shows that such a force as he might have 
easily dispatched by this route — for he had four thousand 
men not engaged, to say nothing of troops he might have 
drawn from General Banks — would have met with no in- 
surmountable obstacles, and would doubtless have turned 
defeat into victory At the critical moment of the battle, 
Gorman's whole force of over two thousand men was 
neutralized by a single company of the Thirteenth 
Mississippi. 

When General Stone received from Colonel Devens the 
report brought by Lieutenant Howe, that the encampment 
of the enemy had not been found as expected, he ordered 
ten cavalry under an officer to join Colonel Devens for the 
purpose of scouring the country, and warning him of the 
approach of the enemy. Captain Candy, assistant adjutant- 
general on General Lander's staff, accompanied this body. 
These cavalry crossed the river and reported to Colonel 
Lee, but, having inquired of him the condition of affairs, 
returned and never reported to Colonel Devens, and thus he 
was deprived of their much-needed service. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Ward, who, lest he might be away 
from his men in time of action, had cut short his furlough 
at Washington, whither he had been to consult Governor 
Vndrew about rifles, has the following entry in his diary for 
October 20: "Colonel Devens had gone to the river to visit 
our pickets. He did not return at dark, and we began to 
feel a little curious and perhaps somewhat anxious about 
him. We turned in about eleven o'clock, the colonel not 
returning. I had just gone to sleep when a messenger was 
announced from General Stone, by Lieutenant Ellingwood 
of Company F (who was lieutenant of the guard). It was 
about ten minutes before twelve. Upon examining the 
message it proved to be an order from General Stone ordet - 

6 



74 THE I'.ATTLE OF HALLS BLUFF. 

ing myself with the five companies then in camp to proceed 
directly to the crossing at Harrison's Island. We started 
from Camp about quarter past one and arrived about a 
quarter of four a. m." The order read as follows: 

" Headquarters Corps of Observation, 
October 20, 1861. 

"Lieut.- Col. Ward, 15th Mass. Vols. 

"Colonel: You will march with the remainder of 
your regiment in camp (leaving a camp-guard and relief), to 
the tow-path of the canal opposite the center of the Massa- 
chusetts piquets and there await orders. Your command 
will take blankets and overcoats, but not knapsacks. You 
will make arrangements for provisions for one day and the 
ambulances to follow at daybreak. You shall make such 
arrangements that your command will arrive at the place 
above designated by four o'clock a. m., tomorrow. 

By order of General Stone. 

C. Stewart, A. A. G." 

The men took forty rounds of ammunition in their 
cartridge boxes. 

October 21, the diary continues: "Soon after sunrise 
orders came from General Stone, who was then at Edward's 
Ferry, ordering me with my command to cross to the 
Virginia shore and take possession of Smart's Mill, which 
was about half a mile up the river. Accordingly I com- 
menced getting my command across the river. On the 
Maryland side of the island the river was about two hundred 
and fifty yards wide, and about seventy-five yards on the 
Virginia side. Before we started, we heard firing on the 
opposite shore. I sent over two companies and went over 
with the third myself (Company D, Captain Studley), and 
left Major Kimball to bring forward the remaining two. 
When I arrived on the island, I learned that the firing 
proved to be a short skirmish between one of Colonel 
Deven's companies (H, Captain Philbrick, Northbridge ), 



CROSSING OF FIVE COMPANIES UNDER WARD. 75 

and a company of rebels. . .Just as I learned the particulars, 
I was met by Quartermaster Howe of our regiment on the 
island, who informed me that Colonel Devens was anxious 
that I should move forward as soon as possible to his sup- 
port, as he, the Colonel, 'was in a tight place.' I told him 
what General Stone's orders were, but, if Colonel Devens 
was situated as he represented him to be, I should comply 
with Colonel Deven's request. At the same time I requested 
Quartermaster Howe to go to notify General Stone of what 
I had done. Mr. Howe informed me afterwards that he had 
complied with my request, and that General Stone said I did 
right in reenforcing Colonel Devens. Accordingly I moved 
forward to the support of Colonel Devens instead of 
going to Smart's Mill. xAs we crossed Harrison's Island I 
saw one or two companies of the Massachusetts Twentieth, 
who were on the island. Major and Surgeon Revere 
were there. After landing on the Virginia shore I pushed 
forward with all possible dispatch to the support of Colonel 
Devens, whom I found about a mile from the river." 

As regards this movement of the five companies under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ward, General Stone said in the exami- 
nation before the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the 
War : " Of that, I knew nothing until a messenger came back 
here after Colonel Baker had gone and assumed command 
and informed me that it was the desire that these troops 
should move forward, asking if I would permit it. I said I 
had given the control of that movement to Colonel Baker 
and whatever he deemed right about it, that he would do; 
that I could not interfere there." General Stone, without 
attaching the slightest blame to any member of the Fifteenth 
Regiment, afterwards assigned as one of the main reasons 
for the disaster which befell his troops: " Coloiiel Baker 
allowed these companies to be diverted to the front." He 
claimed that, as the position at the mill was a strong one and 
was amply covered by the Union artillery on the Maryland 
bank, the recrossing of the troops from this point could have 
been free from danger. 



76 THE BATTLE OF HALL'S BLUFF. 

Major Kimball stayed on the Maryland bank of the river, 
to direct transportation, until the last load went. He had 
received orders from Lieutenant-Colonel Ward to report to 
him at Smart's Mill. When he reached the island and in- 
quired which way Lieutenant-Colonel Ward had taken, he 
was told that he had gone to the bluffs. At first he refused 
to believe this, but he was assured of its truth by Chaplain 
Scandlin, and deeming from the nature of his orders he 
should report to Ward in person, wherever he might be, fol- 
lowed him to the bluffs. 

The story of the crossing of this second portion of the 
regiment is told by George B. Simonds, who was at that time 
a private in Company B: "About half-past one on the morn- 
ing of the 21st of October, we were all startled by that sol- 
dier's warning, the long roll. 'To the river, take your 
blankets, overcoats and one day's rations,' were the orders. 
To throw on our accoutrements, roll up our blankets and 
overcoats, and fill up our haversacks and canteens, were 
duties quickly performed; this done, we were immediately 
ordered to march. I think we never marched six or seven 
miles easier than we did that morning. We all knew and 
felt that 'something was up.' We all hoped that before the 
next morning something would be done. 

"We arrived opposite Ball's Bluff about four o'clock; were 
here ordered to halt; found that those five companies of the 
regiment which had lately been stationed at the river as 
pickets, had already crossed under Colonel Devens. We 
waited until about seven or half-past before receiving any 
orders to cross. A short time before this we had heard 
irregular firing in the direction of the bluff; it lasted, how- 
ever, but a few minutes, but our impatience was only equalled 
by our eagerness to learn its cause and effect. Harrison s 
Island lay between us and the opposite shore. As this island 
is over two miles long, we were obliged to cross it. The only 
means of transportation which we had on this side of the 
island consisted of two flat-bottomed boats not capable of 



CROSSING OF FIVE COMPANIES UNDER WARD. JJ 

holding more than thirty-five men apiece. Arriving at the 
island, we found that the firing we had heard was no boys' 
play. Quite a number of Company H's men lay wounded 
in the only house there was. It was then and there that we 
first witnessed the horrors of war. 

"Leaving our blankets and overcoats in the ruins of an 
old barn, we embarked, or rather my company crowded itself 
on to the only boat there was for conveying us to the Vir- 
ginia shore. Notwithstanding the miserable and insufficient 
means of crossing we landed safe at the foot of Ball's Bluff. 
We were now fairly on the "sacred soil,' to us it was the 'land 
of promise; the great battle-field where the fate of our coun- 
try was to be decided, and this decided, we should return to 
our never forgotten homes. 

"Following a narrow and rather circuitous bridle-path, 
we proceeded through the woods, up the bluff, across an 
open space, again into some woods to within a few rods of 
another open space. Here we found Colonel Devens and 
that part of the regiment which had crossed in the night. 
We were about a mile from where we landed, and in the 
direction of Leesburg. The roll was now called and sixty- 
five of our company responded to their names. As this was 
the number that started from camp, it proved that with us 
all was thus far well. 

"After waiting impatiently for some time, and finding 
that we were not likely to move soon, I came to the conclu- 
sion that it would be well to lookout for breakers ahead. 
Accordingly I sat down on the ground, the order being 'rest,' 
and thoroughly refreshed the inner man with salt beef and 
hard-bread, and the outer with a short nap. 

"While we were here waiting, our skirmishers, or advanced 
guard, who were nearly one-fourth of a mile in advance, ex- 
changed shots with those of the rebels. That those shots 
did not always fall short of their mark, the wounds of the 
injured, who passed us on their way back to the island, too 
plainly told. Sergeant Jorgensen of Company A passed 
about eleven o'clock, wounded in the arm. 



78 THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 

"The ground in the open space in our front rose gradually 
for about one-fourth of a mile, to where our skirmishers were 
deployed. This space was bounded by woods on the left, 
and partly so on the right. 

"Soon after twelve o'clock, my brother, Captain Clark S. 
Simonds, Company B, was ordered to take his company and 
relieve Company A's skirmishers. As we filed out of the 
woods I heard some one say, 'Good-bye, George,' and turn- 
ing met the look, and shook the hand of my friend, Andrew 
Cowdrey, of Company A. It was the last time I ever saw 
him. That day 'he fought his last battle;' he now 'sleeps 
his last sleep.' He was severely wounded in the main fight, 
and died in the hospital a few days after. 

"From our new position we could see a part of Leesburg, 
and what was of more importance to us, quite a large body 
of rebel infantry. They were however, out of reach of our 
guns, we being armed with that very modern invention, the 
smooth-bore musket." 

The total number of the Fifteenth which had crossed the 
river at eleven o'clock was six hundred and twenty-five men 
and twenty-eight officers. Soon after this time began the 
transportation from the island of five more companies of the 
Twentieth. 

Colonel Devens threw out Company C to the right, Com- 
pany A to the left and Company B to the front. This front 
line of skirmishers was beyond the further side of the second 
field before mentioned. Major Kimball, who had been out 
to this advance skirmish line to see Captain Simonds and his 
old company, hurried back to Colonel Devens and reported 
to him that a movement was being made by the rebel cavalry 
towards the open field, which was designed to take this ad- 
vance skirmish line in the rear. Colonel Devens gathered 
his men who were not in the advance line, behind a fence in 
the rear of the open space where the cavalry was expected. 
At about thirty minutes after twelve the rebels made the ad- 
vance with the cavalry moving on the skirmish line in front 



THE NOON' SKIRMISH. JQ 

and the infantry coming upon the left of the main bod)' The 
enemy were repulsed, but the advance line suffered consider- 
ably. The rebels had four companies of infantry and three of 
cavalry under Colonel Jennifer, and later the Eighth Virginia 
joined them. As the heaviest loss of this fight fell on Com- 
pany B, the account of George B. Simonds is continued: 

"Perhaps I should tell you that when deployed as skir- 
mishers each man is about five paces from the next, conse- 
quently our first platoon of only thirty-two or three men 
was extended over a line of as many rods. We had not been 
in this position long when we saw an officer ride in front of 
their infantry and wave his hand. Immediately the infantry 
advanced, and at the same time a rushing sound was heard 
in the woods on our left; some one said 'cavalry.' and sure 
enough, the next minute a large body of them dashed upon 
us. It was impossible for so few of us, situated as we were, 
to withstand such a force. We fired upon them and did our 
best to get back to the reserve. As I turned to retreat I saw 
George Taylor a few rods from me, making his way off the 
field, but as he did not get back to the reserve and has not 
since been heard from, I conclude that he was shot dead, 
being the only one that was killed in that skirmish, although 
two of our boys who were wounded and taken prisoners have 
since died from the effects of their wounds. I had not pro- 
ceeded more than five rods on my retrograde march when I 
experienced a peculiar sensation in my right thigh. There 
was not much chance to doubt what hurt at that time; the 
balls were whistling on all sides, and I believed that I was 
carrying an ounce of lead besides the fort)' in my cartridge- 
box. Such proved to be the case, for in a minute or two my 
shoe was full of blood and my pants saturated with same. 
Although wounded I still kept on, resolved to get back to 
friends or die. A body of the rebel infantry had got into 
the woods on the left and cut off our retreat through the 
open space; we therefore took to the woods on the right, 
which we knew led round to the reserve. Before I reached 



So THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 

them, I saw Ai Osborn and Albert Litchfield sitting behind 
a corn stook, both I believe were wounded and both were 
soon after taken prisoners. Stopping behind a little house, 
which was about three rods from the edge of the woods, for 
a minute, I found George Daniels, wounded in the wrist and 
shoulder. Lowell, another of our boys, was also there. I 
saw him go to the corner and fire. 'There,' says he, I've fixed 
him; I saw him fall.' Leaving the house, I reached the 
woods and was now comparatively safe." 

Colonel Devens stated that the losses of this encounter 
were inseparable from those of the later contest and there- 
fore they were never definitely given. Captain C. S. Simonds 
of Company B, and several of his men, were surrounded 
and captured here. 

A.t eleven p. m., October 20, an order had been sent by 
General Stone to Colonel E. D. Baker, who was at the 
mouth of the Monocacy, "to send the First California 
[Seventy-first Pennsylvania] Regiment to Conrad's Ferry, to 
arrive there at sunrise, and to have the remainder of his 
brigade in a state of readiness to move after an early break- 
fast." General Stone's report of the battle states: 

"Colonel Baker, having arrived at Conrad's Ferry with 
the First California Regiment at an early hour in the morn- 
ing, reported in person to me at Edward's Ferry, stating 
that the regiment was at its assigned post, the remainder of 
his brigade under arms ready to march, and asking for 
orders. I decided to send him to Harrison's Island to 
assume command, and in a full conversation with him ex- 
plained the position of things as the)- then stood according 
to reports received ; told him that General McCall had 
advanced his troops to Dranesville, and that I was extremely 
desirous of ascertaining the exact position and force of the 
enemy in our front, and exploring as far as it was safe on 
the right towards Leesburg and on the left towards the 
Leesburg and Gum Spring road ; that I should continue to 
reenforce the troops under General Gorman opposite 



MAP OF BALL S BLUFF AND VICINITY. 







82 THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 

Edward's Ferry, and try to push them carefully forward to 
discover the best line from that ferry to the Leesburg and 
Gum Spring road already mentioned, and pointed out to 
him the position of the breastworks and hidden battery 
which barred the movement of troops directly from left to 
right. I detailed to him the means of transportation across 
the river, of the sufficiency of which he was to be the judge; 
authorized him to make use of the guns of a section each of 
Vaughn's and Bunting's batteries, together with French's 
mountain howitzers, besides the Nineteenth and part of the 
Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers, and left it to his dis- 
cretion after viewing the ground, to retire the troops from 
the Virginia shore under the cover of the guns and the fire 
of the large infantry force, or to pass over reinforcements 
in case he found it practicable and the position on the other 
side strong and favorable. This gallant and energetic officer 
left me about nine or nine-thirty A. m., and proceeded rapidly 
up the river to his charge." 

The few hours that the Fifteenth served under Colonel 
E. D. Baker were among the most momentous in its history. 
How far this commander was responsible for the disaster 
which befell our troops has been the subject of most bitter 
discussion. He was a native of England, but was brought 
to this country by his parents when about nine years old. 
He passed his boyhood in Illinois, and before he became a 
man, was considered one of the most eloquent speakers 
in the denomination known as the Cambellites. He 
studied law, and in 1846 was sent to Congress. He raised 
and commanded the Fourth Illinois Regiment in the Mex- 
ican War, and won great renown at Cerro Gordo. At the 
close of the war he was again returned to Congress. Later 
he went to California, where he gained great success at the 
bar. In i860, he was sent as a senator from Oregon. He 
sought a military appointment as soon as the war began, and 
was made colonel of a regiment raised in Philadelphia and 
known for a time as the First California. Colonel Baker 



CHANGING PLANS OF GENERAL STONE. 83 

was a man of great eloquence, of magnetic presence, of un- 
bounded courage and the most zealous patriotism. It is be- 
lieved by many that if he had lived the battle would not 
have been lost, yet he made mistakes. Although he caused 
another flat-boat to be transported from the canal into the 
river, yet he seems to have failed to place a suitable detail 
to look after a regular system of crossing. This resulted in 
fatal delay He also used the boats for the crossing of the 
artillery, when they might have been more profitably used 
in transporting infantry Moreover, he spent too much 
time in looking after matters which might have been as well 
managed by subordinates. If his orders were discretionary, 
and he was fully informed of conditions, as General Stone 
asserts, then upon him must rest the responsibility for com- 
mitting battle in such an unfavorable position. 

At first the plan of General Stone had been to make a 
simple reconnaissance. Then the capture or dispersal of 
the outlying detachment of the rebels, supposed to have 
been discovered by the scouting party under Captain Phil- 
brick, was added. Then the temporary maintenance of a 
position on the Virginia banks to see what would come of it, 
seems to have been in his mind. Now a possible advance 
to Leesburg, necessitating a decided engagement, or a with- 
drawal of the whole force, is left to the discretion of Colonel 
Baker. Meanwhile, no definite arrangements are made for 
the immediate cooperation of the troops at Edward's Ferry, 
or those of General Banks. 

General Stone had reported to General McClellan the 
condition of affairs as far as they were known by him at 
quarter of ten, and had been congratulated by the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. At half-past eleven General Stone urged 
that an advance should be made by General McCall toward 
Goose Creek, and he stated later that he laid all his plans 
with the expectation that such a movement would be made. 
General McClellan promised him the support of General 
Banks at call. An order, the hour of which is not definitely 



84 THE BATTLE OF BALLS BLUFF. 

known, was given by General McClellan to "take Leesburg." 
At one p m., although he believed that General Evans had 
"four thousand men and expected reinforcements," and he 
knew that there were at that time only about a thousand 
Union troops across the river at the bluff, Stone reported to 
McClellan: "I believe this commund can occupy Leesburg 
today." He adds: "We are a little short of boats." 

By ten o'clock, Colonel Devens had learned through 
Quartermaster Howe that Colonel Baker would come over 
and take command, but he stated that he received no orders 
from him until he had returned to the bluff, at just fifteen 
minutes after two. Colonel Baker most heartily commended 
the work which had thus far been done by the Fifteenth, and 
assigned to it the position of honor in the battle line. 

The troops were arranged on the northern and eastern 
edges of the first open field, near the bluff. The Fifteenth 
Regiment was at the extreme right, protected in part by the 
woods, in the form of a right angle with its long side con- 
taining six companies about perpendicular to the river, and 
the rest of the line, made up of two companies, D and F, 
parallel to the river. In this angle, a little to the front, was 
posted Lieutenant Frank S. French of the First United States 
Artillery, with two mountain howitzers. A field piece of the 
Third Rhode Island Battery, under Lieutenant W M. Bram- 
hall of the New York Light Battery, was farther to the left. 
A considerable portion of the Fifteenth Regiment was pro- 
tected by the edge of the woods, the guns were in the open. 
Next came the Twentieth Massachusetts Regiment with three 
hundred and eighteen men. The right of the Twentieth was 
on the left of Company D of the Fifteenth. Colonel Cogs- 
well of the Forty-second New York, the Tammany Regiment, 
took his position next to the left of the Twentieth Massa- 
chusetts. He had only a single company with him when he 
came upon the field in the middle of the afternoon, but four 
other companies arrived by the end of the engagement. At 
the extreme left were eight companies of the First California 



THE BATTLE. 



85 



Regiment (afterwards Seventy-first Pennsylvania), with five 
hundred and twenty men, under Lieutenant-Colonel Wistar. 
Companies A and I of the Fifteenth and a company of the 
Twentieth formed the skirmish line on the right in the direc- 
tion of Smart's Mill. The object of this line was to protect 



o°oP? "-? 



oq-P-Jgo.q: - g ,s2gg7-o c g .\-°? : c^ Qo° fe^ 



„„D ; G 



CO O 






Oo 






Vnd 



.O 







CO 



o ^pcyS 000^ ^"""^.o^^r 



^ s 



^ 



1> u 







^01 



,VJ 



4 









c4> J^^.- h 



u 
< 

o 

H 

o 



.- . , v-O ". _ "> «> . ^?T 






Or, 



• .-. •-. o ^^^®^^ 



003^' 



"bo.".' ^ ~>"^ + z*0 "o'O !<> 0«o , 



This map is not drawn according to scale, and is merely an attempt at making- a 
graphical representation of the facts presented in the reports of the commanding officers. 
The lines were not closely kept. Some of the Confederates were in the tree-tops. Some 
of our troops were lying on the ground. A slight elevation partially protected the Union 
line parallel to the river. The companies of the 20th marked by arrows went into the 
skirmish lines in the directions indicated. Two companies of the 1st California were 
also in the skirmish line on the left. 

1, 15th Mass., 10 companies. 2, 20th Mass., 7 companies. 4, 42d N. Y., 5 companies. 
5, 1st Cal., 8 companies. 6, Howitzers. 7, Field-piece. 

8, 18th Miss., 9 companies. 9, 17th Miss., 10 companies. 10, 8th Va., 9 companies. 
11, 13th Miss., 1 company (some authorities say 2). 13, Cavalry, 3 companies. 



86 THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 

the rear of the Fifteenth. The skirmishing was severe, but 
the line was held against the infantry and cavalry companies 
which had been under Colonel Jennifer since morning. It 
must be remembered that the Fifteenth alone had been in 
the morning skirmishes. There were less than fifteen hun- 
dred Union men on the field at any one time; for those from 
the Fifteenth, wounded in the skirmishes, had retired to the 
island with their attendants before the main battle began, 
and before the last troops had arrived from the Tammany 
Regiment, many of the wounded and those who cared for 
them had left the bluff. 

It was about three o'clock when the Eighth Virginia un- 
der Colonel Hunton made an attack from a commanding 
position in the woods on the left and center. The fire of 
this regiment was very destructive, especially to those who 
supported the field piece and the howitzers. Under these 
circumstances the artillery was of little use, and was aban- 
doned after eight rounds or less had been fired. The Eight- 
eenth and Seventeenth Mississippi, and a company of the 
Thirteenth Mississippi joined the Eighth Virginia. There 
was continuous firing from three until after five o'clock. At 
four o'clock two companies of the Fifteenth, G and H, were 
detached from the right to support the left of the line which 
was at this time suffering most severely. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Ward's diary states: "Our regiment 
behaved nobly. There was a cool, deliberate determination 
about them that I was proud to recognize. We were within 
a stone's throw of the enemy and our regiment stood the fire 

of the rebels for nearly three hours without flinching, 

all the time loading and firing without being at all excited 
or showing any disposition to relax their hold. . . It was 

a sort of a stand still fight. The rebels threw away a great 
deal of their ammunition, most of their balls went over. 
Occasionally the rebels would show themselves by coming 
out of the woods in squads. Several old gentlemen in citi- 
zens dress were seen among the rebels. They were richly 



DEATH OF COLONEL BAKER. 87 

dressed in dark suits, white or buff vests. Some of them 
were seen to fall. •••! had been to the right and was re- 
turning toward the left of our regiment, when about oppo- 
site the center I was struck with a musket or rifle ball in the 
left leg about half way between the knee and the ankle. 
The ball passed through sideways and broke the bones in a 
shocking manner. I was immediately taken from the field 
back to the island." 

The boats passed irregularly to the Virginia shore loaded 
with reenforcements of the Tammany Regiment, and back 
to the island with the wounded. 

At about five o'clock or a little before, Colonel Baker, 
who had exposed himself during the engagement with the 
most unstinted courage, fell. He had just ordered that mes- 
sengers should be sent for reenforcements from Edward's 
Ferry. After the death of Colonel Baker, Colonel Lee of 
the Twentieth assumed command, supposing it his duty. 
He was inclined to retreat to the river as he considered the 
battle lost. But it was soon found that Colonel Cogswell of 
the Forty-second New York was entitled to command. When 
Colonel Cogswell came upon the field, Colonel Baker had 
characteristically greeted him with the lines: 

"One blast upon (your) bugle horn 
Is worth a thousand men." 

He had the reputation of being an able officer, but he 
knew little of the battle up to the point where he assumed 
command. His plan was to cut his way to the Union troops 
at Edward's Ferry by or through the main body of the ene- 
my, which la}' to the left. This was in direct opposition to 
the plan of the battle up to this point, and it is claimed by 
some, substituted a forlorn hope for assured safety. It is 
claimed that there would have been little difficulty in hold- 
ing the position previously occupied until the on-coming 
darkness put an end to the battle; that it would also have 
been possible to withdraw to Smart's Mill on the right, and 
once there, our men would have been under the protection 



88 THE I1ATTLE OF liALL's BLUFF 

of the Union guns on the Maryland shore, and moreover, 
with the exception of a very narrow channel, the river be- 
tween the mill and the island was fordable. Vet we must 
remember that Colonel Devens said before the Joint Com- 
mittee on the Conduct of the War in regard to the move- 
ment towards Edward's Ferry, "I have no doubt that was the 
true move, not the least." Apparently no one in authority 
thought of Smart's Mill as a place of safety at this time. As 
a preliminary step to the movement towards Edward's Ferry 
Colonel Cogswell ordered the Fifteenth to move from the 
right to the left of the line. Colonel Devens says of this 
movement: "The cool manner in which the regiment marched 
from the right to the left of the line, to protect the left, would 
have won for it an historic name if it had been done on one 
of the battle-fields of Europe." 

There was again confusion in giving or transmitting or 
receiving orders. Colonel Cogswell says that he commanded 
all the troops to advance to the left in a solid body on the 
enemy's line, that he advanced with the two Tammany com- 
panies and a portion of the California Regiment, but that 
the Fifteenth and Twentieth did not follow. Colonel Dev- 
ens says: "Confusion was created by the appearance of an 
officer of the enemy's in front of the ( companies of the ) Tam- 
many Regiment who called on them to charge on the enemy. 
The detachment of the Tammany Regiment, probably mis- 
taking this for an order from their own officers, rushed for- 
ward to the charge, and a part of the Fifteenth Massachu- 
setts, supposing that an order had been given for the advance 
of the whole line, rushed forward with eagerness, but was 
promptly recalled by their officers, who had received no 
such order." One of the men of the Fifteenth says: "The 
battle again commenced by one of the rebel leaders, who 
was mounted on a bay horse, riding out of the woods and 
shouting, 'Come on, boys, we have them now!' He had 
scarcely uttered these words when he dropped dead." The 
rebels drove back the Tammany companies, which retreated 



THE RETREAT. 89 

in such a way as to produce considerable confusion. Parke 
Godwin said of the next few minutes: "The Fifteenth Massa- 
chusetts, penned in between a crib of fire, yet were as solid 
as a mass of granite when they were as free to move as the 
winds were that blew over them." The rebels, not believing 
that fresh volunteer troops could stand the fire so well, 
yelled out, as they poured in volley after volley. "Give it to 
them damned regulars!" but they could not break the line. 

At last Colonel Cogswell gave the order to retreat to the 
river bank. Colonel Devens said to him, "Sir, I do not wish 
to retreat. Do you issue it as an order?" Yes, sir," Cogs- 
well replied. "I would like to have you repeat it in the 
presence of my major, then," said Devens. "I order you to 
retreat," Cogswell commanded again. Major Kimball cor- 
roborates this statement, and is confident that the Union 
troops might have been saved from the terrible disaster 
which befell them, if they had been allowed to maintain their 
position or to withdraw to the right instead of making the 
movement to the left. As he commanded the skirmish line 
on the right he was well able to judge of this. 

Not a man left his position until the order for retiring 
had been given them, then down the hill they went in the 
midst of a shower of leaden rain. William J. Coulter writes: 
"When we reached the river a boat came over from the 
island with reinforcements — Company H of the Tammany 
Regiment — and as they left the boat, the wounded who were 
near by, who were able, commenced to get into it, as also 
did those who were anxious to save their lives. The boat 
was overloaded, and it went down with nearly a hundred 
souls on board, about thirty of whom were drowned. This 

was a most terrible sight But a few moments before this 

I had stood on the battle-ground and witnessed a score or 
more of brave men fall by the bullet, but I was not so much 
affected as I was when I saw that boat go down with its liv- 
ing freight." Thus the only means of crossing the river was 
destroyed, for the three small boats by which the troops 
who first crossed were carried, seem to have disappeared, 



gO THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 

except one skiff, which Colonel Lee is reported to have 
refused to use for his personal safety, while the wounded 
needed it more than he. This, too, soon disappeared. 
Further up the river at Smart's Mill, Captain Bartlett of the 
Twentieth found "a small sunken skiff in the mill-way." It 
was floated, and by its means some eighty men from the 
four regiments represented in the battle, crossed the river. 
Captain Watson of Company E made his way with eight 
men to Edward's Ferry and crossed at that point. 

Colonel Deven's report continues: "For the purpose of 
retarding as much as possible the approach of the enemy, 
by direction of Colonel Cogswell, I ordered the Fifteenth 
Regiment to deploy as skirmishers over the bank of the 
river, which order was executed, and several volleys were 
given and returned between them and other of our forces 
and the enemy, who were now pressing upon us in great 
numbers and firing down furious volleys on this plateau and 
into the river to prevent escape. It was impossible longer 
to continue to resist, and I had no hesitation in advising 
men to escape as they could, ordering them in all cases to 
throw their arms into the river rather than give them to the 
enemy. This order was generally obeyed, although several 
of the men swam the river with their muskets on their backs, 
and others have returned to camp, bringing with them their 
muskets, who had remained on the Virginia shore for two 
nights rather than to part with their weapons in order to 
facilitate their escape." 

The men acted as individuals or in groups, spurred on 
by the destructive fire that now poured down upon them. 
Lieutenant Charles H. Eager of Company B thus describes 
his experience and the rescue of Colonel Devens : 

"After the order had been given to retreat, we rallied in 
a kind of bridle-path under the bluff, and near the river, 
when Colonel Devens ordered us to throw our arms into the 
river and take care of ourselves as best we could. There 
were a good many of the company who said they could not 



THE RETREAT. Cjl 

swim, or did not dare undertake it. I told them I could not 
swim, but we could keep together as much as possible, make 
our way up the river, and perhaps find a boat in which we 
could cross. George L. Boss, upon hearing me say I could 
not swim, said two or three of them could take me across, 
and soon appeared with Corporal Fred H. Sibley and Alvan 
A. Simonds, who insisted upon my going with them. I told 
them I might be the means of drowning them all, and they 
had better go without me, but they still insisted, and seemed 
so confident of success, I told them that if I could find any- 
thing that would float I would make the attempt. Upon 
going to the river edge, we found a limb some six inches 
through at the butt and perhaps ten feet long, and in pulling 
that out, pulled up a common floor joist about the same 
length. Upon seeing that, I told them I could "make the 
trip" with it on my own hook, and not endanger their lives, 
but they would not hear a word to that and said I must go 
with them. At this point Walter A. Eames offered his 
services in assisting us across, and which proved to be very 
valuable. I certainly think without his help we should have 
had hard work to have reached the opposite shore. Just as 
we were about to embark, Colonel Devens came to the 
water's edge stripped of his equipments and clothing. When 
Eames asked him if he could swim, he replied that he could 
not. Eames said to him, 'Hop on to our craft and we will 
take you across, too.' After satisfying himself that they 
were all swimmers but me, he waded in. 

"In spite of all our efforts we drifted quite a distance 
down stream, the current being strong, and finally landed on 
a small island separated from Harrison's Island by a stream 
some twenty-five feet wide, which proved to be fordable, 
only about waist deep. When we arrived at the old barn we 
learned that no soldiers would be allowed to cross, as they 
were very busy getting the wounded from the island to the 
Maryland shore. We found our overcoats and blankets 
which we had left there in the morning, wrapped ourselves 



Q2 THE BATTLE OF BALL S BLUFF. 

up and laid down by some wheat stacks till there was an 
opportunity for us to cross over. We reached Poolesville 
about twelve o'clock at night, some barefooted, others bare- 
headed, and some with nothing but shirt and overcoat." 

Lieutenant Derby of Company H wrote: "I hadn't a 
suspicion but what I could swim across with ease, so I pulled 
off my boots and laid my sword, pistol and belt on a small 
board to push across. I was anxious to save my sword, as 
it looked too much like surrendering to lose that. I kept 
all my clothes on and my pockets full. I pushed off quite 
deliberately, although the water was full of drowning sol- 
diers and bullets from the rebels on the top of the bluff. I 
made slow progress with one hand, and had to abandon my 
raft and cargo. I got along very well a little more than 
half-way, when I found that every effort I made only pushed 
my head under water, and it suddenly flashed upon me that 
I should drown. I didn't feel any pain or exhaustion, — the 
sensation was exactly like being overcome with drowsiness. 
I swallowed water in spite of all I could do, till at last I sank 
unconscious. There was a small island near Harrison's 
against which the current drifted me, and aroused me enough 
to crawl a step or two, but not enough to know what I was 
doing till I dropped just at the edge of the water with my 
head in the soft clay-mud. My good fortune still continued, 
and Colonel Devens, swimming across on a log, landed 
right where I lay. He had me taken up and carried over 
to Harrison's Island to a good fire, where I soon began to 
feel quite comfortable, but was afterwards taken sick." 

Major Kimball was also one of the party when it pushed 
off from the Virginia shore, all believing that the two sticks 
would be sufficient, with their hands simply resting upon 
them, to buoy them up and thus keep their heads above 
water ; but the load was too much for the frail craft, and the 
major, believing he could swim the stream, let go and struck 
out alone for the island ; he measured the depth of the Poto- 
mac three limes in his passage, but finally reached the island 



ON THE ISLAND. 93 

in safety. The rebel bullets were striking the water all about, 
but fortunately all of this part}- escaped being hit, but many 
others were shot in the water while attempting to cross. 

These cases must be taken as samples of those who suc- 
ceeded in crossing. Of those who were drowned, no record 
remains. There were many instances of personal gallantry. 
" Officers displayed for their men, and men for their officers, 
that beautiful devotion which is only to be found among true 
soldiers." 

Many of those who remained on the bank and dared not 
trust themselves to the stream since they were unable to 
swim, just as the darkness was closing in, sent one of their 
number with a flag of truce to the enemy- The rebels agreed 
to stop firing if the Union troops would la)- down their arms 
and surrender. As there was no alternative, our men were 
obliged to accept these conditions. Colonel Cogswell and 
Colonel Lee were among the prisoners. 

In order to understand the condition of affairs on the 
island, it will be necessary to go back once more to the mid- 
dle of the day. Colonel Hinks of the Nineteenth Massachu- 
setts, who had arrived opposite Harrison's Island at half-past 
one, after seeing that a line had been stretched across the 
river from the Maryland shore to the island so as to facili- 
tate the passage of the boat, passed with his regiment 
over to the island and as Colonel Baker had already been 
killed and the retreat begun, established as good a state of 
defense as he could. He also took measures for receiving 
and caring for the wounded, and for gathering in those who 
had crossed over from Virginia. As it became dark, the 
wounded were crowded together in and about the two farm 
houses, which were used as hospitals. "No light had been 
provided or could be found until Surgeon Haven discovered 
two inches of candle in an old bottle, by the light of which 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ward's limb was amputated." "It was 
a sad sight to see a brave officer in that position." More 
candles were afterwards found in a closet. Surgeon Bates, 



94 THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 

who rose for this work from a sick bed to which he had been 
confined for several weeks, attended to the wounded on the 
Maryland shore. Surgeon Haywood of the Twentieth Massa- 
chusetts was with Assistant-Surgeon Haven on the island. 
Chaplain Scandlin was also very devoted in his attentions to 
the wounded and dying. The transportation of the wounded 
to the Maryland shore was continued until the noon of Tues- 
day, October 22. 

The hospital accommodations at Poolesville were excel- 
lent. They consisted of two wooden buildings of one story 
each, recently erected. The beds were clean and comforta- 
ble. Of the burial of the dead and the care of the wounded 
on the Virginia shore, Colonel Hinks states in his report : 

"On the morning of the 22d, I dispatched Lieutenant 
Dodge of the Nineteenth Massachusetts with a flag of truce, 
to request of the Confederate commander permission to 
remove our wounded, of which numbers lay in view uncared 
for, on the Virginia shore. This was denied, except in the 
case of a few apparently mortally wounded. The remainder 
were taken prisoners. Permission for my surgeon to cross 
and treat the wounded was also refused, except uoon con- 
dition that he should remain a prisoner in their hands. 
Subsequently I dispatched Captain Vaughn of the Rhode 
Island Battery with another flag of truce, to obtain per- 
mission to bury the dead, which was acceded to, with the 
stipulation that no movement of troops thould be made 
from the island to the Maryland shore in retreat while bury- 
ing party was employed, and I dispatched Captain Vaughn 
with a party of ten men for that purpose, who remained 
until after dark, and succeeded in burying forty-seven bodies 
which he reported to be about two-thirds of the number 
lying upon the ground; but night coming on, he was unable 
to bury the remainder." 

A letter of Rev Christopher Cushing of North Brook- 
field, published in the Worcester Spy, gives us further 
particulars : 



BURIAL OF THE DEAD. 95 

"I know that our readers will be interested in an)- facts 
respecting the brave soldiers who fell in the recent engage- 
ment at Ball's Bluff, and particularly as to the burial of the 
dead. This sad service accidentally devolved on Captain T. 
F Vaughn of the Rhode Island Battery, who was assisted 
by twelve men, mostly of the Nineteenth Massachusetts 
Regiment. He found most of the bodies in the woods 
around the open field of which such frequent mention has 
been made in the papers. Two of the bodies were deprived 
of their clothing, with the exception of the shirts. This being 
contrary to the customs of war, the rebel officers expressed 
regret when they saw it, and said they wished it distinctly 
understood that this was contrary to their orders and did 
not meet with their approbation. In some other instances 
a coat or jacket was taken. As indicating what the rebels 
are destitute of, it is a significant fact that the hats and caps 
and boots and shoes were all taken, and the buttons ripped 
off from the clothing. There was no instance of a body 
having been mutilated by the enemy But everything which 
the soldiers carried in their pockets was taken out, and the 
search was so thorough that there were only three instances 
in which anything could be found to aid in identifying the 
bodies. On the pants of one was found the name of Captain 
Alden; under the bod)' of another there was an envelope 
superscribed James Douglas; into the top of the socks of 
another were beautifully inwrought the letters W H. H. L. 

"Forty-seven bodies were buried upon the battle-field, 
twelve were brought over to Harrison's Island, and almost 
twenty were left for the enemy to bury. The sad work was 
left thus unfinished, because the darkness of night interposed, 
and the next day Captain Vaughn was sick. So thoroughly 
had the battle-field been examined by the enemy that only 
two bodies of the rebel dead were found during the whole 
day, and only two of our wounded men; these were claimed 
as prisoners of war and sent to the hospital at Leesburg. 
Our dead were buried with their clothes on, laying the body 



g6 THE BATTLE OF BALL'S BLUFF. 

upon the side in trenches, usually two, three or four, side by 
side, never one upon another, and in the same trench there 
was in only one instance so many as eleven. The face was 
covered with leaves, and then the body was covered with 
earth to the depth of from three to five feet, and a stone was 
placed at the head and foot of each grave. So far as can be 
judged by the clothing about half of the dead on the battle- 
ground were of the Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment." 

Colonel Baker is said to have told Colonel Devens on 
this battle-field: "If I had two more such regiments as the 
Fifteenth I would force my way to Leesburg." In a letter 
of October 23, Chaplain Scandlin says: "Blood from the 
heart of our dear old commonwealth has been freely shed. 
The colonel has drawn the men to him by a bond never to 
be severed — has shown himself a man fit for the command. 
He led them. It was the same with Lieutenant-Colonel 
Ward, who was borne from the field grasping the sword he 
had shown his fitness to wield. We have now written in 
characters of blood our need of the rifles we used ever)' 
honorable effort to obtain. Had we possessed them, our 
men need not have been exposed nearly as much as they 
were." 

Of the conduct of the men of the regiment during the 
battle, Colonel Devens said: "They behaved most nobly 
during the entire day; every man did his duty; there was no 
flinching, no disobedience, no cowardice, and they fought to 
the very last with great cheerfulness." General McClellan 
reported: "Nothing has occurred in the war yet equal to the 
heroic conduct of the Fifteenth Massachusetts." To the 
commander he said: "Colonel Devens, in my next battle I 
want you to be with me." 

William S. Davis, in presenting colors to the Twenty- 
fifth Massachusetts Regiment, said of the Fifteenth at Ball's 
Bluff: "For the first time since hostilities broke out, Wor- 
cester County takes home to herself the great sorrow of war. 
Some of her most heroic spirits have departed, and deeply 
do we deplore their loss, the loss of brave, stead)-, trust- 



THE FIRST PARADE. g 1 / 

worthy men from our army — the loss of kind, faithful, true- 
hearted husbands and fathers, brothers and sons from our 
grief-stricken community." Nor was the courage of the 
regiment diminished as the days passed by and the missing 
men still failed to appear. The Washington dispatch to the 
New York Herald, dated October 28, gives the following 
account of the first parade after October 21 : 

"On Thursday evening, the Fifteenth Massachusetts 
Regiment held its first parade since the battle. The scene 
was impressive and touching. Less than half the numerical 
force of the regiment before the battle was present. Some 
companies marched into line with less than twenty men, 
many of them without arms, many without uniforms, but none 
without brave and manly hearts. After the parade the regi- 
ment was formed in square, and their noble and gallant Col- 
onel Devens made them an address, to which even a faithful 
verbal report would do injustice, for no description could 
reproduce the tender, subdued fervor with which the colonel 
first spoke, the electric sympathy by which his men were 
affected, or the earnest determination with which the ques- 
tion was asked and answered: 'Soldiers of Massachusetts, 
men of Worcester County, with these fearful gaps in your 
lines, with the recollection of the fearful struggle of Monday 
fresh upon your thoughts, with the knowledge of the bereaved 
and soul-stricken ones at home, weeping for those whom 
they will see no more on earth, with that hospital before 
your eyes filled with wounded and maimed comrades, I ask 
you now, whether you are ready again to meet the traitorous 
foe who are endeavoring to subvert our government, and are 
crushing under the iron heel of despotism the liberties of a 
part of our country? Would you go next week? Would 
you go tomorrow? Would you go this moment?' And a 
hearty 'yes' burst from every lip. No man who knows what 
that noble regiment did on the 21st, could doubt them. 
The colonel himself had stood their sponsor in the baptism 
of fire, and the question was a needless one; but as 'iron 
sharpeneth iron, so doth a man the face of his friend.' " 



CHAPTER IV 

THE LOSSES AT BALL'S BLUFF. 
October 21, 1861- 

In the camp at Poolesville, the days that followed the 
battle of Ball's Bluff were full of anxiety for missing com- 
rades, whose fate was as yet unknown. Little definite infor- 
mation was obtained for over two weeks. In one tent, where 
ten had been quartered, eight were missing. This was an 
extreme case, but from many tents half the men were gone. 
Some were known to have been killed. Their comrades had 
seen them fall and stood by them in their dying moments. 
Others were reported to have been buried by the detail 
under Captain Vaughn. November 5, the Potomac gave up 
the bodies of six of its victims. When the list of the Rich- 
mond prisoners arrived, together with the information about 
the dead and wounded which these prisoners were able to 
give, the casualty record was made as complete as it ever is 
likely to be. There were a few among the missing, however, 
whose fate is still unknown. 

The casualties given in the "Official Records of the War 
of the Rebellion" are: Fourteen killed, sixty wounded and 
two hundred and twenty-seven missing in action. The 
monthly report of the regiment for October, 1861, gives: 
Sixteen killed and two hundred and twenty-three missing in 
action. The Individual Record shows that at least twenty- 
nine of the regiment perished on the field or in the river, 
and that there were seven more of those "missing in action" 
who, there is good reason to suppose, were killed or drowned. 



CASUALTIES. 99 

This gives us thirty-six. If we add eight more, who were 
mortally wounded, we have a total of forty-four who lost 
their lives from the battle. Of these, thirty-eight were as- 
sured cases. This is the number given in Fox's "Regimen- 
tal Losses." 

The following is the list of the killed and mortally 
wounded : 

Company A — Corporal Andrew W Cowdrey, died Nov. 4. 

Company B — Corporal Charles D. Monroe, Corporal 
George C. Taylor, George F Benjamin, Ai D. Osborne (died 
Dec. 1), Elijah M. Scott, John K. Walker. 

Company C — George W Cutler, John Kirchner (supposed 
to have been drowned), Willard R. Lawrence, Luther G. 
Turner (died Nov. 1 ), William Walker (supposed to have 
been drowned), James G. Warner. 

Company D — Second-Lieutenant William J. Grout, Still- 
man L. Cummings, Charles H. Goff, John W Smith, John F 
Stafford. 

Company E— James Hilton, Joseph Jennison Jr. 

Company F — Sergeant Ferdinand Dexter, Francis Dick- 
ison, Sidney Smith. 

Company G — Alonzo R. Belknap (died Oct. 23), Elmer 
N. Newton, George G. Phillips, J. D. Sherman. 

Company H — James Allen, Lewis Hairl (died Nov. 5), 
Eugene Keith, William Mann (supposed to have been killed), 
David J. Messenger ( died at Leesburg from wounds, date un- 
known), George F Seaver, Samuel Sibley (died Nov 6). 

Company I — Sergeant Moses J. Warren (died Oct. 25), 
Thomas Cassidy. Thomas O'Connor (missing in action Oct. 
1, no further record), William Scott, Frederick Soder and 
James Stevens (both missing in action Oct. 21, no further 
record). 

Company K — Captain Moses W Gatchell, Cincinnatus A. 
Buffum, James Stringer, John Whalon. 

In addition to the mortally wounded, the Individual 
Record shows that seventy-five others were wounded more 



100 THE LOSSES AT BALL S BLUFF. 

or less seriously There were doubtless some, especially 
among the prisoners, whose wounds escaped record. Of 
those who were wounded, sixteen were discharged within a 
few months on account of disability, presumably from their 
wounds. 

Two hundred and fifteen is the total number of reported 
cases of capture. Of these, six died in prison in addition 
to those who were mortally wounded. Five died so soon 
after release that there is good reason to suppose that death 
resulted from disease incurred while in prison. There were 
besides thirty at least, probably more, who were discharged 
for disability before they rejoined the regiment. 

This gives a total casualty record of three hundred and 
thirty-four. If we add the twelve deaths of those who were 
or had been prisoners to the thirty-eight or forty-four previ- 
ously mentioned, we have forty-nine assured or fifty-six 
probable cases. There were doubtless a hundred men and 
probably more, permanently lost to the regiment from this 
battle. 

It is impossible to tell the story of all who died or to fitly 
eulogize their deeds and characters. Space is taken for men- 
tion of the commissioned officers, not because they were 
more worthy than the enlisted men who fell, but because 
their position gave them prominence. 

Moses W Gatchell, captain of Company K, was born in 
Woonsocket, Rhode Island, February 19, 1836. On account 
of his father's participation in the Dorr Rebellion in that 
commonwealth in 1844, the family was obliged to leave the 
state. Mr. Gatchell settled in Blackstone and his son, Moses 
W., attended the schools of that town. He afterwards spent 
a year at Wilbraham Academy. When his school life was 
finished, he went to work in his father's carriage-shop and 
continued in this business until the war opened. He took 
an early and active interest in politics and became a leader 
in the Douglas Democratic organization before he was of 
legal age. When the first call for enlistments was made at 



SECOND-LIEUTENANT JOHN WILLIAM GROUT. 101 

the request of citizens of all parties, he called a meeting to 
raise a company, having received authority from Governor 
Andrew to do so, and was the first man to sign the enroll- 
ment certificate in the town of Blackstone. As a soldier he 
showed a high sense of honor, un faltering courage and a 
deep devotion to the cause for which he fought. Though 
his period of service was so brief, yet it gave assured promise 
of a noble career as a soldier, had his life been spared. 

The extreme youth, the engaging personality, the free- 
handed generosity, the thorough knowledge of military 
tactics, the earnestness of purpose and the intense patriotism 
of Second-Lieutenant John William Grout, made him one of 
the best known, best loved and most highly respected offi- 
cers of the regiment. His loss therefore was felt with 
especial keenness by all the members of the Fifteenth and a 
halo of romance has gathered around his story. When, in 
later years, a camp of the Sons of Veterans was organized in 
Worcester, it was fittingly called the "Willie Grout Camp," 
as no nobler personification could be found than he, of the 
ideas which this order represents. 

He was born in the summer of 1843, an d was the only 
son of Jonathan Grout, Esq., of Worcester. As he grew up 
he entered the military department of the Highland School, 
in that city He became a captain of the cadets and was so 
proficient in military tactics that when the war broke out his 
services as a drill-master were in great demand. It was only 
after the most urgent entreaties that his parents could be 
brought to consent that he should enter the army. He 
became second-lieutenant of Company D, and upon him 
devolved much of the early drilling of that company. Col- 
onel Devens spoke of him as a model of behavior. 

At the battle of Ball's Bluff he exhibited great coolness 
and bravery. When the regiment retired to the river, he 
went over to the island with a boat load of the wounded and 
then returned to the Virginia bank. He asked Colonel Dev- 
ens: "Is there anything more that I can do?" He received 



102 THE LOSSES AT BALLS BLUFF. 

the reply, " Nothing but take care of yourself.' Then he 
started with some companions to swim the river, but before 
he reached the island he was struck by a ball. As he felt 
his strength leaving him, he said: "Tell Company D that I 
should have escaped, but I am shot." Those were the last 
words that he was known to have uttered. It was not until 
November 5, that his body was discovered, and then it was 
sent to his family in Worcester and laid to rest November 12 
with the most impressive ceremonies. 

The well-known song entitled, "The Vacant Chair," was 
written in his memory by Henry S. Washburn. 

" We shall meet, but we shall miss him, 
There will be one vacant chair; 
We shall linger to caress him, 

While we breathe our evening prayer. 

" When a year ago we gathered, 
Joy was in his mild blue eye, 
But a golden chord is severed, 
And our hopes in ruins lie. 

" At our fireside, sad and lonely, 
Often will the bosom swell, 
At remembrance of the story 
How our noble Willie fell ; 

" How he strove to bear our banner 
Through the thickest of the fight, 
And upheld our country's honor 

With the strength of manhood's might. 

" True, they tell us wreaths of glory 
Evermore shall deck his brow, 
But this soothes the anguish only, 
Sweeping o'er our heart-strings now. 

" Sleep to-day, O early fallen ! 
In thy green and narrow bed ; 
Dirges from the pine and cypress 
Mingle with the tears we shed. 

" We shall meet, but we shall miss him, 
There will be one vacant chair ; 
We shall linger to caress him, 

While we breathe our evening prayer." 



AT THE HOSPITALS. IO3 

In the diary of E. J. Russell we read: "I have visited 
all the hospitals since the wounded came in. Generally 
there was not so much apparent suffering, as most of the 
severely wounded were under the influence of opiates. In 
one corner of the room you would see a hand or a foot or a 
leg.- • Corporal Cowdrey of Company A died in the hos- 
pital last night. He has a young wife and two small children 
in Leominster. He was a man of great vivacity, and was 
constantly cheering those who were not half so badly 
wounded as himself. He was wounded in the throat first, 
and after he got over to the island he was wounded in the 
hip and the ball could not be found without endangering his 
life. It probably caused inward bleeding. He was not con- 
sidered in danger until a short time before his death. I saw 
a man in the hospital to-day who is in the last hours of life. 
He was wounded in the shoulder and the ball lodged near 
his heart and ruptured an artery They had cut into the 
back of his shoulder blade to try and take up a blood vessel, 
but found they could not without taking his life, and the 
artery was stuffed with lint to prolong his life. He was a 
man of great muscular power, and the loss of blood showed 
itself in white lips and glassy eyes and marble shoulders. 
He was a member of Company H (Lewis Hairl), the first 
wounded in the skirmish." That night, November 5, this 
man died. 

The following extracts are from the diary of Chaplain 
Scandlin: 

"October 31. Usual visits through the four hospitals. 
Patients doing exceedingly well. All they can need is pro- 
vided. The interest and sympathy of Massachusetts is met 
on every hand. There are delegates from every town con- 
nected with our regiment; so many callers that they fairly 
trouble us. There are two poor fellows marked with death. 
Turner of Company C was wounded in the right arm. Great 
loss of blood prevented immediate amputation, and he was 
left till among the last in the transportation from the river 



104 THE L"SSES at BALL'S BLUFF. 

up. Sibley of Company H was shot early in the morning, 
two bullets passing through each thigh. He fired four or 
five times after he was wounded, until a third bullet struck 
him in the right knee. When I got upon the island they 
commenced with him, and while they were extracting the 
bullets from his thigh, he said: 'Chaplain, will you find my 
wallet and put those bullets in? I shall want them some 
time.' From that time throughout he has been bright, 
cheerful and hopeful. 

"November I. Poor Turner passed from us about four p.m. 

"November 3. Visited all the hospitals, reading a 
portion of scripture, and making a prayer in each. 

"November 6. Attended funeral of Hairl and Sibley, 
both of Company H." 

But the hospitals soon became less crowded. By the 
first of November, some of the wounded and sick were 
allowed to go home on furloughs. Chaplain Scandlin took 
to Worcester County about twenty-five, when he returned 
November 2. Moreover, the wounded returned to camp, 
some with slings, some with canes and crutches, so that few 
were left in the hospital on account of wounds, when the 
winter set in. 

Lieutenant-Colonel George H. Ward was removed to the 
house of Dr. Brace, a resident physician, October 24. He 
occupied a large front room in company with Surgeon Bates. 
He had many callers from the camp and from those who 
came from home to visit their friends. His leg healed 
slowly, and it was thought for a time that a second am- 
putation would be necessary This, however, was avoided. 
On the 15th of December, he was able to go out of doors for 
the first time. About the 1st of January, he was able to act 
with Major Kimball and Captain Watson as a committee for 
the examination of the non-commissioned officers as regarded 
their knowledge of military affairs. He started for home 
January 28 and arrived January 31. On the 15th of February, 
he went "up town" for the first time. By the 20th, he had 



THE PRISONERS. 10$ 

opened a recruiting office at the Lincoln House, as he had 
been detailed for six months for this service. 

From the battle of Ball's Bluff to the close of the winter 
many of the members of the Fifteenth Regiment were held 
by the rebels as prisoners in Richmond and elsewhere. 
Captain Clark S. Simonds and several of his men had been 
captured in the second skirmish. Some had fallen into the 
hands of the enemy because they had been disabled by 
wounds. Others, who stayed upon the top or slope of the 
bluff to protect the passage of the troops across the river, as 
Lieutenant J. Evarts Greene, were either overpowered, or 
were taken prisoners while searching for their comrades in 
the twilight. But the greater number surrendered as the 
darkness came on, or during the evening, because they 
found themselves unable to resist or to escape from the 
enemy pressing more closely upon them. 

Several of the wounded had been carried in ambulances 
to Leesburg in the afternoon, and others were taken thither 
at the close of the battle or by the following morning in the 
same way 

Henry Greenwood of Company C thus describes his 
capture and removal to Leesburg: "At about eleven o'clock 
the enemy crept down the bluff, and before we knew they 
were near, we were startled by a discharge of firearms into 
the crowd. After we had surrendered, they fired another 
volley After they had demanded our arms, — although 
these were not in the hands of the men, as they had been 
thrown into the river, — they marched us up the hill to go to 
Leesburg. On the top of the hill, on the field of battle, we 
could see our dead, who lay as they had fallen or where they 
had been laid by their comrades. As we passed by the 
place where we had made our stand in the morning, we could 
see the enemy's dead. We were taken, as it seemed to me, 
by a roundabout way to the town. We passed through an 
artillery camp, and there we received a loaf of bread from a 
man who was carrying it to their pickets. This was very 



106 THE LOSSES AT UALL'S BLUFF. 

acceptable to us, as we had not had anything since Sunday 
noon. After arriving at Leesburg we saw a number of 
troops inside what we were told was the court-house yard." 

Those who had reached Leesburg at an earlier hour had 
been received by a great crowd of townspeople who were 
made frantic by the victory They were greeted by the 
cries: "We've got 'em this time!" "Oh, you infernal 
Yankees!" "Make way.. Jim; I want to see a Yank!" Captain 
J. Evarts Greene relates: "The officers on their arrival in 
Leesburg were conducted to the headquarters of General 
Evans, the rebel commander, where they were received with 
a fair show of courtesy, and a bottle of peach brandy was 
passed around. From this bottle, or some other, it seems 
that General Evans had copiously refreshed himself. After 
some loud and boastful, but not ill-humored talk, he required 
all the prisoners to sign a parole in which the)' engaged to 
report themselves at Richmond within a few days. All 
refused to sign it, whereupon Evans became coarsely abusive 
and threatening in speech and demeanor. Colonel Cogswell 
of the Tammany Regiment, who was among the prisoners 
and their senior officer, who had known Evans well in the 
"old army," responded in language quite as strong, and for a 
few moments a violent collision seemed imminent, but 
friends of each intervened and some measure of decorum 
was restored. It appeared afterward that General Evans 
apprehended an advance of General McClellan's right wing 
which might cut off his force from the rebel army and re- 
capture his prisoners, and thought it a clever device to save 
the officers, at least, by inducing them to undertake the 
journey to Richmond at their own expense and risk. He 
was so enraged by the failure of this scheme that he gave 
orders to Colonel Hunton, his second in command, to tie all 
the officers' hands behind them after their departure from 
his headquarters. But Colonel Hunton scorned that mean- 
ness, and refused to obey the order." 

About midnight all the prisoners, except a few who could 



JOURNEY TO RICHMOND. 10? 

nut be moved on account of their wounds, were marched to 
an old camping-ground some two miles from the town. From 
this point a few. who were unable to walk, and two-thirds of 
the officers, were provided with conveyances to Manassas 
Junction. Before the journey was over, however, mail)' of 
the officers had offered to exchange places with worn-out 
men and were marching in the ranks. The guard detail to 
conduct the prisoners to Manassas was commanded by 
Captain Otho R. Singleton of a Mississippi regiment. This 
officer, who before the war and after it represented one of 
the districts of his state in Congress, and during the war was 
a representative in the Confederate Congress, performed his 
task with perfect courtesy and kindness. So far as his 
orders would permit, he left nothing undone to alleviate the 
toil and suffering of that grievous march, and risked a repri- 
mand or worse censure by relaxing in favor of the prisoners 
the rigor of the orders given him. Captain Greene says 
that it gave him great satisfaction many years after to thank 
Captain Singleton for his kindness, and to assure him that 
all the prisoners in that forlorn company remembered him 
with sincere gratitude, respect and affection. Some years 
later still, in 1883, Captain Singleton returned to Captain 
Greene the sword which the latter had placed in his hands 
in token of surrender at the close of the Ball's Bluff fight. 

Greenwood's diary states: "We commenced our march 
about one o'clock Tuesday morning, and continued it until 
about six o'clock at night. It began to rain early in the 
morning, and it rained all day. Of all the walking that I 
ever saw, this was the worst, as we carried on our feet some 
four or five pounds of the sacred soil of Virginia. We 
halted several times during the day, but as the ground was 
so wet, we did not rest much. I got asleep several times as 
I was walking, and did not wake up until I had run against 
the man in front of me. We arrived near night at a flour 
mill on a small stream. We remained there about three- 
quarters of an hour. We then proceeded to the famous 



108 THE LOSSES AT BALT. S BLUFF. 

"Stone House" on Bull Run Creek, and camped near it on 
the hillside. This hill was part of the battle-field of Bull 
Run. We were furnished with corn-bread, the first food 
some had had since leaving the camp at Poolesville. After 
supper we lay down to sleep with our feet to huge fires, with 
nothing to cover us but our clothing and the canopy of 
heaven. I never slept any better than I did that night, 
though the ground was wet." 

And no wonder; for just think what these men had passed 
through! On Sunday night they had crossed the Potomac. 
All day Monday, they had been in the skirmish-line or on 
the battle-field. Then came the vain attempts to escape and 
twenty-four hours on the march through mud and rain, broken 
by brief periods of halting, where rest was impossible. Some 
of them had eaten nothing from dinner time on Sunday un- 
til Tuesday night. At day-break they started once more, 
and by ten o'clock had covered the seven miles which lay 
between the "Stone House" and Manassas Junction. They 
crossed Bull Run and went up the hill where the left flank 
of McDowell's army had stood. "On this hill, in front of the 
Henry house, one could see the graves of those who fell and 
were buried where they fell. One of the rebel guards 
exhibited the bitterness of his spirit by pulling a rail from 
a fence and prying up with it the remains of a Union 
soldier. A good many of our men were carried from Bull 
Run Creek to Manassas Junction on account of sickness 
and lack of shoes. After our names had been takerf, we 
were marched to the "Bull-Pen" used for Confederate 
deserters, and we remained in this place until dark. In the 
afternoon we were furnished with some bread, but Company 
C came off without their share.- .About nine o'clock we 
were ordered out and marched with the usual guard to the 
train which was near the pen. We were packed like so many 
beef creatures, and very closely at that, in freight cars, with 
the sides and ends knocked off. We were crowded so that 
when one turned over, all the rest were obliged to do the 



ARRIVAL AT RICHMOND. IOg 

same. In the morning we stopped at Hanover, fifteen miles 
from Richmond, and through the kindness of one of the 
guards we got some whiskey, which was very welcome, as 
we were completely chilled through. The guard also got us 
some crackers." 

The train arrived in Richmond about nine a. m. Crowds 
of people thronged the streets, all striving to get a sight of 
the Yankees. They were kept from the cars, but could be 
heard shouting. "There is one! See! there's a Yank!" "Send 
fifty of them to my plantation, and I will teach them how to 
pick cotton!" One old lady cried: "Why don't you send 
them down the river and make breastworks of them!" The 
soldiers on guard, however, treated their prisoners with the 
utmost courtesy- As the prisoners were marched along the 
street, the sidewalks, the balconies, and even the house-tops, 
were full of men, women and children. Sometimes a tri- 
umphant yell was heard and sometimes taunting voices cried: 
"I say, Yanks, how do you feel?" 

The main body of the men from the Fifteenth went to 
Alayo's tobacco factory, on Carey Street, where navy tobacco 
had been made. The building was about one hundred feet 
long and forty wide and four stories in height. From the 
upper story, where the men of the Fifteenth and Twentieth 
Massachusetts were confined, there was an extensive view of 
the valley of the James. At first two hundred and twenty- 
three men were confined on this floor in the single great 
room. Sergeant Goddard of Company D was put in charge 
of this room, and under his direction, measures were taken 
to secure as much cleanliness and comfort as possible. The 
men were served with a little bread and meat about noon, 
and at night with a cupful of soup and a little more bread. 
They made their bed on the hard floor and few were fortu- 
nate enough to possess blankets. Some used their shoes for 
pillows. Such was the fatigue of the men that they slept 
soundly even under these conditions. On the following day 
another detachment of Ball's Bluff prisoners, taken at a later 



110 THE LOSSES AT BALLS BLUFF. 

hour, or kept back on account of wounds or sickness, arrived 
in Richmond. Their experience on the road had been very 
similar to that of those who had preceded them. 

Friday, October 25, Mr. Greenwood wrote in his diary : 
"This morning long before the sun was up the men began to 
move about, and after that, there was no more sleep for the 
rest of the company- After washing us to the best of our 
ability, with our limited means, we were not disturbed until 
we were ordered to fall in for roll-call, which was the only 
thing which had sounded natural since our arrival. After roll- 
call we amused ourselves by looking out of the windows, 
playing cards and discussing the merits and demerits of our 
fight. In this discussion some of our high officers came in 
for their share of the blame. After breakfast the men had 
ample time for reflection. I thought of home and the dear 
ones that were left behind, not knowing whether we were 
dead or alive. We were fortunate enough to get hold of a 
sheet of writing paper, and I then wrote a letter to Mr. Bal- 
lard (publisher of the 'Saturday Courant,' Clinton), inform- 
ing him who were taken prisoners of war, and requested him 
to publish the same. After this letter had been written, we 
all felt better. We all began to realize our position and 
made up our minds to be as contented as we could." 

In some cases information had been received in regard to 
prisoners, before these letters arrived. The following story 
is told of Captain Simonds: "While marching to Ball's Bluff, 
Captain Simonds stepped on a rolling stone, which nearly 
threw him down, and in attempting to recover himself he ran 
the point of his sword into the side of his head, near the 
right ear, cutting a fearful gash, which bled profusely. When 
advised to return, he said: 'No; if there is to be a fight, I 
will be with my men.' He wore a white handkerchief tied 
about his head during the battle. A few days after the bat- 
tle the pickets were once more talking to each other across 
the river. One of Company B calls out: ' Hello, Johnny.' 
Back comes the response: ' Hello, Yank; what is it?' 'I say, 



HARDSHIPS. • III 

Johnny, lets quit firing at each other: it don't do any good.' 
'All right, Yank. I say, Yank, why didn't you uns stay over 
here the other day?' Answer: Well, Johnny, we found the 
southern climate a leetle too hot, so we concluded to come 
back and will see you later. I say, Johnny, got any prison- 
ers over there?' Answer: Yes, a few; most on 'em gone to 
Richmond. I say. you, we got one long Yankee captain, 
who had a white handkerchief tied round his head when we 
captured him. He's gone to Richmond.' AVas he wounded 
in the fight ?' ' No, he said he got the cut in his head, which 
was tied up with the white rag, before the battle began.' 
This long Yankee captain was, of course, Captain Simonds, 
absolutely identified by his white handkerchief, and one can 
imagine the relief it was to us to know that he was alive, for 
he had been reported in the New York papers among the 
killed." 

The regulations of the prisons required that the roll-call 
should begin at seven o'clock a. m. and that all lights except 
those of the hospitals should be extinguished at nine p. m. 
Sergeant YVirtz, who was afterwards in charge at Anderson- 
ville, officiated at the roll-call. John H. Prichard of Com- 
pany B writes: "Only two meals per day were allowed. 
Breakfast about nine a. m. and supper about five p. m. or 
later. A few potatoes and some rice, without salt, and cab- 
bage, were served occasionally. Worms in the rice, and beef 
whose 'offence smelt rank to heaven,' were among the com- 
mon ingredients of our living. We were not allowed to 
approach the windows under penalty of being shot by the 
guard. Seven men were shot dead in various Richmond 
prisons, and several wounded, for this criminal offence. 
The room which I was in was fired into twice, but fortunately 
no one was injured. We slept on the bare floor for six weeks 
of the coldest part of the season, with no covering but our 
clothes which we happened to have on at the time of our 
capture. The facilities for keeping clean being entirely in- 
adequate, and we having no change of clothing, all were soon 
covered with vermin which abounded in the prison." 



112 THE LOSSES AT HALL S BLUFF. 

Sunday, October 27, Henry Greenwood wrote: " Some are 
reading their testaments; some, books or papers, and others 
are writing. My thoughts wander back to home, and it 
seems as if I could see the people in the streets, wending 
their way to the various places of worship, and could hear 
the prayers which would go up from the pulpits in our little 
town for our welfare and safety Our day ended with the 
singing of hymns and patriotic songs." 

The men were allowed to purchase newspapers and such 
articles of food and clothing as their purses permitted. As 
few of the men had carried any considerable amount of 
money with them into the battle, the power of purchase was 
very limited at first. The boys hold in grateful remem- 
brance the fact that Colonel Devens, mindful of them in 
their extremity, sent five hundred dollars to Captain John 
M. Studley to be used for their benefit. As soon as letters 
from the prisoners stating their situation and their needs 
were received by their friends in the North, measures were 
taken as promptly as possible to relieve them. The first 
news directly from the prisoners was published in the Wor- 
cester papers on November 18. The first letter came to 
Fitchburg, November 20, from Captain Clark S. Simonds. 
The Clinton paper published a letter from Henry Green- 
wood the same week, and mentioned one from Captain 
Henry Bowman. At Fitchburg, a meeting was called on 
the very da)- the letter was received. The appeal of Captain 
Simonds was read. Speaking of the eighteen men who had 
been captured from his company, he had written, "God bless 
them; they are all brave men and true, and deserve to be 
cared for." And they were cared for. Seven hundred 
dollars was raised and a large amount of clothing, blankets 
and other necessaries were forwarded to Fortress Monroe by 
a special agent. A letter, written by Captain Simonds 
December 15, says: "Your letter bearing the date Fortress 
Monroe, November 25, came to hand on the 13th of Decem- 
ber. I had previously received the clothing on December 



RELIEF FROM HOME. I 1 3 

3. It is a fact of which I shall ever speak with pride, that 
Fitchburg was the first and the only town as yet to aid her 
prisoners and Massachusetts the only state. Since the 
clothing came from Fitchburg, clothing of all kinds, enough 
for three hundred and fifty men has arrived, sent by the 
state authorities of Massachusetts for the relief of her men 
now here in captivity, placing them in comfort in this 
respect for the winter." 

It was not long, however, before an abundant supply for 
all was sent from the various towns in the county The 
statement of the Worcester Soldiers' Relief Committee is 
given as a sample of the whole: "December 2;, forwarded 
from the employment room to the members of the Fifteenth 
Regiment now prisoners at Richmond, Virginia, eight boxes, 
three of which were packed by the Soldiers' Relief Commit- 
tee, containing packages from the friends of the prisoners; 
also thirteen blankets, six quilts, ten shirts, twenty-five pairs 
socks, ten handkerchiefs, thirty bags sewing materials con- 
tributed by the committee, together with donation of cloth- 
ing, chequer-boards, combs, stationery, towels, soap, hand- 
kerchiefs, from different individuals; one box from lunatic 
hospital, containing sixty-five pairs mittens, forty-three 
woolen shirts, fifty-six pairs of drawers; one box from Leom- 
inster; one box from New Worcester; two boxes from in- 
dividuals." One soldier writes: "We are now better clothed 
than the men in the Confederate army, they being read)' to 
purchase any garment we have to sell." 

Henry Greenwood wrote to the " Saturday Courant" (Clin- 
ton), December 6: "Since my last letter to you, we have 
been removed from the building (Robert Mayo's navy to- 
bacco factory) in which we were at first confined, to Taylor's 
building adjoining, in which the balance of the Leesburg 
prisoners were confined. With this change all the Fifteenth 
Regiment are together. The Fifteenth and Twentieth oc- 
cupy one floor. There are two hundred and eight of us on 
this one floor and seventy on the upper floor, making two 



114 THE LOSSES AT BALLS BLUFF. 

hundred and seventy-eight in all. Some are engaged in 
making rings, shields, hearts, napkin rings, stilettos, etc., out 
of bones. There are some very fine rings elaborately carved. 
There is a great demand for bones. Others are engaged in 
reading (such reading matter as they can get hold of), play- 
ing cards, checkers or draughts, back-gammon and dominoes, 
most of them manufactured by the men. Since our removal 
here we have not been so closely confined to the building, as 
it is enclosed by a small yard which we can use during the 
day. Since we have been here, we have been complimented 
as being the best behaved lot that has been brought to Rich- 
mond. I will give you the notice: 

'"The Best of a Bad Lot. — -The Confederate prison 
authorities give credit to the Yankee prisoners of the 
Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment of being the most 
cleanly,, decent and orderly of all brought here. It is said 
that since their incarceration they have acknowledged the 
obligation due decency and a proper regard for their sit- 
uation, by behaving themselves as civilized human beings, 
and regularly fumigating and washing up the apartments 
occupied by them.' — Richmond Examiner. 

"We have preaching every Sabbath. The preacher is 
Rev. J. F Mines, the chaplain of the Second Maine Regi- 
ment, who was captured at Bull Run. The choir is made 
up of our men. When we first arrived here, we had to lie on 
the hard floor, but now we have been provided with ticks by 
the Confederate government." 

The rebel authorities offered work with good wages to all 
the Northern prisoners who were shoemakers or tailors, 
especially to those who were wire-drawers, but notwith- 
standing the irksomeness of their life, not a man could be 
found who would do anything to help the Confederates. 
The news of Union victories and defeats was followed with 
no less interest by the men in prison than by their comrades 
in the camp. Rumors of exchange were discussed with 
great eagerness, and the probabilities of transfer from Rich- 



PRISON LIFE AMONG THE OFFICERS. I I 5 

mond to prisons further south was a frequent theme for con- 
versation. After letters began to be received, the coming of 
the mail became the greatest excitement in the lives of 
many of the prisoners. The news from home and from 
friends in camp was shared with all who were interested. 
The replies to these letters were prolonged much beyond 
the usual length of epistles. 

The commissioned officers had quarters by themselves. 
From the Fifteenth Regiment there were Captains Studley, 
Bowman, Simonds and Rockwood, and Lieutenants Greene, 
Hooper and Vassall. These were confined with forty-three 
other officers on the first floor of a tobacco-house owned by 
Liggon & Co. This floor was sixty-five and three-fourths 
feet by forty-five. It was divided by the tobacco-making 
machinery, which extended lengthwise, into two rooms, each 
about twenty-five feet wide by sixty-five long. In each were 
cot beds, and in one were mess-tables and benches. Gas 
was freely provided for cooking and lighting. The officers 
had three meals per day, but were obliged to provide them- 
selves everything except bread, beef and soup. In general 
the officers were much better treated than the privates, and 
with their larger personal means, were able to provide fairly 
well for themselves. At times these officers entered into 
some lark with the abandon of college boys. They es- 
pecially enjoyed guying their guards when provoked to it. 

While in general the officers in charge of the prisoners 
at Ligeon's Tobacco House were courteous in their relations 
to the captives, there was one, Emack by name, who was 
boastful and arrogant. As he asserted that he had killed 
three Union brigadiers with his own hands, he was known by 
the officers as "Yankee Killer," and as "Baltimore Plug 
Ugly" by the privates. It was customary to order the lights 
out at nine o'clock, and this order was usually courteously 
given and cheerfully obeyed. One night, Emack, in his 
overbearing way, gave the command, and one light at which 
some officers were seated was not attended to as promptly 



Il6 THE LOSSES AT BALLS BLUFF. 

as it might have been. Emack soon bawled out his order a 
second time, adding an oath. Still he was not obeyed. He 
then ordered one of his own subordinates, a raw recruit from 
the mountain district, to put out the gas. Now this man 
was not used to gas and did not know how to go to work. 
Emack told him to turn it off. On one of the two arms of 
the gas-fixture a tobacco-pipe had been fixed for aid in 
cooking. One of the prisoners pointed to this, and the 
green soldier began turning it round to the great amusement 
of those confined in the room. Finally Emack himself came 
forward and with a string of oaths told the prisoners to turn 
the gas off. No notice was taken of him. He turned it off 
himself, and started to go back in the dark, down the long 
room. One of the benches from the side was thrust across 
his path without noise. He tumbled over it and lay sprawl- 
ing on the floor. With muttered curses he rose and started 
once more. Some one began to whistle Yankee Doodle in 
time to his step. He stopped ; the whistling stopped. He 
started again; the whistling began. At last, in despair, he 
went forward to the music. When he reached the guard- 
room, the prisoners could hear his cursing, and responded by 
Union songs. The next day their special privileges were 
cut off. Taken as a whole the life of these officers must 
have had some redeeming features, notwithstanding the 
shadow of anxiety that hung over them and the irksomeness 
of days devoid of duties. 

There were two of the officers, however, who enjoyed 
their comparative comfort but a short time. General John 
H. Winder, commanding the Department of Richmond, 
visited the prison with his staff, November 10. He came to 
execute an order from the Confederate War Department, 
which demanded that fourteen prisoners should be selected 
as hostages for Smith of the Savannah privateer, condemned 
to death, and for thirteen other prisoners of war, captured at 
sea and held for trial as pirates. These fourteen men were 
to be treated in the same manner as the so-called pirates 



THE HOSTAGES. 1 1 7 

were treated at the North. In this number as finally com- 
pleted November 12, were Captains George W Rockwood 
and Henry Bowman. They bade farewell to their comrades 
November 14. Seven of these prisoners were confined in 
one cell in the Richmond Jail. This was very dimly lighted. 
The) - were furnished the usual jail rations, bacon and corn- 
bread. The jailer, a coarse ruffian, read their private letters 
before delivering them. The felons, white and black, con- 
fined in the same jail, filled the building with a most nauseat- 
ing stench. The yard was used for whipping negroes, and 
their yells of agony were frequently heard. Seven of their 
fellow-officers, who had been left behind at Liggon's, sent a 
petition to the Confederate War Department, begging that 
they might be allowed to go to the jail as substitutes for 
those who were there confined, and who were suffering from 
increasing ill-health. Among those thus petitioning were 
Lieutenants I. Harris Hooper and J. Evarts Greene. The 
petition was not granted. The following letter was sent by 
Captain Bowman to Adjutant-General Schouler: 

"Richmond, Va., Nov. 27, 1861. 
"My Dear General: An opportunity having been afforded 
of sending letters, I shall avail myself of writing to you. I 
presume you have been apprised of our situation. We are 
all (seven of us) confined in one cell, size eleven by seven- 
teen feet. Our mess is made up of Colonels Cogswell and 
Wood of New York, Colonel Lee and Major Revere of the 
Massachusetts Twentieth, Captain Keffer of Philadelphia, 
and Captain Rockwood and myself of the Fifteenth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment. We were transferred from the tobacco 
warehouse, where we had been confined since the battle of 
Leesburg, a fortnight ago. Standing as we do for these 
privateersmen, we are treated the same as prisoners charged 
with crime. What will be the result of all this, I do not 
know. I trust all will be well; but, 

' If we are marked to die, we are enough 
To do our country loss; and if to live, 
The fewer men, the greater share of honor.' 



Il8 THE LOSSES AT BALLS Li LUFF. 

" I am fully confident that our good people will do all 

within their power, and in so believing, I shall patiently 

await the issue. 

" Hexry Bowman, 

"Capt. Co. C, Fifteenth Reg't." 

January 5, these prisoners were allowed to leave the jail 
and return to their old quarters. There had just been a great 
excitement at Liggon's, because the building was on fire. 
An immense crowd had gathered, because a report had 
spread over the city that "the Yankees had set fire to their 
prison and were trying to escape." The fire had been extin- 
guished. "At this moment," writes one of the prisoners, 
we were startled by three loud cheers, given with a will by 
the privates in an adjacent warehouse. We saw the hostages 
approaching the prison. In a few moments they entered. 
Can we ever forget the scene that ensued? It cannot be 
described. It's hearty gladness would have repaid, almost, 
for a lifetime of suffering." The news of the release of the 
privateersmen in the North soon gave assurance that the 
danger of retaliation was over. 

We have the statement of one of the prisoners in Rich- 
mond that when he was sick nothing was done for him, that 
the rebels had no medicine except turpentine, of which they 
gave two doses a day in fever cases. When the sick were 
sent to the hospitals, however, they received much better 
care than in the regular prisons. The food was of good 
quality and well cooked. Coffee, tea and sometimes mo- 
lasses and milk were added to the bread, beef and soup. 
Camp cots were provided, eighty to a room. The buildings 
were kept in good order, as the attendants were prisoners of 
war. There were twelve nurses, eight in the day time and 
four at night for one hundred and sixty patients. There was 
only one physician for this number, but two Federal surgeons 
were for a time allowed to help him. The body vermin 
brought from the prisons gave most serious trouble in 
the hospitals. Typhoid fever was the prevalent disease and 



RELEASE. Ilg 

there were many fatal cases. Corporal Charles A. Lamb of 
Company A died in December; Thomas N. Woodward of 
Company C, November 25; Sergeant Charles W. Upham of 
Company D, December 14; Lyman Phipps of Company E, 
November 12; R. A. Ellis of Company G, December 25; 
William F Converse of Company I, date unknown. 

It must be remembered, too, that some of the wounded 
were kept back in the hospital at Leesburg. Among these 
was Ai D. Osborne of Company B. He was shot through 
the knee at Ball's Bluff. He and his comrade, Thomas P 
Taylor, were carried to Leesburg together. As he was about 
to be removed from the ambulance he stopped the attendant 
and said: "Take Taylor out first; he is wounded worse than 
I am." Osborne's leg was amputated close to the body. 
Taylor said to him, " I am sorry for you." He replied, "Yes, 
I know you are very sorry, Tom, but what will poor mother 
say?" After a moment of thought he added: " Let us be 
men and call it a misfortune." He died December 1, 1861, 
and was buried at Leesburg. David J. Messenger, Company 
H, and Charles D. Monroe of Company B, also died there 
under amputation. A considerable number of the regiment 
remained in Leesburg as late as December, 1861. 

Eleven of the members of the Fifteenth Regiment con- 
fined in the hospital at Richmond were released on parole 
in January. 1862. Some of these were carried home on beds. 
These paroled men reached Worcester County January 24. 
Captain John M. Studley of Company D writes: "Captain 
Clark S. Simonds, Company B, Lieutenant I. Harris Hooper, 
Company K, and myself were exchanged February 18, 1862, 
and left Richmond early in the forenoon of the 19th on a 
flag-of-truce boat. We met the United States boat the next 
day, and prisoners of war were transferred. I was exchanged 
for a Captain Luke of North Carolina. There was quite a 
large number of privates in the party, both of the Fifteenth 
and Twentieth Massachusetts Regiments, as well as some 
others. All, I suppose, were regularly exchanged." Most of 



120 THE LOSSES AT liALL S BLUFF. 

this portion of the prisoners rejoined the regiment before the 
beginning of the Peninsular campaign. As the morning re- 
ports for February and March are lost, and some of the com- 
pany books cannot be found, the number who then returned 
from missing in action cannot be given. 

On the 22d of February, all the members of the Fifteenth 
who were left in Richmond heard with unbounded joy that 
an order had been issued paroling all the Federal prisoners 
then in that city At ten o'clock the clerk of the prison 
where the officers were confined appeared with a written 
parole, which was signed by the officers and afterwards by 
the men. This parole read: "We, the undersigned, in the 
service of the United States, prisoners of war, pledge our 
word of honor that we will not, by arms, information, or oth- 
erwise, during the existence of hostilities between the United 
States and the Confederate States of America, aid or abet 
the enemies of the said Confederate States or any of them 
in any form or manner until released or exchanged. Given 
in Richmond this 22d day of February, 1862." 

As Captain J. Evarts Greene relates: "During the day a 
joyous excitement pervaded the prisons and every room 
was a scene of cheerful confusion. As all the prisoners had 
an ample, many of them a superabundant supply of clothing, 
much that they did not care to take away was thrown from 
the windows and eagerly scrambled for by the crowd, chiefly 
negroes, which had gathered in the street. The day. Febru- 
ary 22, was that of the inauguration of Jefferson Davis as the 
president of the Confederate States, and it may be presumed 
that most of the people who were strongly attached to the 
Confederacy were occupied with the speech-making and 
other demonstrations attendant upon that function. How- 
ever that may be, when the guards were withdrawn from the 
prison doors and the prisoners marched out, they found the 
streets lined on both sides with a continuous crowd of peo- 
ple, white and black, who cheered them lustily, and as the 
column marched in well ordered ranks down the street, sing- 



THE SALISBURY PRISONERS. 121 

ing the familiar patriotic songs, every song was answered 
with applause, apparently by the unanimous voice of that 
great concourse of southern people, whose show of enthusi- 
asm and loyalty could scarcely have been exceeded, even in 
Worcester." 

These prisoners went by boat to Newport News and 
reached Fortress Monroe February 23, after four months of 
captivity Before the end of the month about seventy of 
them had returned to Worcester County where they were 
joyfully welcomed by their friends. 

There had been a considerable number of prisoners trans- 
ferred to Salisbury, North Carolina, in December. Their 
story is best told in the words of John H. Prichard, one of 
the number: 

"On the 22d of December, an order was issued from the 
C. S. A. War Department to transfer the prisoners taken at 
Bull Run and Manassas, and the citizens under arrest, to 
Salisbury, North Carolina. After they had transferred the 
above, there was accommodation for about one hundred and 
seventy-five more men at Salisbury, and there being nearly 
that number on the floor where I was confined, we were sent 
on the 24th of December, to fill up the desired complement. 
Of the Fitchburg company there were but three members 
able to go, out of four in that room — George S. Gilchrist, 
Maynard of Winchendon, and myself. J. L. Moody, being 
very sick, was left behind. We bade farewell to our com- 
rades, and took the cars under guard of a company of Geor- 
gia soldiers on return to their state. At Petersburg, we 
changed cars for Raleigh, where we arrived on Christmas 
morning. This day being a holiday, and the special train 
not running, we remained at Raleigh until the next day 
Early the next morning we started for Salisbury, where, 
after a long and tiresome ride, we arrived at about seven p. m. 
We were received by a deputation of the guard and marched 
to the garrison, an enclosure of about thirteen acres, contain- 
ing a large cotton factory and other buildings fitted up as a 



122 THE LOSSES AT HALLS BLUFF. 

prison. There were about one hundred prisoners already in 
confinement there, taken in the early part of the war, from 
the steamship Union, wrecked on Bogue Island, and from 
three or four prizes taken by the enemy's privateers. These, 
our fellow prisoners, furnished us with some supper and gave 
us a welcome. There were no facilities for cooking the food 
for so many, and it was nearly midnight before we were all 
served. The next day. and in fact for several days, we were 
obliged to cook rations for two hundred men, in a common 
range, with not nearly enough boilers or other utensils. Af- 
ter a few days a second cooking range was procured, and we 
got along better, but even then we had to cook day and 
night. 

"After enduring this as long as possible, our numbers 
augmenting every day by the accession of prisoners, we took 
hold ourselves and built ovens, and set nine large kettles of 
twenty or thirty gallons each, so that we could have raised 
bread, and save much labor, we having had nothing but bis- 
cuit, resembling a solid compound of putty and lead, pre- 
viously. The kitchen was built on at the back of the 
factory, and connected with the various floors by a dumb 
waiter The building was of four stories, we occupying the 
third until the prisoners sent to New Orleans and Tuscaloosa 
returned on their way home as far as Salisbury, when we 
were transferred to the fourth story, which was much the 
pleasantest and healthiest. We were very closely confined 
from the first, and until the surgeons had repeatedly repre- 
sented to the authorities that we should all die of scurvy 
and other diseases if not allowed more exercise and air, we 
we not allowed to remain in the yard over five minutes at a 
time. We did finally obtain from these representations the 
use of about five or six acres of ground, including a grove of 
huge oak trees, for a playground. After a few weeks fresh 
provisions gave out, and all the meat issued was the rank, 
oily, smoked bacon and the soup from the same, thickened 
with rice an;l rorn-meal, this being our unvarying food, and 



THE PAROLED. 123 

having but one way of cooking, viz: boiling. Nearly every- 
one of our number was made sick with jaundice and scurvy. 

"The Confederate surgeon was a well-meaning man, but 
rather ignorant and conceited. In fact, we had to do our 
own doctoring as a general thing, according to our own 
judgment. Our mortality at Salisbury was about one-fifth 
that of the secesh who guarded us — out of fifteen hundred 
prisoners, on an average of three months, nine died; out of 
five hundred guards, average of three months, seventeen 
died, showing conclusively that in spite of confinement, bad 
food, and want of fresh air and exercise, "Yankees" can 
stand the climate and hardships of the South better than the 
Southerners themselves. 

"The weary months dragged on, and finally an order came 
for our release, and we were sent off in squads of two or 
three hundred at a time, in alphabetical order, by way of 
Raleigh and Goldsboro', to Tarboro' on the Tar river. From 
here we proceeded down the Tar river in flat-boats, towed 
by a little tug-boat, the Col. Hill, to Washington, N. C, 
where we were received by General Burnside. When tha 
prisoners saw the old United States flag three rousing cheers 
burst forth, and the happiest day of our lives was when we 
stepped on board the U. S. boat and felt we were FREE. 
General Burnside shook hands with each of us, and wel- 
comed us back, and cheer after cheer from the boys on the 
shore rang out on the air, welcoming us back to life and 
liberty. From Washington we went by boat to Newbern, 
where we remained until all the prisoners arrived, when we 
left for Hatteras Inlet, and there taking an ocean steamer 
we came to Governor's Island." The paroled men left 
Salisbury May 22 and arrived home about June I. 

It was a long time before some of the paroled prisoners 
were exchanged, and this gave rise to considerable trouble, 
especially in respect to the officers. Although this matter 
belongs to a later date in our history, yet unity of subject 
requires that it should be treated here. As month after 



124 THK i-°s sES AT hall's bluff 

month passed by and the regiment suffered from lack of 
officers, it was but natural that a demand should have been 
made for the required number to be furnished. It was 
desired by the regiment that the old officers should return, 
if possible, but if they could not secure an exchange, it was 
felt that they should resign in order that their places might 
be filled. Captain Henry Bowman of Company C resigned 
August 6. He became colonel of the Thirty-sixth Regiment 
Massachusetts Volunteers. He commanded a brigade in 
Mississippi in the summer of 1863. From February, 1864, to 
the end of the war, he served as assistant quartermaster 
United States volunteers. 

Captains Rockwood and Greene and Lieutenant Vassall 
were anxious for exchange and return to active service, and 
used every available means to bring about that end. As 
they did not succeed, Captain J. E. Greene resigned. He 
had been made captain January 17. 1862, while in prison. 
After he retired from the army he was for many years, as the 
editor of the Worcester Spy, at the head of the press of the 
county. He is at the present time postmaster of Worcester, 
Second-Lieutenant Bernard B. Vassall was promoted to first- 
lieutenant October 31, 1862, but refused commission. He was 
later connected with the postal service of the United States, 
then was for a time in the office of the Board of Public 
Charities in Boston, and then engaged in private business. 
Captain Rockwood rejoined the Fifteenth January io, 1863, 
but resigned January 26, 1863, for reasons connected with 
his absence from the regiment. He served at a later date in 
the Fourth Heavy Artillery. Thus, by the battle of Ball's 
Bluff the regiment lost six of its line officers, all men who 
gave promise of noble service. 

July 14, 1862, the following notice appeared in the Wor- 
cester Spy: "Paroled prisoners belonging to the Fifteenth 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers are hereby notified that 
official orders have been promulgated from the war depart- 
ment, ordeimg them to report immediately at Annapolis 



THE PAROLED. 125 

Aid." The Salisbury prisoners encamped at Fort Ells- 
worth. Up to that time these paroled prisoners had been 
at home. As the regiment had been allowed to fill up its 
ranks without regard to them, some had given up all 
expectation of returning to service and had entered upon 
their usual vocations. When they obeyed the order and 
went to Annapolis, they found no arrangements had been 
made for them. In the course of a week, however, the men 
of the Fifteenth were organized under their officers who 
were with them. Captain Rockwood had charge of the pris- 
prisoners from New England as a whole, Captain Greene of 
the prisoners from the Fifteenth. No duty was required of 
the men except to answer roll-call three times a da)' 
With idleness came disorder and turmoil. The division 
under Rockwood was the only part of the camp in which 
there was any semblance of discipline. Most of these 
paroled prisoners remained until December, 1862. During 
that month the Fifteenth gained fifty-nine from missing in 
action. Thirty-one others came straggling in from hospitals 
or elsewhere during the four succeeding months, and it was 
not until the Spring of 1863 that the balance sheet for the 
losses at Ball's Bluff could be made complete. 



CHAPTER V 

AT POOLESVILLE— IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 
October 21, 1861 — March 23, 1862. 

The month which followed the battle of Ball's Bluff was 
a period of hard work for the survivors of that contest. 
The wounded demanded care. The knapsacks of the miss- 
ing had to be examined and the property of the government 
accounted for. The duties of the absent devolved upon 
those who were present. The lack of officers, both com- 
missioned and non-commissioned, was most seriously felt. 
Lance sergeants and corporals were appointed to fill 
vacancies, but the few line officers on duty were obliged to 
do, as far as it was possible, the work of the whole number. 
It was a period of much discussion concerning the events 
and conduct of the battle. Each one had his own story to 
tell, his own inquiries to make. It was clearly realized that 
the sacrifice had been needless and that some one had 
blundered. Was it General McClellan? Was it General 
Stone? Was it Colonel Baker? Was it Colonel Cogswell ? 
It was a period of many visitors from the North, who came 
to find out the condition of the men of the different com- 
panies, in order that they might report to their friends at 
home. Many and long were the letters written and messages 
sent by those who had escaped from the battle. It was a 
period of great inconvenience and sometimes of considerable 
suffering from the loss of personal effects, especially of 
clothing. E. J. Russell writes: "Every plate, cup, knife and 
fork which the bows took with them was lost, and the 



THANKSGIVING DAY. 12J 

quartermaster has been unable to get them any more. 
Blankets are short, also. While I am writing it rains, and 
the wind blows from the northeast like a hurricane, and 
some of the tents have blown down. Such times as this 
make me a little homesick — a cold rain and no fire. Some 
of the folks who stay at home, when they ought to be at 
the front, would think it rather tough to get up in the morn- 
ing when it rains in torrents, cold, northeast wind, mud six 
inches deep, impossible to make a fire outdoors, no hot 
coffee or tea, hard bread, teeth worn down to the gums, 
overcoat wet, everybody cross, perhaps the order comes to 
turn out for some inspection, get your gun wet, take 
three hours to clean it up, go on guard, no sleep for twenty- 
four hours. See what it is to serve your country." An 
appeal from Colonel Devens for relief was promptly 
answered by the various towns of Worcester County, and 
through boxes sent from home in addition to the stores the 
government provided, by the middle of November the men 
had "everything they needed." 

A letter of Lieutenant Derby's gives us an account of 
Thanksgiving Day (November 21 )in camp: "The past week, 
although undisturbed by any warlike movement, has been 
one of considerable animation in 'Camp Foster.' On Mon- 
day evening Colonel Devens returned from a fortnight's fur- 
lough spent in Washington and Massachusetts. The grati- 
fied eagerness with which the word was passed that 'the 
Colonel had got back,' even without his own confession, 
proves that this is in reality his home. One of the fruits of 
his labors while absent is before us already — four hundred 
good rifles, to take the place of our miserable smooth-bores. 

"Tuesday evening brought another welcome arrival, the 
paymaster, with brass-bound chests, little but weighty. A 
number of the wounded, who had been waiting for their two 
months' wages, were immediately paid off, and next morn- 
ing set out, a happy party, for their homes in Massachusetts. 
Their furloughs range from two to six weeks; and as the 



u8 at poolesvili.e. — in the Shenandoah valley. 

four wagon loads rattled off toward Adamstown, many a 
man regretted that he too did not get a bullet, so that he 
could spend Thanksgiving at the homestead. But we could 
not get along without Thanksgiving in some shape; and con- 
sidering our circumstances, the celebration came very nearly 
up to the Puritan standard. Colonel Devens manifested his 
fatherly interest in the happiness of his men by presenting 
them fifty dollars toward buying a good dinner, and the all- 
important roast turkey was not wanting. There was one 
feature of the day that I take especial pride in mentioning, 
as indicating the material of which the regiment is composed. 
It is that not a man was intoxicated during the whole day 
What other regiment of eight hundred men, with pockets 
full of money, and plenty of whiskey within reach, can boast 
of so much self-respect and regard for their officers as not to 
yield in a single instance? You can depend on such men 
everywhere. We have enjoyed another week of Indian sum- 
mer, which ended last night, with heavy rain." 

E. J. Russell, who was on picket duty Thanksgiving day 
— for the picket line along the Potomac had been renewed 
shortly after the battle — wrote: "We are quartered in a barn 
without any roof, in which we have a fire and are allowed to 
cook our own tea and coffee, and so long as it is fair weather 
we are all right. Some are building thatched shanties 
to keep off the rain. To-day is fair and tolerably warm, so 
we are going to have a Thanksgiving in earnest. Just this 
minute they have shot two pigs. We are going to have roast 
pig for dinner and they are getting up a hard-bread plum 
pudding." 

There were many devices for keeping warm as the weather 
grew colder. W J. Coulter reported: "Some of the boys 
have bought small stoves for their tents, while others have 
dug fireplaces. These fireplaces are queer contrivances. A 
square hole is dug near the center of the tent, with a trench 
leading to the back side which is covered over with flat 
stones. Over the outer end of the trench two or three bar- 



NEW RIFLED MUSKETS. I 20, 

rels are placed, one on top of the other, in which dirt is 
packed, leaving a small hole in the center about the size of 
a stovepipe for the smoke to escape. With the help of these 
fireplaces we manage to keep ourselves quite comfortable." 
An order, given December 5, that commanding officers should 
be made personally responsible for the destruction of rails 
by their respective commands, gives a hint of the source of 
some of the fuel used. On account of the crude arrange- 
ments for chimneys, several of the tents were burned. 

The men were not lacking entirely in amusement. In 
one of the tents flying squirrels were kept; in another an 
owl. One tells of a possum hunt.' Cards were not unknown. 
Practical jokes and all kinds of "sells" were enjoyed, The 
universal darkey was the source of unlimited fun. The com- 
ing of the mail never failed to awake interest. Occasionally 
there were military spectacles. December 11, for instance, 
there was a drill of about five thousand cavalry and artillery 
in front of the lines of the Fifteenth. Above all, there was 
the good comradeship. There were doubtless many who, 
laying aside all question of patriotism, would have been un- 
willing to change back to the old dull life at their work-bench 
or on the farm. 

During the last week in November, as already noticed in 
a letter of Lieutenant Derby's, new Springfield rifled mus- 
kets were received for the regiment, and four hundred and 
sixty smooth-bores were sent back to the master of ordnance. 
This was a source of great delight to the soldiers, for the 
arms of many of them were lying at the bottom of the Poto- 
mac, and those who had smooth-bore muskets looked upon 
these as one cause of the defeat at Ball's Bluff, and did not 
care to risk themselves with them longer. These rifles were 
given out December 5. The men found it much easier to 
drill with them. 

Early in December, under command of Major Kimball, 
forty-five men were detailed from the regiment for the pur- 
pose of building a small fort or block-house capable of 



130 AT l'OOLESVILLE. — IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

mounting at least three guns, which was to be the headquar- 
ters of the pickets along the river. Lieutenant Wood of 
Company A had direct charge of the detail. Stables, too, 
were built at the camp for the horses, and a guard-house was 
constructed. December 8, new Sibley tents were put up for 
the soldiers; each of these tents had a sheet-iron stove. A 
bake-house was also built, and the men had fresh bread of 
an excellent quality regularly for the first time since leaving 
Worcester. 

December 13, orders were received to pack knapsacks and 
get everything ready to march, but nothing came of it. The 
fact that the Fifteenth at this time had only three hundred 
and fifty fighting men, while the other regiments were 
comparatively full, made it look "insignificant" at brigade 
drill and led the boys to think "it would be put on reserve" 
in case of a fight. At this time many of the letters speak of 
a balloon, which was used for reconnoitering. On Christmas 
Colonel Devens presented each command with ten dollars to 
be spent in providing a company dinner. Oysters and mince 
pies were the luxuries of the day. 

W J. Coulter wrote of January 11, 1862: "The weather 
has been quite changeable of late; one night it freezes, the 
next snows, the next night rains, and the next day the mud 
will be so plentiful that it makes it impossible for us to step 
outside of our tents without sinking into the yellow substance 
ankle deep. At the present time the mud is so deep that it 
is an utter impossibility to do anything in the way of drilling. 
Guard duty is attended to and that is about all. I accosted 
a citizen of Poolesville the other day, saying: ' Rather bad 
travelling.' 'Not very.' said he; 'if you call this bad I don't 
know what you will call the travelling about next March. 
You will see some mud then, I reckon.' " 

January 24 a letter of Richard Derby's says: "We are in 
daily expectation of marching orders; but how it will be pos- 
sible to move, with the face of the country in its present 
condition, I cannot imagine. But the 'natives' assure us 



GENERAL STONE. 131 

there will be no improvement till late in the spring. We've 
had nothing but storm for nearly a week. To-night, for 
variety, we have sleet; and the wind drives it like pins and 
needles. The poor fellows on guard have a hard time of it; 
but that is a part of their duty as much as fighting is. 

"No troops, either Union or rebel, have occupied Harri- 
son's Island since the second day after the fight at Ball's 
Bluff; when Captain Philbrick, with a small party, tried to 
recover some tools left there, the rebel cavalry forded the 
Virginia branch and would have captured him if he hadn't 
retreated at 'double-quick.' " 

Ever since the battle of Ball's Bluff there had been much 
discussion in the northern newspapers and among politicians 
and the soldiers, in regard to the responsibility of General 
Stone for that disaster. Assistant Surgeon Haven defends 
General Stone most earnestly " He is one of the ablest gen- 
erals in the service." "I cannot restrain my indignation at 
the abominable manner in which the people at home are 
treating General Stone. If ever there was a gentleman mis- 
represented, maligned and abominably lied about, it is he." 
Lieutenant Derby speaks in his favor no less vigorously, es- 
pecially in his relation to the anti-slavery question. There 
seemed, however, to be at least a spirit of mistrust among 
some of the soldiers when General Stone was arrested, Feb- 
ruary 9, 1862. One of them writes: "The arrest of General 
Stone created considerable excitement in the camp, though 
the general expression is, 'served him right.'" Chaplain 
Scandlin, who knew him much better, in a letter to General 
Stone says: "We know not how to unravel the dark mystery 
of your present position, but guided by your strict military 
discipline, we yield to the authority of our superiors, praying, 
however, that a speedy trial maybe granted, your innocence 
established beyond question and you permitted to partici- 
pate in the final triumph for which you have so ardently 
yearned and so diligently toiled." The investigation showed 
that no charge against him for disloyalty or lack of endeavor 
to do his whole duty could be sustained. 



132 AT POOLESVILLE.— IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY 

Chaplain Scandlin's diary contains the following entries: 
"February 21. Brigadier-General Sedgwick took command 
day before yesterday, and to-day the question of brigades 
has been settled. General Gorman gets us. The colonel 
sent ten dollars to each company for to-morrow's dinner. 

"February 22. Had to dinner, General Sedgwick; Cap- 
tain Sedgwick, assistant adjutant-general; Lieutenant Beau- 
mont, aid; and Colonel Tompkins. After they departed we 
had the officers of the line to supper. 

"February 23. Sergeant Cook of Company C, one of our 
prisoners from Richmond, arrived in camp just now He 
met Captains Simonds and Studley in Washington and about 
seven each from all the companies." 

As early as October 27, in a letter to Hon. A. H. Bullock, 
Colonel Devens said: "The brave companions whom we 
have lost cannot be restored to us, but their number may. 
Will not the towns of the county of Worcester, from which 
these companies come, see to it that each company is 
recruited again to its maximum standard, with vigorous and 
resolute young men from its own town, or its immediate 
vicinity, and not leave us to be filled from recruiting offices 
of cities." Two weeks after the battle, Colonel Devens 
obtained a fortnight's furlough for the special purpose of 
returning to Massachusetts to look after the interests of the 
regiment, and above all to start recruiting for it. 

November 18, 1861, an appeal was made by prominent citi- 
zens of Worcester for recruits for the Fifteenth Regiment: 

"To the People of Worcester County: 

"The Fifteenth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, 
commanded by Colonel Devens, requires thirty-five men in 
each company — in all three hundred and fifty — to fill its 
present deficiency -This regiment appeals to the County 
of Worcester by the historic sanction of its great namesake 
— the Massachusetts Fifteenth of the Continental Line — 
whose valor it has reproduced, whose glory it has emulated, 
whose name it has honored.- ..The Fifteenth Regiment is 



RECRUITING. 1 33 

of our own bone and sinew; it went forth endeared to us by 
the relation of local citizenship and by the ties of kindred. 
The ranks of the regiment must be filled, and its unity 
maintained for the county to which it belongs." 

Lieutenant Jorgensen was detailed as recruiting officer in 
Worcester. Throughout the county the Thanksgiving ser- 
vices were of a patriotic nature tending to encourage enlist- 
ing. Chaplain Scandlin set out for the county November 
20, to help in recruiting. He spoke at a large war meeting 
in Worcester, December 3. Later he spoke at various other 
places in the county. He gave the history of the Fifteenth; 
he told of its noble record at Ball's Bluff; he eulogized the 
officers of the regiment and those under whom it served. 
He showed the character of the rank and file of the army 
He urged the cause for which they fought. Then he asked 
for more men to fill the places of those who had fallen or 
were disabled or in captivity He called upon the young 
men to take their lives in their hands and rally not only to 
the defense of their country, to the preservation of their 
rights and liberties which we all hold so dear, but to avenge 
the blood of the slaughtered soldiers and to break the 
prison doors of those in confinement. Should the Fifteenth 
be compelled to meet the enemy with weakened ranks while 
so man) r remained at home? "I come," he said, "for men to 
fill the place of our honored dead and captive comrades. 
As I come to turn your thoughts to these duties, my mind 
is filled with sad recollections, but they are wreathed about 
with glorious emotions. Some laid to sleep, some maimed 
in your midst, others captive in the hands of our enemies. 
It is because of these that I speak, that the object for which 
they bore so much may be completed. Will you leave your 
own, captive, or will you help to break their bonds?" 

The most prominent citizens in these different communi- 
ties were appointed on recruiting committees, and no effort 
was spared to raise the required number of men. But the 
recruits came in rather slowly. The folks at home were for 



134 AT POOLKSVILLE. IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

the first time beginning to understand the stern realities of 
war. There was no fear of a draft, as at a later time, to spur 
on recruiting, and they had not settled into that spirit of un- 
yielding determination which came later. Men were no 
longer inclined to enlist impulsively Both the ability and 
the loyalty of General Stone were mistrusted, and men were 
unwilling to place their lives in the hands of such a leader 
as many believed him to be. It is possible that there was a 
superstitious feeling with some that the Fifteenth was an 
unlucky regiment. It may be that some feared the ridicule 
which veteran soldiers might deal out to raw recruits. The 
strongest reason of all was perhaps to be found in the feeling 
that the probability of office and promotion was greater for 
recruits in new companies and regiments than in old ones. 
A.11 these causes, and perhaps others, kept men from enlist- 
ing as rapidly as had been hoped. Small bounties began to 
be offered by towns and individuals at this time. Company 
I was fortunate in getting some nineteen recruits from the 
western part of Massachusetts soon after Ball's Bluff. 
Sixty-five recruits, the first fruits of the effort, started from 
Worcester December 5. Before the first of January ninety- 
one recruits had been received by the regiment, and accord- 
ing to the Individual Record, a hundred enrolled, and one 
hundred and twenty-four more by April. These two hun- 
dred and twenty-four men came for the most part from Wor- 
cester County. Lieutenant-Colonel George H. Ward, as 
soon as his wound would allow, began recruiting troops at 
Worcester, having been detailed for this duty. 

The following advertisement for recruits appeared in the 
Worcester Spy: 

"THE FIFTEENTH. 
"The recruiting office of the Fifteenth Regiment of 
Massachusetts Volunteers, now armed with Springfield 
Rifles, is opened at the Lincoln House Block, entrance on 
Maple Street, where all desirous of enlisting are requested 
to apply at once. 



recruits welcomed. i35 

"Young Men, 
Let not a regiment of your own county, publicly commended 
on the field of battle by the brave and unfortunate Colonel 
Baker, and mentioned first in the General Order of the 
Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Potomac wherein 
all the regiment engaged at the battle of Ball's Bluff are 
complimented, suffer for the want of recruits. 

"Pay and rations begin at once. Bounty of One Hundred 
Dollars. 

"George H. Ward, 
"Lieut.-Col. Fifteenth Regt., i\L V., Recruiting Officer " 

Colonel Ward remained in Worcester just a year before 
returning to the regiment. Sergeant A. H. Shumway, Com- 
pany E, Sergeant G. O Shore, Company K, Corporal Henry 
A. Collar, Company H, Private R. T Finney. Company D, 
all of whom, either on account of wounds or ill health, were 
unable to be in the field, had been detailed for six months 
for the same purpose. 

The recruits were gladly welcomed by the men in camp. 
The relief from extra guard duty which they brought was 
especially acceptable. VV J. Coulter wrote: "If you had 
asked one of the veterans how he liked the appearance of 
the recruits, his reply would have been, 'bully'" January 
II, he wrote: "The recruits are working in admirably The 
first squad which came out have been placed in the ranks and 
the second squad will be, in two or three weeks. The effect 
six months in camp has had on us is remarkable. There are 
four recruits in the same tent with me, all large, powerful 
men, used to out-door labors, and judging from their looks, 
one would think they could stand any kind of weather. 
When the tent is sufficiently warm for the old members in it, 
the recruits will shiver and shake as though they had an 
attack of the fever and ague.- .-While the old members 
go out to drill with nothing but a thin blouse covering their 
shoulders, the recruits appear with their overcoats. There 
is nothing like getting used to a thing." 



I36 AT FOOLE.SV ILLE. — IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

It is difficult to overestimate the change which the drill 
of the autumn and winter had made in the army of the 
Potomac. Raw recruits had developed into well-seasoned, 
well-disciplined soldiers, thoroughly prepared for the mighty 
struggle upon which the)- were about to enter. Meanwhile 
the organization of the army had been improved in a re- 
markable degree. The artillery and engineer departments 
were practically created by McClellan. When he entered 
upon his command he found nine weak batteries with 
thirty guns; in March, 1862, he had ninety-two batteries 
with five hundred and twenty guns. The engineer depart- 
ment was organized with no less vigor, and the capital was 
defended by a system of fortifications that the enemy felt 
were impregnable. The commissary and quartermaster de- 
partments were also perfected. The grand Army of the 
Potomac, one hundred thousand strong, a mighty engine of 
war, was now ready to move against the enemy Hence- 
forth we must always keep in mind the fact that the 
Fifteenth was only one of many members of this vast 
organization. Up to this time the regiment had been some- 
what isolated, and its individuality had been distinct, but 
from this point on, even to the keenest eye, it will sometimes 
become lost in the grand whole, so that it will be impossible 
to exactly measure the service which it rendered. 

While we must give McClellan credit for his wonderful 
power of organization, yet we cannot ignore the fact that he 
had already lost in no inconsiderable degree the confidence 
of the people at the North and of the administration at 
Washington, because he had allowed six months to pass by 
without any serious movement against the enemy In Feb- 
ruary, the lines held practically the same positions they had 
assumed after McDowell's defeat at Manassas Junction. 
The North had poured forth its treasure, had poured forth 
its men, but nothing had been apparently accomplished. 
The cry, "On to Richmond" which, uttered with the childish 
enthusiasm of ignorance, had forced McDowell to his defeat, 



"ON TO RICHMOND. 1 37 

hushed for a time by that bitter experience, had been grad- 
ually growing in volume as the uneventful months passed 
by This cry no longer came from unthinking zeal, but it 
was the universal utterance of a nation animated by an 
unyielding purpose. On account of the lack of confidence 
arising from his long-continued failure to advance, McClellan 
was obliged to enter upon this movement under many dis- 
advantageous conditions, which will be evident as the nar- 
rative proceeds. 

The men of the Fifteenth, like the people of the North 
as a whole, had been very impatient for an advance. The 
news of the victories of Burnside, in which their former neigh- 
bors of the Twenty-first and Twenty-fifth Massachusetts 
Volunteers participated, made them feel that they were lying 
idle while others were gathering laurels. The news of the 
fall of Fort Donelson so delighted the men that "their feel- 
ings were utterly uncontrolable." When General Gorman 
intimated that the) - might soon receive still better news (an 
order for their own advance), he was "wildly cheered." At 
last, as February drew to a close, the desire of the men was 
gratified and a movement began all along the line. 

As a preliminary to the grand campaign, a successful at- 
tempt was made in the beginning of 1862 to reopen the Bal- 
timore and Ohio Railroad. The first operations were con- 
ducted by General Lander from the west. In the latter part 
of February, the forces under Banks and Sedgwick below 
Harper's Ferry were set in motion. The Fifteenth was in 
General Sedgwick's division and in the brigade of General 
Gorman, with the First Minnesota and the Thirty-fourth 
and Eighty-second New York. Assistant Surgeon Haven's 
diary states: "On Monday. February 24, 1862, a tremendous 
gale of wind sprang up which lasted the rest of the day and 
the night. At least half of our tents were blown down, and 
at night it grew very cold. Altogether it was the most un- 
comfortable day and night that we have had this winter. In 
the midst of it we received orders to pack up and be ready 
10 



I38 AT I'OOI.ESVILLE. IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

to march Tuesday morning. With two days cooked rations 
and four days' uncooked, we started, leaving our tents and 
most of our baggage behind." 

One of the soldiers of Company G wrote: "We left 
Poolesville the 25th of February, 1862, about ten a. m., 
not knowing our destination. We marched thirteen miles, 
with occasional halts, till dark, when we halted for the night 
near the banks of the Monocacy River at the base of a high 
mountain. We slept on the ground with our blankets for 
covering, as we could not take our tents at the time we left. 
Next morning the drums called us into line long before day- 
break. We marched two hours, bringing us to Adamstown. 
Some of the boys fell from exhaustion on the long march 
and others were obliged to throw away some of their bag- 
gage. .... I weighed myself before starting, with all my 
equipments, and weighed one hundred and ninety-two 
pounds; and without them I weighed one hundred and thirty- 
nine and one-half pounds. Just try it, and travel off two 
miles or more without stopping; perhaps you would enjoy 
it. .-After some little delay at Adamstown in loading 
baggage, etc., we took the cars for Harper's Ferry, passing 
through Point of Rocks, Berlin and other places. We 

crossed to Harper's Ferry on a pontoon bridge which was 
thrown across near the place where the rebels burned the 
bridge. . • We quartered in a store over night. The reb- 
els have made sad havoc in this place. But few houses are 
left.- .Generals McClellan, Banks and others are here. 
Their quarters are opposite the store where our company 
stops. We cheered our brave commander as he passed, 
which he acknowledged with a smile. The scenery here is 
beautiful. The view from some of those grand high bluffs 
is most magnificent. Troops have been crossing the river 
yesterday and today " 

The regiment left Harper's Ferry on the morning of 
March 2, at seven, leaving Company B as a guard at the pon- 
toon bridg.- and Captain Philbrick as provost marshal of the 



ADVANCE ON BERRYVILLE. 1 39 

town. The regiment encamped about two miles out on 
Camp Hill, Bolivar Heights, General Gorman's brigade on 
the right of the road and General Burns' on the left. 

On the morning of the 3d, Company G was detailed to 
go to Hallstown to protect private property, for the soldiers, 
as they came into a district with southern sympathies, had 
began to "borrow" sheep, poultry and hogs, rather more 
than the government thought desirable. 

March 7, the brigade left Camp Bolivar at eight a. m., the 
First Minnesota leading, the Fifteenth Massachusetts next, 
then the Thirty-fourth New York, followed by Rickett's Bat- 
tery At half-past ten a. m. it had arrived within about three- 
fourths of a mile of Charlestown. General Gorman said that 
the Fifteenth was one of the best marching regiments he had 
ever seen. Tents were pitched on the edge of a piece of 
woods with a beautiful view of the valley of the Shenandoah. 

On the 10th, at three o'clock in the morning, orders 
were received to pack up and march at six. This march 
began in a pouring rain. Assistant-Surgeon Haven tells us: 
"As we approached Berryville (also called Battletown) a 
few shells were thrown at the rebel cavalry, who retreated 
before us within plain sight. The town was then entered 
and the secession flag changed for the Union. Our regi- 
ment bivouacked that night on an eminence, bare and ex- 
posed to the wind and rain, in support of two pieces of 
artillery commanding the Winchester road. Our picket and 
cavalry scouts were thrown out and some slight skirmishing 
took place. In the morning our cavalry went out and 
charged upon the rebel cavalry, taking some prisoners, 
wounding a few, and losing one man who was taken prisoner. 
One of the rebel cavalry was shot through the chest and 
could not be brought in. I rode out to him and took out 
the bullet and got him into town, where he now lies in a 
building used by the rebels as a hospital. Last night our 
tents came and also those of Burns' Brigade. We pitched 
our camp on the grounds of an elegant mansion called 



140 AT POOLESV1LLE. IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

" Fairmount," and our headquarters are in the house itself 
and the regiment is more comfortably fixed than ever 
before. The country all around here is dotted with splendid 
residences and the scenery is equally fine." 

Here at Berryville some of our boys, especially from the 
First Minnesota, took possession of the printing office of 
"The Conservator," a local paper. The next morning an 
edition was issued in which the boastings of the secessionists 
were published alongside the statement of the facts concern- 
ing their retreat and witticisms at their expense. Some of 
the members of the Fifteenth have kept copies of this paper 
until the present time. 

Very early on the morning of the 13th, the boys set out 
for Winchester, which was at a distance of ten and a half 
miles. About one o'clock p. m. they halted in a wood within 
less than two miles of the town. In about half an hour they 
were ordered to return to Berryville, where they arrived, 
tired, hungry and footsore at seven p. m. Here they learned 
that orders had been received to return to Bolivar. On Fri- 
day, the 14th, the march was made as far as Charlestown, 
and tents were pitched about a mile beyond. The next 
morning, in the midst of a hard rain, tents were struck. 
Then came a long period of waiting for the other regiments 
to pass by, as it was the duty of the Fifteenth on that day to 
bring up the rear of the column. At last Bolivar was 
reached, and the regiment encamped on its old ground 
again. By the 19th, the bridge at Harper's Ferry had been 
repaired so that cars could go between that place and Win- 
chester. Thus the object of the movement had been accom- 
plished and the Baltimore & Ohio railroad opened. 

On the 22d, the regiment marched to Sandy Hook and 
took cars for Washington, where it arrived a little before 
three a. m. Until the next afternoon the regiment was 
quartered at different lodging places. Then it moved to an 
open spot about half a mile northeast of the capitol. For 
two days more it remained in the city, anxiously waiting for 
orders to go no one knew whither 



CHANGES IN REGIMENT. I4I 

Let us sum up, before entering upon the Peninsular cam- 
paign, the changes that had taken place in the Fifteenth 
Regiment since its departure from Worcester. The name of 
Lieutenant-Colonel George H. Ward was still upon the rolls 
of the regiment, but his inspiring presence had been lacking 
since Ball's Bluff. The adjutant, First-Lieutenant George 
A. Hicks, was honorably discharged November 15, 1861. 
He had brought to the Fifteenth an experience gained from 
three months' service in the Third Battalion Riflemen. The 
ability which he displayed as adjutant of the Fifteenth fully 
justified the confidence which Colonel Devens reposed in 
him, and won for him well-deserved promotion. He became 
a captain and assistant adjutant-general of United States 
Volunteers November 16, 1861. He received a brevet of 
major of United States Volunteers July 30, 1864. He was 
succeeded as adjutant, November 27, 1861, by First-Lieuten- 
ant George W Baldwin. Quartermaster Church Howe be- 
came ordnance officer to General Stone's division, January 
21, 1862. January 28, William B. Storer was mustered in as 
quartermaster, with the rank of first-lieutenant. John S 
Hall had been made sergeant-major, September 25, 1861, but 
returned to Company D as second-lieutenant, November 22, 
1861. Henry G. Bigelow of Company D became sergeant- 
major, December 23, 1861. 

Soon after the regiment arrived at Poolesville, two of the 
first-lieutenants, Henry S. Taft of Company G and Edwin P 
Woodward of Company D, were ordered to report to the 
chief signal officer of the army for instruction in the signal 
service. Neither of these officers, although they continued 
to be mentioned in reports as on detached service and were 
commissioned as captains in the regiment, ever returned to 
it. Henry S. Taft accompanied the expedition to Port 
Royal, South Carolina, where he gained the highest com- 
mendation of the commander of the Signal Corps for 
gallantry and good conduct. He was made brevet lieuten- 
ant-colonel for services rendered in the campaign against 



142 AT POOEESVILLE. IN THF SHENANDOAH VALLEY. 

Charleston, South Carolina, in 1862. He was acting chief 
signal officer of the Department of the South from Jul)- to 
December, 1862, and was appointed to this office December 
11, 1862. From June, 1863, he had charge of the signal 
office at Washington under Colonel Myer. Edwin P Wood- 
ward served with distinction in the Arm)' of the Potomac 
and under Buell in Kentucky. 

We have already noted the loss by death of Captain 
Gatchell, Lieutenants Bartholomew and Grout, and the 
resignation of Captains Bowman and Greene and Lieutenants 
Fuller and Vassall. Captain Sardus S. Sloan of Company F, 
and Lieutenants Frank W Polley. Company A, James N. 
Johnson, Company C, and Stephen L. Kearney, Company 
G, resigned January 16, 1862, and were honorably dis- 
charged. Thus thirteen out of thirty of the original line 
officers were gone, and one more, Captain Rockwood, was 
absent, and destined to serve but a few days more with the 
regiment. 

With the exception of the promotion of Lieutenant 
Greene, no new captains had thus far been commissioned. 
I. Harris Hooper had received a commision as second- 
lieutenant in the regiment, dating from October 8. Hans 
Peter Jorgensen, a promotion to a second-lieutenancy, dating 
from October 22. Thomas J. Spurr received a commission 
as first-lieutenant to date from November 17. Richard 
Derby was promotedto a first-lieutenancy, November 22, 1861, 
and Lyman H. Ellingwood, January 17, 1862. James Taft, 
Walter Gale and Lyman Doane were promoted to rank of 
second-lieutenants, January 17, 1862, Albert Prince, Feb- 
ruary 22. 

The regiment lost many enlisted men between the battle 
of Ball's Bluff and the Peninsular campaign. February 17. 
1862, ten of its men were accepted as volunteers for the 
Western Gunboat Flotilla. Of these, Pearl S. Gott of Com- 
pany C was killed at Island No. 10, April 7, 1862. 

During the winter the health of the regiment was gen- 



CHANGES IN REGIMENT. 1 43 

erally good, except for mumps and measles, which caused 
some trouble. Dr. Crosby and Dr. Haven had charge of 
the brigade hospital. Dr. Bates was kept by ill health from 
the full performance of his duties as the surgeon of the regi- 
ment during much of the year he remained in office. 
William H. Folger of the band died December 21, 1861. 
Simeon E. Ball of Company G died January 24, 1862. 
Richard Derby says in regard to his funeral: "We had a 
funeral in camp this afternoon. A private of Company G, 
who died of measles, which is getting quite prevalent in 
this regiment, was buried with military honors. It is a very 
imposing ceremony The colonel, in the absence of the 
chaplain, reads the Episcopal service. The band and the 
muffled drums play a dirge as the procession moves to the 
grave, where three volleys are fired over the coffin by the 
escort, which varies in size according to the rank of the de- 
ceased. The inhabitants of Poolesville, who refuse to attend 
our dress parades and reviews, seem to take some interest in 
a funeral; perhaps, because there is one more Union man 
dead and out of the way." Samuel Thomson of Company 
E died February 5, 1862; Charles H. Adams, Company D, 
February 27; Andrew Laverty, Company I, March 8; William 
M. Davis, Company E, March 10; Charles Davis, Company 
G, March 15; Charles B. Woods, Company A, was drowned 
at Sandy Hook, March 22. This gives ten deaths only in 
the five months. Thirty-eight are recorded as discharged 
for disability before April, and one as deserting. 

After balancing the account with its losses and gains, the 
monthly report for March gives nine hundred and seventy- 
one men on the rolls. This did not include the paroled, but 
unexchanged, prisoners. For April, there are nine hundred 
and eighty-three men on the rolls. The number of the 
paroled but unexchanged prisoners was at least one hundred. 
If we include these, we here have a bigger total than at any 
previous time in the history of the regiment. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 
March 29 — August 25. 

General McClellan had not organized army corps be- 
fore March, 1862, because he had not been satisfied " what 
general officers were fitted to exercise those most important 
commands." March 8, 1862, an order was issued by the 
President directing that corps should be organized. The 
corps commanders were also designated by the President. 
The Second Army Corps was organized March 13. It origi- 
nally consisted of three divisions, those of Generals Richard- 
son, Blenker and Sedgwick. As General Blenker's division 
was detached March 31, 1862, it will not be considered here. 
The corps, consisting of the two other divisions, was as fol 
lows: 

Second Army Corps — Gen. Edwin V Sumner, Commanding. 
First Division — Brigadier-General Israel B. Richardson, 
commanding. — First Brigade, Brigadier-General Oliver O. 
Howard, commanding: Fifth New Hampshire, Sixty-first 
New York, Sixty-fourth New York, Eighty-first Pennsyl- 
vania. Second Brigade ("Irish Brigade"), Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Thomas Francis Meagher, commanding: Sixty-third 
New York, Sixty-ninth New York, Eighty-eighth New York. 
Third Brigade, Brigadier-General William H. French, com- 
manding : Fifty-second New York, Fifty-seventh New York, 
Sixty-sixth New York, Fifty-third Pennsylvania. Artillery, 
Captain George \V Hazzard, commanding: Batteries B and 



SECOND ARMY CORPS. I45 

G, FirstNew York; Battery A, Second Battalion New York; 
Batteries A and C, Fourth United States. 

Seco?id Division — Brigadier-General John Sedgwick, com- 
manding. — First Brigade, Brigadier-General Willis A. Gor- 
man, commanding: First Minnesota, Colonel Alfred Sully; 
Fifteenth Massachusetts, Colonel Charles Devens, Jr.; Thirty- 
fourth New York, Colonel James A. Suiter; Eighty-second 
New York (Second State Militia), Colonel George W B. 
Tompkins; First Company Massachusetts ( Andrew) Sharp- 
shooters, attached to Fifteenth Massachusetts. Second Bri- 
gade, Brigadier-General William W Burns, commanding: 
Sixty -ninth Pennsylvania, Seventy-first Pennsylvania, Sev- 
enty-second Pennsylvania, One Hundred and Sixth Pennsyl- 
vania. Third Brigade, Brigadier-General Napoleon J. T. 
Dana, commanding: Seventh Michigan, Nineteenth Massa- 
chusetts, Twentieth Massachusetts, Forty-second New York. 
Artillery, Colonel C. H. Tompkins, commanding: Battery 
I, First United States; Battery A, First Rhode Island; Bat- 
tery B, First Rhode Island; Batter)' G, First Rhode Island. 

This army corps maintained its existence to the end of 
the war and the Fifteenth continued to serve in it until the 
regiment was mustered out. 

The First Company of Sharpshooters, known as the An- 
drew Sharpshooters, was organized by Captain John Saun- 
ders of Lynnfield. When mustered, September 2, 1861, it 
contained one hundred and eight men. Most of these came 
from the cities and towns in the north-eastern part of the 
state. They were armed with heavy telescopic rifles and 
noted as marksmen. September 3, the company left Massa- 
chusetts for Maryland. During the fall and winter it served 
under General Lander in Maryland. When the army was 
organized for the Peninsular campaign, this company was 
attached to Gorman's brigade. Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. 
Kimball says it was not attached to the Fifteenth Regiment 
until July. 



146 THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

General Edwin V Sumner, the first commander of the 
corps, was a native of Boston, born in 1797 He entered 
the regular army in 1819. He served in the Black Hawk 
and the Mexican Wars. He commanded in Kansas during 
the border troubles, and was leader in a campaign against 
the Cheyenne Indians. His age was a disadvantage, and it 
has been questioned whether his military ability was such as 
to fit him to plan wisely for the disposition of so large a 
body of troops in critical moments, but the estimate which 
General Francis A. Walker has made of his character and 
his influence upon the soldiers will be universally accepted. 
"In honor, in disinterestedness, in patriotism, in magna- 
minity, he shone resplendent. Meanness, falsehood, du- 
plicity were more hateful than death to the simple-hearted 
soldier who had put himself, sword in hand, at the head of 
the divisions of Richardson and Sedgwick. If the Second 
Corps had a touch above the common; if in the terrible or- 
deals of flame and death through which, in three years of 
almost continuous fighting, they were called to pass, these 
two divisions showed a courage and tenacity that made them 
observed among the bravest ; if they learned to drop their 
thousands upon the field as often as they were summoned to 
the conflict, but on no account to leave a color in the hands 
of the enemy, it was largely through the inspiration derived 
from the gallant old chieftain who first organized them and 
led them into battle." 

General John Sedgwick, the commander of the Second 
Division, was born in Connecticut in 181 3. He was a grad- 
uate of West Point and had served in the Mexican War. In 
valor he was not inferior to General Sumner. Among all 
the generals who learned the art of war by experience in the 
Army of the Potomac, it is doubtful if there was any one 
who surpassed Sedgwick in the total combination of qualities 
which go to make the able commander of large bodies of 
troops. This fact was recognized when he was offered the 
command of that army after the failure of General Hooker. 



GENERALS SEDGWICK AND GORMAN. 1 47 

Although his modesty led him to decline this responsibility, 
yet he often acted in that capacity in the absence of General 
Meade, and always with conspicuous merit. 

General Willis A. Gorman, the commander of the First 
Brigade of this division, was born January 12, 1814. He was 
a graduate of the Law School of the University of Indiana. 
He practiced law, and was clerk of the Senate in that state. 
He served in the Mexican War, and became colonel of the 
Fourth Indiana Regiment. He was in Congress from In- 
diana 1849-1S53. He was governor of the territory of 
Minnesota 185 3—1857. He practiced law in St. Paul until 
1861, when he became colonel of the First Minnesota Regi- 
ment. A member of the Fifteenth says: "We all found in 
him a friend and champion, for he never spoke of our regi- 
ment but with feelings of pride. He had rough edges, but 
so does every good man; we remember him most at our 
camp-fires by recounting the humorous and grotesque in his 
character; but he was a man of ability and bravery and also 
a man of fine feeling." 

Such were the commanders under whom the Fifteenth 
Regiment was called upon to serve; all were well-fitted to 
develop the most complete devotion to the duties of the 
soldier and the most unfaltering courage. 

The capture of Richmond was the object of McClellan's 
campaign. There were two ways of advance from Washing- 
ton by land: one by the line of the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad; the other by the line of the railroad which led 
from Fredericksburg to Richmond. The possession of the 
seaboard of Virginia by the Federal forces opened other 
routes. That by the peninsula between the York and James 
rivers and that by the south side of the James, were the best 
of these. The question as to which should be chosen was 
rendered more complicated by the necessity of providing 
for the defense of Washington. After much discussion and 
considerable friction between President Lincoln and Secre- 
tary Stanton on one side and General McClellan on the 



I48 THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

other, the route upon the peninsula between the York and 
James rivers was finally chosen. After the plan was 
arranged, General McClellan was embarrassed in his advance 
by his removal from the chief command of the armies of the 
United States by an order issued by the President March 11. 
He was also crippled by the withdrawal from his command 
of the First Corps under General McDowell, detached for 
the defense of Washington, and Blenker's division of the 
Second Corps, sent to General Fremont. Thus McClellan 
was unable to control the cooperation of other departments, 
and was obliged to conduct his campaign with only about 
eighty-five thousand men. 

In the provisions made for transportation of this large 
body, the organizing genius of McClellan was seen at its 
best. The first troops embarked for Fortress Monroe, 
March 17 By April 2, fifty-eight thousand men had 
reached that point. The advance upon the low, level penin- 
sula was begun on the 4th, the two divisions of the Fourth 
Corps taking the left road by Warwick Court House, the 
Third Corps and Sedgwick's division of the Second Corps 
going on the right-hand road by Big Bethel. The roads 
were in wretched condition on account of heavy rains, but 
by the afternoon of April 5, the troops were before the 
strong fortifications of Yorktown. 

Chaplain Scandlin says, March 26: "At seven p. m., we 
moved and remained around the capital until 10 p. m., when 
we moved across the bridge, halting every few minutes. We 
succeeded, after many trials, in getting into the cars about 
one a. m. We reached Alexandria about three and a half 
A. m., wearied and worn, and then lay down on the grass." 
The Fifteenth remained in Alexandria until the 29th, when 
the diary continues: "Were roused at five-thirty A. M., with 
orders to be read)' to embark at seven-thirty. We moved 
from the camp-ground about seven-thirty, and got on board 
about two p. m. About noon it commenced snowing. The 
A.rgo took A, B and D with the bandmen and teamsters. 



MARCH TO VORKTOWN. 149 

The John Farron took the balance of the regiment with all 
the baggage. We made what arrangements we could to 
sleep. Came to anchor at dusk." 

Lieutenant T. J. Spurr wrote, Monday, March 31, on 
board the steamer in Chesapeake Bay: "We embarked on 
Saturday morning in a snow storm. We always have storms 
of some kind. We were a long time embarking and getting 
our provisions aboard, but finally started about half-past one 
from Alexandria, having two schooners with horses belong- 
ing to two cavalry regiments in tow, one on each side. We 
were stowed away as thickly as it is possible to stow human 
flesh. Fortunately there was room on the schooners for two 
companies, so that they did not have to sleep on deck." 
The next day it was so rough that one of the schooners was 
cast off, but it was taken on again Monday as the weather 
improved. At eight-thirty on this day the boats reached 
Old Point Comfort. 

The next morning the steamer proceeded to Hampton, 
which was a "perfect ruin." The troops landed at eleven 
a. m., and encamped about a mile from the village in an 
open plain. This camp was known as "Camp Hamilton." 
General McClellan encamped near the Fifteenth April 3, 
and men were detailed from the regiment to guard the head- 
quarters of McClellan, Sedgwick and Gorman. April 4, the 
regiment started with the rest of Sedgwick's division for 
Yorktown. That night it encamped at Big Bethel, "in the 
strongest fortification of the rebels." As Sedgwick's di- 
vision was the only one of the Second Corps that had 
reached the peninsula, it was attached for a short time to 
General Heintzleman's Corps. The march from this point 
on was impeded by the abandoned breastworks of the enemy 
and the trees they had cut down. The chaplain says: "We 
left at six, and the men were rushed through for the first 
two miles and then halted, and many of the troops we had 
passed were taken by us at the same rate. Twice we passed 
each other in this way At about nine-thirty a heavy 



150 THE PEN' INSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

thunder shower came up and it poured in torrents. The 
artillery was firing from nine-thirty up to late in the 
afternoon." 

The Fifteenth halted on the night of Saturday, April 5, 
near the outer fortifications of Yorktown. This place was 
known as "Camp Misery," or "Camp Advance." Portions 
of a letter written by E. J. Russell, Company F, will show 
the position and condition of the men of the Fifteenth: 

"Near Yorktown, April 6, 1862. 
"We are about five miles from Yorktown, and there is 
said to be a large force on different roads leading thereto. 
Yesterday the advance batteries drove the rebels back to 
their intrenchments in front of the town. We hear occasion- 
ally a big gun that tells us of a conflict so very near. Night 
before last we encamped on the battle-field of Big Bethel, 
and behind intrenchments that seemed almost impregnable 
to an inexperienced eye. It is a wonder to me why the 
rebels did not contest our approach to Yorktown at that 
point, but I suppose they knew that there were ten solid miles 
of Yankees in the different roads leading to Yorktown 
and there was some danger that we might take some of them 
in the rear. But I have perfect confidence of the result, for 
our troops are determined not to be beaten, and I believe 
that McClellan is as great a favorite with his men as General 
Bonaparte was. You ought to have heard the men cheer, 
yesterday, when he and his suite passed them on the route 
to this place. He raised his hat, and he had a pleasant 
smile on his countenance which inspired the men with un- 
bounded enthusiasm. I acknowledge a little weakness in 
that line, for I could not help throwing up my hat as 'Little 
Mac' passed me. From where I sit on my knapsack, I can 
see a balloon making a reconnaissance, so we know all about 
them, and I can hear the big guns booming, dealing their 
death missiles, and can see the smoke rise in clouds, showing 
where the shells burst. General Sedgwick's division is in a 
small field, where we are completely surrounded by a thick 



SIEGE OF YORKTOWN. I 5 I 

wood, so we cannot tell what progress is being made. Just 
now six hundred men passed me, every one of whom had 
either a shovel, axe, or pick, for fatigue duty. So you see it 
takes back-bone to be a soldier in McClellan's army; but 
they are the very mudsills he likes for his work, and we are 
just going to do it for him. 

"April 8. The approaches to the town are through low 
marshes, and the rebels had destroyed the roads, and thous- 
ands of men have been at work, some of them almost under 
the enemy's guns, to put them in such condition that our heavy 
artillery can be moved into position for a successful attack; 
but yesterday morning, as if the fates were against us, a 
severe northeaster set in, and it has rained hard ever since. 
It is so very cold and uncomfortable that the grand army is 
suffering terribly, and if we do not see the sun soon the sick 
list will largely increase. I never passed a more uncomfort- 
able night than I did last night. Our rubber tents are too 
small to protect us from northeast storms, and the ground 
was so wet that my wool blanket was completely soaked 
through. The prospect for to-night is not at all pleasant, 
and I have made up my mind not to turn in at all. The 
storm will seriously affect our general's plans, but I expect 
that soon we shall hear the cannon open upon the batteries. 
Our gunboats came up the river yesterday, and transports 
can bring our rations within five miles of us, so there is no 
danger of starvation, although we have been rather short of 
rations for two or three days back. 

"Wednesday morning, April 9. We passed another 
terrible night last night, the rain fell in torrents, and we 
were completely soaked. There is no prospect of its clear- 
ing off today- .it is the severest test of our patriotism yet, 
but it will not always last, yet many a man will find an early 
grave on account of the exposure. To stand out anywhere 
last night and hear the coughing and the 'O dears!' which 
told the actual suffering, is almost as bad as to pass through 
the hospitals after a battle; but all these things have an end 



15- THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

and I hope the end is near. This rain will cost the govern- 
ment millions of dollars, besides many precious lives, yet it 
is not well to complain of the weather Had it not been for 
the storm we might have been in Yorktown before now, but 
it is one complete quagmire now before the batteries, and 
the roads leading thereto are almost impassable." 

April g and 10, the Fifteenth went out to guard the First 
Minnesota, which was building corduroy roads. April u, 
the camp was moved nearer Yorktown, the men marching 
some two miles over the road just built. The next day the 
regiment was on picket duty. The new camp was called 
"Camp Winfield Scott" by general orders. April 14, the 
regiment was inspected by Major Davis of General Sumner's 
staff, who spoke highly of it. April 15. Surgeon Haven 
writes: "We are now encamped within range of the enemy's 
guns, who would probably shell us if he knew where we 
were. Consequently no drumming or music is allowed, and 
all fires and lights are put out at night. We have had some 
very bad weather and some rough experiences the last few- 
weeks. " On this day occurred the funeral of A. Money of 
Company H, who died of typhoid fever. April 16, the 
Fifteenth went up to support a Rhode Island battery which 
was shelling the enemy's works and got shelled in turn. The 
regiment remained in position all night. On the 17th, the 
camp moved three-fourths of a mile nearer the works. 

The chaplain says: "April 18. Last night was one of the 
most lively seasons of the campaign. About twelve-thirty 
a. m. heavy firing commenced on our left. The colonel and 
major rushed down, rousing the men. The long roll was 
being beat, but some one had it stopped. The men were 
soon in line and ready. The firing continued ten or fifteen 
minutes. General Gorman roused and roared. About two- 
forty-five we had a second edition and were up in a hurry. 
The men bivouacked in line by their arms. Knox the sutler 
arrived, the first wc have seen of him since we left Washing- 
ton. April 19, orders were received to move out on the 
picket supports at seven a. m." 



LOSS OF COLONEL DEVENS. 1 53 

The igth was spent in support of a batter}', the 22d on 
picket, the 24th and 25th in building fortifications. On the 
27th, the regiment was paid off. The 28th, the regiment was 
on picket. It was on this day that Second-Lieutenant John 
S. Hall of Company D received an ugly flesh wound in the 
thigh. lie was the only man wounded in the regiment during 
the siege. He was conveyed to the hospital ship, "Commo- 
dore." 

An event of great importance in the history of the Fif- 
teenth occurred during the progress of the siege. Colonel 
Charles Devens, who had commanded the regiment up to 
this time, received a well-deserved promotion. He was made 
brigadier-general of United States Volunteers, April 15, 1862, 
and appointed to the command of the Third Brigade, Third 
Division, Fourth Army Corps. He did not actually leave 
the Fifteenth until April 28. On that day the chaplain 
wrote: "This is a day long to be remembered in the history 
of the Fifteenth. Before the regiment left, as it was ordered 
out on picket duty, the colonel had it drawn up, and ad- 
dressed it, • • making a deeply touching speech that brought 
tears to the eyes of many and made all feel as though a bond 
of real and deep affection was being sundered." Later, Gen- 
eral Devens commanded in succession the Third Division, 
Fleventh Arm)' Corps; the First Division, Eighteenth Army 
Corps; the Third Division, Twenty-fourth Army Corps. He 
followed the fortunes of McClellan through the Peninsular 
campaign. He did valiant service at Fair Oaks, where he 
received a serious wound. Later, at Fredericksburg, he 
"commanded the advance guard in crossing and the rear 
guard in recrossing the river." He was wounded again at 
Chancellorsville. He took part in the campaign of 1864. 
George F. Hoar says: " On the 3d of June, in an attack which 
General Walker characterizes as one 'which is never spoken 
of without awe and bated breath by any one who participated 
in it,' General Devens was carried along the line on a stretcher, 
being so crippled with inflammatory rheumatism that he 
11 



154 T HE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

could neither mount his horse or stand in his place." He 
was made Military Governor at Richmond after the surren- 
der. He was in command of the district of Northern Vir- 
ginia, and later of that of South Carolina. He received the 
brevet of Major-General United States Volunteers April 3, 
1865. He was mustered out June 2, 1866. He returned to 
the practice of law in Worcester. He became Justice of the 
Superior Court in April, 1867. and of the Supreme Court in 
1873. He became Attorney-General under President Hayes 
in 1877 He was again Justice of the Supreme Court of 
Massachusetts, from 1881 to 1891. As president of the Har- 
vard Alumni Association he presided at the two hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary He died January 7, 1891. The 
ability he displayed at the bar and on the bench gives him a 
foremost position among our jurists. As an orator dealing 
with historic themes, he has had few equals. "But," says 
Senator Hoar, "it is as a soldier that his countrymen will 
remember him, and it is as a soldier that he wished to be re- 
membered. He had a passionate love of country; he 

was absolutely fearless; he never flinched before danger, 
sickness, suffering or death. He was prompt, resolute and 
cool in the face of danger.. ...He knew that he was con- 
tending for the life of his country, for the fate of human lib- 
erty on this continent. No other cause would have led him 
to draw his sword, and he cared for no other earthly reward 
for his service." 

The feeling of the Fifteenth toward its former com- 
mander is well shown in the following petition: 

"Fifteenth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, 
"Before Yorktown, Va., April 23, 1862. 
"To Major-General Geo. B. McClellan, Commanding U.S. Army. 
General: The undersigned, representing all the com- 
missioned officers of the Fifteenth Regiment Massachusetts 
Volunteers, would respectfully submit that they have heard 
with unfeigned pleasure of the well-merited promotion of 



PROMOTIONS. I55 

Colonel Charles Devens to the rank of Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers. 

"That having shared with him the exposure and priva- 
tions of the field and having been led by him bravely through 
the danger of battle, they have entire confidence in his abil- 
ity as a soldier, while his manly virtues have endeared him 
alike to his officers and men of his regiment. In view of these 
considerations, the undersigned would respectfully petition 
that the Commander-in-Chief, in assigning General Devens 
to a command, will be pleased to order a transfer of the Fif- 
teenth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers to his brigade, 
that thereby they may still be permitted to serve under this 
brave and favorite commander, confidently believing that 
the efficiency of the Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment and 
the general efficiency of the service will thereby be enhanced. 
The above petition is most respectfully submitted by the 
undersigned." McClellan did not, however, feel that he 
could disturb the existing organization. 

Lieutenant-Colonel George H. Ward was made colonel 
of the regiment April 29. May 1, Major John W Kimball 
was made lieutenant-colonel, and in the absence of Colonel 
Ward he commanded the regiment from the promotion of 
Colonel Devens to November 23, 1862. Chase Philbrick fol- 
lowed John W Kimball as major. 

May 2, Surgeon Haven says: "Our position is about in 
the center of the line of the army across the isthmus. Twice 
a week we all, the whole regiment, in fact the whole brigade, 
pass a day and a night on picket duty in front of the lines, 
and nearly every night a portion of the regiment (about one 
hundred men) is at work in the trenches." 

Chaplain's diary. May 4: "Last night the enemy kept us 
awake nearly all night, throwing shells pell-mell into the 
woods all around, but strange to say, hurt no one. The reg- 
iment went for picket duty at a little before seven a. m. 
When the regiment went up to its old position it found that 
the pickets it went to relieve were mostly in the enemy's 
works, the latter having evacuated the place in a hurry. 



I -6 THE FE.XINSULAK CAMPAICN. 

"The regiment left camp the second time about nine 
\ m o-ettinLT into the works about ten.. The men of our 
brigade found tents enough to shelter us for the night. 

"May 5. After a hard march over a terrible road, through 
the woods and through rebel camps, we reached Yorktown. 
Found the roads and forts of the place full of torpedo traps." 

Yorktown had been captured but the rebel army had been 
withdrawn without much loss, under the able leadership of 
General Joseph E. Johnston. Moreover, a month had been 
secured by the rebels for gathering their forces and strength- 
ening their defenses at Richmond. The delay had also 
added to the danger from the miasma of the swamps, which 
was far more destructive to the Union army than the bullets 
of the enemy If McClellan had not been deprived of the 
troops of McDowell and the expected assistance of the fleet, 
he might, perhaps, have saved much valuable time and possi- 
bly have captured the original garrison of Yorktown. It is 
possible, also, that if he had acted with greater boldness he 
might have accomplished these same results with the troops 
which he actually had at his disposal. The over-estimate of 
the rebel forces, arising from the false reports of the secret 
service, accounts in a measure for McClellan's caution. The 
men were at that time, however, well satisfied with what had 
been done. 

May 6, Richard Derby wrote: " The army is in fine spirits. 
I never saw the men so enthusiastic. Every one seems to 
think now that we shall soon put an end to the war and be 
sent home. General McClellan is in high favor. It is 'On- 
ward to Richmond' now." Derby's description of the fortifi- 
cations of Yorktown must not be omitted: "The rebel earth- 
works are tremendous, . fort after fort of the strongest 
kind, and mounted with abundance of heavy artillery; but 
ours is so superior in range that they could not withstand 
them. The guns which they make at Richmond are very 
poor affairs. Five of them lie here in fragments, burst by 
the overcharges in attempting to reach our batteries. The 



EXPEDITION TO WEST POINT. I 57 

scoundrels buried bomb-shells and torpedoes in ever}- road 
and all parts of the fortifications; so that, when we first en- 
tered, numbers were killed by their explosions. I had a very 
narrow escape from one. I went up to one of the guns that 
had burst, to examine it; and, a few minutes after, a soldier 
on the same errand trod on a torpedo and the shell exploded, 
throwing him ten feet into the air, tearing off one leg and 
burning him as black as a negro! The papers report only 
two killed in that way, but there have been many of them." 

When Yorktown was evacuated, McClellan entrusted the 
main body of his troops to General Sumner, with orders to 
pursue the retreating rebels up the Peninsula while he re- 
mained behind at Yorktown to superintend the sending of a 
body of troops by water to West Point. Proceeding twelve 
miles from Yorktown the rebels made a stand at Williams- 
burg, May 5. After some serious fighting the)- were forced 
to continue their retreat on the morning of May 6 and offered 
no further resistance in arms to McClellan's slowly, but 
steadily advancing forces, until the end of the month. The 
troops which were sent to West Point, amongst which was 
the Fifteenth, after a sharp fight on the morning of May 7, 
secured their position and helped to render the lower portion 
of the Peninsula untenable to the rebels. 

Chaplain Scandlin writes: "May 5. Orders came at six- 
thirty p. m. to be ready to leave, taking nothing but shelter 
tents, knapsacks and haversacks. At seven we were on the 
road and were there within sight of our camp-fires, getting 
only half a mile away up to two a. m., when we were ordered 
back to camp. During most of this time it poured in rain 
and all things considered it was the most miserable of all 
our experiences. — May 6. About four p. m., Companies A, 
B and D went on board the Eagle, the rest of us getting on 
board the Robert Morris. — Ma)- 7 Arrived at or near West 
Point at eight-thirty and got the seven companies from the 
Robert Morris on shore and in line about twelve. Some 
heavy firing was going on all the time we were landing. — 



I5S THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

May 8. The regiment was roused at three a. M.,line formed, 
arms stacked, and the men then allowed to lie down. — May 
9. Moved at three p. m. The whole division moving at the 
same time made a very fine view indeed, eleven thousand 
men, artillery, etc. We moved over a splendid farm, over a 
second one owned by a man named Eltham. The whole 
division camped upon his farm. — May 10. Camp Eltham on 
the Pamunkey, -plenty of mosquitoes. — Sunday. May II. 
At eight a. 11. the regimental line was formed and the regi- 
ment then went out as a guard, Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball 
being the general field-officer of the day in this division. 
Quartermaster Storer left this morning to act as aid to Gen- 
eral Devens, Lieutenant Eager acting in his place. No ser- 
vice again to-day — May 15. Received orders in the night 
to be in readiness to leave this point at six a. m. General 
Burns' brigade first, then General Dana's and lastly ours. 
We were in line at six, and stood in that position until nine 
before we left, our movements being hindered by General 
Richardson's division that had landed just above us, and had 
started or had orders to start at four a. m. It rained hard 
before we left, and kept on all day and all night. I record 
the most wearisome and trying march of our experience, so 
many travelling over the road before us, rainy all day and 
the soil of a clayey nature, men with knapsacks and haver- 
sacks with three days' provisions, ammunition (forty rounds), 
and their pieces, average load about forty-five pounds, mud 
over the ankle, mixed to a complete batter. Men had no 
control over their feet. Then the marching was badly ar- 
ranged. The men fell out by squads. We marched about 
ten miles and stopped near Austin's Church, a place I named 
Camp Welcome. — May 16 and 17. It took most of the 16th 
for our men to get into camp. On the 17th, we had a thor- 
ough inspection. -May 18. Camp at Mayo's, three miles 
from White House. We left Camp Welcome at seven a m., 
first having the regiment drawn up by our headquarters and 
reading a portion of scripture and making a prayer. After 



BY THE CHICKAHOMINY 159 

marching a short distance we came to New Kent Court 
House. We reached our destination at eleven a. m., and 
camped in a large field of wheat two feet high, very comfort- 
able quarters." May 19 and 20 were spent pleasantly at 
"Camp Mayo." 

"May 21. We left at six a. m. The weather was especially 
warm and the march was terribly trying. Passed Roper's 
Church, the place where Washington was married. Through 
the middle of the day we were pressed on unmercifully 
About one-third of the regiment reached the camping- 
ground in line. At roll-call only eight were returned as 
absent, and they got in before dark. We were now camped 
a mile and a half from Bottom's Bridge." 

General Gorman halted the brigade for a rest late in the 
day, but General Sedgwick sent a staff officer to have them 
hurry on. General Gorman said he was willing to be court- 
martialled, but he would not be reprimanded, for his men were 
unable to march further. "Why," said he, as a clinching argu- 
ment, "two hundred and fifty men of the Fifteenth Massa- 
chusetts have fallen out." He thus implied that when men 
of that regiment fell out, the march was unmerciful indeed. 

May 22 was a day of rest. The diary goes on: "May 23. 
Took up line of march at about seven a. m. After marching 
about six miles, which the men did in good order, having 
occasional halts, we reached the camp-ground [near the 
railroad bridge across the Chickahominy] about eleven- 
thirty Sunday. May 25, there was a sermon at three p. m. 
Seventy-five were at the evening meeting. May 26 and 27 
was spent in camp near Tyler House. On the evening of 
the latter the men in the camp started an illumination. 
From the brow of the hill it was magnificent, every shelter 
tent had its candle out, and there were candles on poles and 
trees and large bonfires here and there. — May 28. At four- 
thirty we were on the road from Tyler House. Four times 
during the night we were roused up and under arms, ready 
to leave at a moment's notice. We marched without knap- 



l60 THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

sacks or shelter tents, taking rubber blankets and woolen 
and three days' cooked rations. About one mile out our 
regiment was ordered to leave their blankets. After march- 
ing some four miles we bivouacked on the direct road to 
Richmond, some two miles from New Bridge. We spent 
here the most tedious da)- of the campaign, waiting for a 
call, wearied by the action of the night and the heat of the 
day. — May 29. Camp Bivouwack near Cold Harbor. Waited 
all da) r to help General Porter, but he succeeded in accom- 
plishing his object without our help. We got marching 
orders for camp about four-thirty p. m., getting in so as to fix 
up comfortably for the night. — May 30. Camp near Tyler 
House. The prisoners from Porter's engagement were pass- 
ing here yesterday and to-day, the wounded in a long train 
of four-horse ambulances, rebels and Union together, faring 
alike." 

A letter of Lieutenant Spurr's reads: "Friday evening 
[Ma)- 23], the regiment were on picket duty along the 
Chickahominy. Probably you have heard so much of this 
river that you have come to consider it at least as wide as 
the Merrimac, but along here it is merely a small brook not 
more than twenty-five feet wide, running through a swamp. 
The swamp is in some respects very beautiful." When this 
stream was swollen with rains it had a very different appear- 
ance, as it spread out over the swamp. An order was given 
May 23d, that a ration of half a gill of whiskey should be 
issued twice each day. Some of the temperance men 
doubted the wisdom of this order. 

In order to concentrate the rebel army about Richmond, 
General Johnston had persuaded the Confederate govern- 
ment to evacuate Norfolk May 10. The Merrimac, which 
had been defeated by the Monitor, March 9, was now blown 
up by its commander, since it had too great draught to go 
up the river to Richmond. The Union fleet advanced with- 
out opposition to Drewry's Bluff, within twelve miles of the 
rebel capital. On the opposite side of the Peninsula 



FAIR OAKS. l6l 

McClellan had his base of supplies at White House, the 
head of navigation of the Pamunkey. This White House 
was connected with Richmond, which lay some eighteen 
miles to the west, by the Richmond and York River Railroad. 
Using this road as his line of supplies, McClellan advanced 
to Fair Oaks on the Chickahominy. which was only six 
miles from the rebel capital. McClellan had been forced to 
bring his supplies up the York and Pamunkey rather than 
the James, in order that he might unite with McDowell 
whose long-desired assistance had once more been promised 
to him by a dispatch from Stanton dated May 18. Re- 
enforced by troops detached from the command of General 
Banks, McDowell was to move southward from Fredericks- 
burg May 26. Thus far the Peninsular campaign had been 
crowned with success, and it seemed likely that within a few 
days the Union army, over one hundred and twenty thousand 
strong, would fall with overwhelming force on Richmond. 

But meanwhile, General Stonewall Jackson in the Valley 
of the Shenandoah had forced back the diminished arm)' of 
General Banks, and finally drove them across the Potomac. 
The President, fearing for the safety of the capital, in 
opposition to all military rule, detained for service against 
Jackson the troops of McDowell. Thus the plans of 
McClellan were again frustrated. While he had been wait- 
ing, three things had been necessary: he had been obliged to 
extend his right so as to be ready to make connections with 
the left of McDowell; to make firm his position at the Rich- 
mond side of the Chickahominy, and to guard his line of 
supplies by the Richmond and York River Railroad. 

Two new army corps, the Fifth and Sixth, had been 
authorized on the 18th of May, so that the force of McClellan 
was now divided into five corps of two divisions each. On 
May 30, the Third and Fourth Corps were on the Richmond 
side of the Chickahominy, while the Second, Fifth and 
Sixth were on the other side. Two weak bridges had been 
thrown over the river by General Sumner. 



l62 THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

General Johnston had now, as he thought, found his 
opportunity to destroy the two divisions of the Union army 
on the right bank of the Chickahominy before they could 
be joined by the other three. A severe storm on May 30 
rendered the separation of the two portions of the Union 
army still more complete by swelling the river and over- 
flowing the swamps. It was under such conditions as these 
that the battle of Fair Oaks or Seven Pines was fought May 
31 and June 1. 

Casey's division of the Fourth Corps was on the right at 
Fair Oaks. Couch's division was near by at Seven Pines, on 
both sides of the Williamsburg road. Kearney's division of 
the Third Corps was along the railroad between Savage 
Station and the bridge. Hooker's division was on the left 
on the borders of White Oak Swamp. At twelve-thirty. 
May 31, the rebels advanced under Hill and Longstreet and 
began with an attack on Casey's division, which, after a 
severe struggle, was driven back on the position of General 
Couch. Before this, General Keyes, commander of the 
Fourth Corps, had ordered General Couch to the assistance 
of General Casey As Couch advanced with only two regi- 
ments, he met a large body of rebel troops. It was Smith's 
division coming up to enter the battle. Couch was re- 
enforced by two regiments and Brady's battery, but was 
separated from his division by the interposition of rebel 
troops, and compelled to fall back toward the Grapevine 
Bridge. He made a stand at the Adams House, but would 
have been swept away by the mere force of numbers unless 
reenforced. General Kearney's division of the Third Corps 
came to the assistance of the Fourth Corps, the foremost 
brigade arriving at four o'clock. Even with this assistance 
the Fourth Corps was forced back along the Williamsburg 
road, stubbornly contesting every foot. Two brigades of 
Kearney's division were cut off from the main body of the 
Union troops. A little after five o'clock the battle seemed 
hopelessly lost. The main body under Keyes were ex- 



FAIR OAKS. 163 

hausted with hours of fighting and sadly reduced in numbers. 
Kearney's brigades were making a long detour to rejoin this 
main body. The little force under Couch was liable to be 
swept out of existence at any moment. 

But where was General Sumner with his Second Corps? 
At one o'clock he had received orders from General 
McClellan to be in readiness to move at a moment's notice. 
He advanced his two divisions to the two bridges he had just 
completed. General Francis A. Walker says: "Both bridges 
over the raging and fast-rising torrent were in a terrible con- 
dition. The long corduroy approaches through the swamp 
had been uplifted from the mud and now floated loosely on 
the shallow water. The condition of that part of the bridge 
which crossed the channel of the river it was impossible to 
ascertain except by actual trial; but its timbers could be 
seen, rising and falling and swaying to and fro under the 
impulses of the swollen floods." It was half-past two be- 
fore the order came to advance. The rising waters had 
rendered the bridge where Richardson was stationed unfit 
for crossing, but, although even Sumner feared that the 
attempt would result in terrible disaster, Sedgwick's division 
marched upon the other swaying bridge which, with the 
corduroy approaches, was nearly half a mile in length. The 
weight of the moving column steadied it. Richardson's 
division followed by the same submerged bridge, which was 
soon after swept away 

One of the men of the Fifteenth says: 'After leaving the 
bridge we waded through mud and water nearly waist deep 
before we reached hard ground." Most of the artillery was 
unable to move through this; Kirby's battery alone, by the 
aid of human muscle, reached the ground. Again we turn 
to the account of General Walker: 

"And now the cry is Forward ! Sedgwick's division is 
fairly across the treacherous river, and turning, without a 
guide, it takes the road that leads more directly toward the 
thunders of the cannonade and the roar of musketry along 



164 THE 1'ENIXSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

the Williamsburg road. There was enough in that sound to 
stir the blood of the true soldier. Every man in the ranks 
understood that the whole fury of the most powerful assault 
which Johnston could deliver had fallen, and was still falling, 
on the imperilled left. Step out, men of the First Minne- 
sota! Swing your long Western legs to their full compass 
every time! You are setting the pace for the whole rescuing 
column. Your comrades of the Third and Fourth Corps are 
turning blood-shot eyes down the road to 'Sumner's Bridge,' 
awaiting the gleam of your bayonets." 

It is General Couch with his four sturdy regiments and 
Brady's battery whom the advancing column first met. 
Kirby swings into position on the right of Brady. Gorman's 
brigade, with the exception of the First Minnesota which 
was on the right, takes its position at the left of Couch's 
regiments. The Fifteenth was ordered to support Kirby's 
battery One of the men writes: "We moved promptly into 
positon in the rear of the guns, and held that position till 
near the close of the battle, the men not giving one inch of 
ground. Three times men from our regiment moved to 
assist in working the guns, and they sprang forward like 
tigers. Three times the enemy charged upon the battery, 
but three times they were repulsed." The Fifteenth fought 
with grand courage, and stood with unyielding firmness. 
Again and again the rebels advanced to various points of the 
lines formed by Sumner and Couch; again and again they 
are repulsed. At last Sumner feels that the time has come 
for offensive action. From Gorman's brigade he orders up 
the Fifteenth Massachusetts, the Thirty-fourth and Eighty- 
second New York ; from Dana's, the Seventh Michigan and 
Twentieth Massachusetts. The line composed of these five 
regiments is quickly formed; then comes the order to 
charge. Swiftly the men move forward, firing as they go. 
Two fences are in their way. but they fall as the line reaches 
them. There is no pause, inspiration comes with move- 
ment, they break into a wild yell, the bayonets are fixed, 



FAIR OAKS. 



I6 5 



the line presses fiercely onward, the enemy breaks in the 
greatest confusion, leaving the field strewn with their 
wounded and dead. 



oQ 
-So 









^ 



3-' 



a. 



PA J -o 



&3>' t 



<o a 






d& 



Icr 






I 






& 






s&MM 









o. 



Si 



S* 






o, 



o-.q: 



!c§3. 



VADAMS 
•HOUSE 

•f as S. MK 



M/ISS. ,.^ _ k ,. 
/O6 &PEMM. Q O £*; 



9 9oooX..o 



o ' -o , 



§& 



o-Q-- 



FAIR ^ 
OAKS STA.^V 






/ 0.00 ■ ■ o\o ■ ;P ■" ° n- 



0". 
o- 



^5 



\°.> 



O 



po-^? 



DO. 



35:o?-O.-0"-n-.O:Pp A ?W 



^o^ao u 9.-D?4 



fa^O" 






The farm-house near the position of the First Minnesota was known as the Courtney 
House, and became General Sedgwick's headquarters. In some maps the Adams House 
and Kirby's battery are placed nearer the intersection of the roads. Brady's battery was 
also upon the field in two sections, one at the left of the First Minnesota, the other near 
the Adams House. 

The darkness was already gathering. There on the edge 
of the wood whence the enemy had been driven, the men of 
the Fifteenth spent the night. It was a night of "drizzling 
rain and inky darkness." All were wet to the hips, many 
had lost their shoes in the mud, the bodies of the dead and 
wounded were lying on every side; you could not move 
without falling over them; the air was filled with shrieks and 
groans; an attack might take place at any moment; in the 



l66 THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

morning, if not before, the conflict must be renewed, but the 
elation of victory cheered the men even in circumstances 
like these. 

As Hooker had now brought up his division of the Third 
Corps, there were on the morning of June I, three complete 
army corps — the Second, Third and Fourth — in position 
ready for action. Two divisions, those of Richardson and 
Plooker, had taken no part in the battle of May 31. It 
was upon these divisions that the brunt of the fighting came 
on June 1. Richardson became engaged between six and 
seven. This seems to have been an accident rather than the 
result of a deliberate plan on either side. The contest lasted 
for two or three hours, then the rebels withdrew to their 
lines about Richmond and the Union troops went forward to 
the position held by the rebels before the battle began. The 
Fifteenth, although like the rest of General Sedgwick's divi- 
sion it stood waiting an attack, was not engaged on June 1. 

The total loss to the regiment in this battle was given as 
five killed and seventeen wounded. Five of these wounded 
died from their wounds. In the Union army seven hundred 
and ninety were killed, three thousand five hundred and 
ninety-four were wounded and six hundred and forty-seven 
captured or missing, a total of five thousand and thirty-one. 
The rebel loss is estimated at about seven thousand. General 
Johnston, the leader of the rebels, was disabled. 

The chaplain's diary states: "Sunday, June 1. Battle-field 
of Fair Oaks. As we passed through the woods where the 
enemy had been, the sight was terrible. Men lay in all con- 
ceivable conditions, just as they fell. I went down to gather 
our dead together and had men bury them, marking their 
graves with some boards bearing their names. We had a 
brief prayer. It was just about dusk as we left them to their 
rest. Threats of thunder shower. Went to work to get our 
wounded under cover, in stalls, barns, sheds, hen-houses; 
terrible job. -June 5. This afternoon took six men and had 
the graves of our five men sodded and fenced in." 



FAIR OAKS. 167 

Various stones are told of the battle which may be taken 
for what they are worth. An officer of the Fifteenth soon 
after the fight wrote a letter from which the following ex- 
tracts are made: "General Gorman told us the other night 
that Magruder had told his own troops, in his usual style, 
'All hell was not so hot as that brigade' (Gorman's). Lieu- 
tenant Kirby, commanding the battery which the Fifteenth 
supported, told me the next day, had he been one-half as 
well supported at Bull Run, he would not have lost his bat- 
tery there.- .Our watchword as we went into the fight was, 
'The memory of our comrades who fell at Ball's Bluff.' 
To show the faith the general commanding the brigade had 
in the regiment we give the following extract from a private 
letter: 'General Sumner told General Gorman during the 
hottest fire, that he had better send another regiment to help 
support the battery. Gorman replied: 'There is no need of 
that, for the Fifteenth Massachusetts is there, and it will 
stand till the last man is shot down.' There was no other 
regiment sent to assist them." 

Another variation of this story is more often told: Sum- 
ner asked Gorman, as the mighty mass of rebels surged 
towards the guns, "Ought not that battery to have more 
support?" "Do you know what regiment that is?" said Gor- 
man. "No," replied Sumner. "Why," said Gorman, "that 
is the Massachusetts Fifteenth, and with that regiment in 
support, all hell couldn't take that battery " 

Of the conduct of the regiment during the battle the re- 
port of the commander, Lieutenant-Colonel John W Kim- 
ball says: "My regiment behaved with great coolness and 
bravery during the entire action, obeying my orders as 
promptly as at dress parade. There was no one, officer or 
private, that showed any signs of trepidation or fear." He 
especially commended Major Philbrick, Surgeons Bates and 
Haven and Chaplain Scandlin for their energy and courage. 
Of Adjutant Baldwin he says: "Too much praise cannot be 
awarded to Adjutant Baldwin, who got up from a sick bed 



l6S THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

against my express wishes to render me what service he 
could. He was scarcely able to sit upon his horse, but he 
remained with me during the entire battle, conveying my 
orders with great promptness and precision." 

In a general order of June 4, General Gorman said: "The 
general commanding the brigade congratulates the officers 
and soldiers of his command on their recent honorable 
achievements. The cool courage and steadiness displayed 
by you at Fair Oaks on May 31 and June 1, have won for 
you a position second to none. The gallantry of your irre- 
sistible charge with the bayonet overwhelmed a confident 
foe, turned back the tide of battle and crowned your banners 
with victor}- " 

A letter sent by General Gorman to the governor of 
Massachusetts must be quoted in full: 

"Headquarters Gorman's Brkiaoi:, 
"Fair Oaks, Va., near Richmond, June 13, 1862. 
"His Excellency John A. A/uirew 

"Sir: Now that the smoke of the battle-field has 
cleared away, I cannot forbear taking the opportunity to 
testify to the gallant soldierly conduct of the Fifteenth 
Regiment of your troops in our late contest, — the bloodiest 
of the war. It was their fortune to be participants in a real, 
not imaginary, bayonet charge, made upon the most intrepid 
and daring of the rebel forces, at a critical moment for our 
cause. Most nobly and gallantly did they honor themselves 
and their gallant state and most proudly may she feel over 
them. With such troops in the field we are invincible, — and 
the result of this contest with an unholy rebellion cannot be 
doubtful. I ask, Sir, in conclusion, that the history of the 
Fifteenth Massachusetts Volunteers may be made part of 
the history of the state as associated with one of the most 
brilliant exploits of the war, which the official reports will 
soon disclose to your Excellency — to which I refer with 
pride and satisfaction. I have the honor to be, 

"Your Excellency's obedient servant, 
"W A. Gorman, Brig.-Gen. U. S. A., Commanding!' 



AT CAMP LINCOLN. l6q 

The lack of bridges over the swollen stream would have 
delayed McClellan in crossing the stream with his Fifth and 
Sixth Corps and following up his advantage against the 
enemy, even if the hesitant quality of his mind had allowed 
him to to do so. The renewed hope of reenforcement from 
McDowell's Corps was his excuse for still further prolonging 
this delay McCall's division arrived on June 13 and 18. It 
was June 25 before the bridges, the roads and the forti- 
fications were in such a condition that McClellan felt that 
he was prepared for an advance. On this very day General 
Jackson arrived with twenty-five thousand troops within 
twelve miles of Richmond. Robert E. Lee, who had been 
called to the command of the rebel army on account of the 
disabling of Johnston at Fair Oaks, had summoned Jackson, 
with the plan of attacking McClellan's line of supplies. To 
attempt to defend this line of supplies against the rebels in- 
volved great risks, to move directly upon Richmond while 
Lee's troops were away from the city, required more bold- 
ness than McClellan possessed. The only other alternative 
was to change his base of supplies to the James. This he 
proceeded to do. 

Chaplain Scandlin tells the story of the Fifteenth during 
this period of waiting at "Camp Lincoln: 

"June 3. Battle-field of Fair Oaks. During last night we 
had a terrific thunder shower with heavy rain. This ele- 
mental warfare as we sat drenched upon the battle-field of 
human coflict with the unburied dead around us, left a deep 
impression of horror; rain pouring, pickets firing, no lights 
allowed, every indication of another conflict. (The lack of 
shelter, overcoats and rations added to the discomfort.) — 
June 7. Last night we were routed in a hurry. The men 
(all but four of a company) were sound asleep, but the line 
was formed in less than five minutes. — June 9. We shifted 
our position to the left of our brigade near the headquarters 
house. — June 11. Men busy in erecting a new breastwork 
further back. Some shelling and picket firing. — June 12. 
13 



I JO THE l'EN'IXSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

About one a. m. last night we were all turned out on the 
double quick. All waited, expecting the attack. But on 
searching for the cause, it proved to be the New York 
Seventh Volunteers. One company going out to relieve 
picket was fired upon by the pickets on their own side, and 
they in turn replied. — June 13. This morning I was aroused 
with the roar of artillery, shells exploding in all directions. 
— June 14. We have had three companies out on picket for 
two days. The days have been very warm, and the water 
and exposure has begun to tell on the regiment. The stench 
from the partially buried is very bad. — June 15. Were 
roused by the pickets at 3 a. m. — June 16. The major was 
brigade officer of the day, and was out with his picket this 
afternoon, when General McClellan got into conversation 
and asked him his regiment. When the major said the 
Fifteenth Massachusetts, McClellan said, 'The Fifteenth, 
why that is the famous regiment of Ball's Bluff.' — June 19. 
Camp Lincoln, battle-field of Fair Oaks. In afternoon 
McClellan was round and the troops were wild with enthu- 
siasm, cheering and throwing their hats in the air. Orders 
came to be ready at a moments notice. — June 19. Sickness 
is increasing very fast indeed. —June 20. The past night 
was very much broken up by repeated firing and ex- 
pectations of attack." 

Lee's first attack in his movement to break McClellan's 
line of supplies was upon McCall at Mechanicsville. On 
the 27th, General Porter with the Fifth Corps fought at 
Gaines' Mill to save the bridge over the Chickahominy. 
Although he fought with grand courage and great cool- 
ness, yet the thirty-three thousand troops under his com- 
mand would have been hopelessly defeated by the sixty 
thousand rebels if two brigades of Richardson's division of 
the Second Corps had not come from the Richmond side of 
the river to their assistance. The Fifteenth was not engaged 
in this bloody battle, although it was sent during the day to 
report to General Smith, who was holding the right bank of 



THE CHANGE OF BASE. 171 

the river at Golding Farm with a division of the Sixth Corps. 

By June 28, McClellan's line of communication with the 
York and Pamunkey had been abandoned, and all his forces 
concentrated on the Richmond side of the Chickahominy 
June 29, McClellan had withdrawn six divisions across White 
Oak Swamp and left five — two of the Second Corps, two of 
the Third, and one of the Sixth — to withstand the enemy 
and cover the retreat. General Sumner commanded this 
force. Lee had been deceived by supposing that McClellan 
would defend his line of supplies or retreat down the Penin- 
sula, but on the morning of the 29th, Magruder saw that the 
intrenchments were abandoned, and began his pursuit. 

Luckily, Jackson was detained, and Magruder found "No 
thoroughfare written in letters of fire in every point of brave 
Sumner's line." By sunset the battle of Savage Station had 
been won by the Union troops. So elated was Sumner by 
his victory that it required a positive order from McClellan 
to make him withdraw at night toward White Oak Swamp. 
He was obliged to leave twenty-five hundred sick and 
wounded in the hospitals to the tender mercies of the rebels. 

On the 30th, all of the Union army was across White Oak 
Swamp, but as Jackson was in hot pursuit, the rear guard with- 
stood his progress in an advantageous position just beyond 
the swamp. It was here that the Fifteenth was stationed. 
Meanwhile, a large body of rebel troops, thrown around the 
swamp, fell upon the Union line at Glendale. Gorman's 
brigade, led by Colonel Suiter, reached this battle-field in the 
latter part of the engagement. After a struggle, remarkable 
for its fierceness, the rebels were repulsed. On the following 
day McClellan was able to choose his own ground at Mal- 
vern Hill, with his back to the James. A series of terrible 
assaults were made on this strong position and were easily 
repulsed with great loss to the enemy. This victory closed 
the Seven Days fight. McClellan had successfully effected 
his change of base. 

In order to follow the part taken by the^Fifteenthlin this 



j-i THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

movement let us turn to the report of Lieutenant-Colonel 
John VV Kimball: 

"Headquarters Fifteenth Regiment Mass. Vols., 
"Camp near Harrison s Landing, July 5, 1862. 
"(Sir : ) I have the honor to report that on Friday, June 
27, 1862, at two o'clock p m., I was ordered to move my 
regiment as rapidly as possible from camp near Fair Oaks, 
and take a position on the right of the Eighty-second New 
York Volunteers, this being the extreme right of Gorman s 
brigade. Remained in this position until about five o'clock 
p. m., when I was ordered to report immediately to General 
Burns, which I did, taking a position on the left of his bri- 
gade, in support of the Seventh New York Volunteers. We 
remained in this position about half an hour, during which 
time a very hot skirmish was going on directly in front, in 
which the front lines and artillery only were engaged. Was 
then ordered to report immediately to General Smith on the 
right of the line, which I did, moving my regiment a part of 
the way at double-quick. Reporting to General Smith at 
eight o'clock, was ordered at once to enter a rifle pit to the 
left of the front, thereby relieving the Fifth Wisconsin Vol- 
unteers, who were ordered to the front, where a most terrific 
engagement was going on. Was then ordered to leave the 
pit and advance in line of battle to the front, in order to re- 
lieve the troops whose ammunition had been expended. 
When but a few rods in advance of the pit the order was 
countermanded, the report having been received that the 
enemy had been repulsed and driven from his position in 
much confusion. After receiving the thanks of General 
Smith, I returned to camp by his order, reporting to General 
Sumner. Although not actually engaged with the enemy in 
any part of the day's fight, I cannot but think that it was 
owing to the timely arrival of my regiment on the right, 
thereby permitting reinforcements to go to the front at this 
critical time, that the tide of battle was turned and the sue- 



THE CHANGE OF BASE. I 73 

cess made complete to our arms. My loss was two wounded, 
which will be shown in the recapitulation of casualties. 

"At six o'clock on Saturday, the 28th ultimo, was ordered 
to have everything packed and in readiness to move at a 
moment's notice. At half-past eight o'clock p m., I reported 
in person to General Sedgwick for orders, by order of Lieu- 
tenant Church Howe. Was ordered by General Sedgwick 
to proceed immediately and as rapidly as possible to Savage 
Station and report there to General Marcy, chief of staff. I 
left camp precisely at nine o'clock p. m., and proceeding by 
way of the railroad, reported to General Marcy at half-past 
ten o'clock. By his order, bivouacked my regiment near 
station until morning, there to await further orders." 

A letter of Lieutenant T J. Spurr s amplifies this report 
of Saturday's doings. "After a hard day's work on Saturday, 
building breastworks in support of Smith's division, we 
marched back to our camp in the center of the line before 
Richmond about six o'clock. Before the companies were 
dismissed, Colonel Kimball called the officers together and 
told them that he had received orders to have everything 
ready to withdraw from our position; that the army was to 
give up its line of breastworks and fall back upon the James 
River; that everything must be prepared without noise, and 
there must be no unusual lights or commotion in camp. The 
sick were sent away with the wagons. Those who were not 
sick, but yet not well, marched with them, so that the}- might 
not have to be pushed so rapidly as the regiment would be. 
Everything that could not be carried was destroyed. Noth- 
ing that could benefit the rebels was left. About nine o'clock 
the order came to fall in without noise, and to take up the 
line of march as quickly as possible. We started with sad 
hearts, not knowing the plans of our little George,' and, 
though hopeful still, fearing misfortune. Our regiment 
marched about two miles to Savage Station, taking until ten- 
thirty to accomplish it. When at last we were able to lie 
down it was in a drizzling rain. At such times rubber blank- 



I-_| THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

cts come in play, and covering myself up with mine, with 
one under me, I slept as soundly as if at home. We lay 
down about midnight or one o'clock, and were called at half- 
past three." 

Kimball's report continues : " By orders of General 
Williams my regiment was ordered at nine o'clock a. m. to 
report immediately at the station, for the purpose of destroy- 
ing ammunition and stores collected there. Such was the 
quantity and weight of material to be destroyed, that the 
utmost exertions of my entire force were required to accom- 
plish the desired end before the arrival of the division, to the 
general of which I was ordered to report." 

Turning once more to Spurr's letter, we read: "Mean- 
while the torch had been applied to such property as could 
nut otherwise be destroyed, cars full of ammunition, hard- 
bread and commissary stores of all kinds. Only so much 
was left as was necessary for those who had to be left in the 
hospital. The surgeon who had volunteered to stop in com- 
mand told me that there were about five thousand sick and 
wounded there (mostly the latter) the night before, but that 
about two thousand of them had managed to hobble off. 
This number included many rebels, for we have taken almost 
as much care of them as of our own men.. . • . As the rest 
of our division came through the field where we were lying, 
the Fifteenth took its proper place in line. General Sedg- 
wick's division was left as a rear guard." 

Taking up Kimball's report again: "At half-past four 
o'clock p m. was ordered to form line of battle on hill as 
reserve, the enemy having appeared in front and opened on 
us with artillery. The engagement becoming general, was 
ordered by General Sumner to advance to the front at 
double-quick. With cheers the men advanced, and with an 
unbroken line soon reached the woods, there to relieve the 
< )ne Hundred and Sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, then some- 
what disordered, and occupy a position to the right and rear 
of the Eighty-second New York Volunteers and to the left 



THE CHANGE OF BASE. 1 75 

of the Twentieth Massachusetts Volunteers. This position I 
was ordered to hold, throwing out my pickets three hundred 
yards to the front. About nine o'clock p. m. was ordered to 
withdraw quietly, leaving my pickets, and report to Colonel 
Sully, commanding brigade, near my original position. When 
advancing to the front the men, by order of General Sumner, 
threw knapsacks and blankets off, and were not allowed 
to recover them on their return, by order of Colonel Sully. 
In this engagement my loss was three wounded, which will 
be shown in the recapitulation of casualties." 

Spurr says: "We lay against a fence just behind the lines 
that had been firing, until about nine o'clock, when we were 
moved off quietly to the rear and the line of retreat was 
taken up. Our Sunday night march was a pretty hard one. 
Four or five regiments were in column together over a 
narrow road, very muddy and crowded with stragglers. The 
number of men without an)' organization is perfectly dis- 
'graceful. We marched until halt-past two Monday morning. 
We slept until four, when we were marched about half a 
mile. Had just time enough to get our coffee and eat some 
hard-bread, when we were marched a few miles further and 
lay till two o'clock in the shade waiting for the wagon trains 
to pass." 

The report states: "On Monday, 30th ultimo, at half-past 
two o'clock p m., was ordered to form my regiment in the 
open field in front of headquarters at Nelson's Farm, heavy 
firing of artillery having opened on the right. After remain- 
ing about half an hour in this position was ordered to move 
to the right and report to General Dana. After proceeding 
half a mile in this direction was ordered to form my regiment 
in the field near the road. At this time Colonel Suiter took 
command of the brigade. At about four o'clock p. m. was 
ordered to the left of General Richardson's line of battle, 
forming a right angle with his line, in order to protect his 
left flank. At about five o'clock p. m. was ordered to return 
to my original position, a severe engagement having opened 



IjG THE l'KN INSULAR CAMI'AICN. 

at that point. On the road I received orders direct from 
General Sedgwick, through Lieutenant Church Howe, to use 
the utmost speed in reaching the field, as more troops were 
greatly needed at this critical moment. Almost exhausted 
by fatigue and heat, unable to move rapidly, still came in in 
good order, and forming in the field advanced, by order of 
General Sumner, to the front. After advancing some three 
hundred yards was ordered by General Burns to move by 
the right flank to the rear and support of Colonel Baxter. 
The firing becoming very heavy on the extreme left, was 
ordered by General Burns to proceed to the left of the First 
Minnesota Volunteers and then move forward to that point 
where the fire was the hottest. On reaching the front I re- 
lieved the Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers, whose am- 
munitition had become exhausted. Before my arrival the 
fire slackened and soon ceased altogether, and was not re- 
newed at that point. I remained in this position until twelve 
o'clock, when, being ordered to withdraw quietly, did so, 
taking in my pickets. The loss to my regiment during the 
engagement was six wounded, which will be shown in the 
recapitulation of casualties." 

Spurr adds: "Closing up our line, General Sumner 
rode to the front and said: 'Go in, boys, for the honor of 
old Massachusetts. I am a Massachusetts man myself. I 
have been hit twice this afternoon, but it is nothing when 
you get used to it.' . .. We remained in line with pickets 
in front till midnight, expecting an attack. We could see 
the torches of the enemy who were looking for their wounded, 
and could hear the wounded tell the number of their regi- 
ments. Our wagons and most of our artillery having gone 
past us, our line of march was resumed at midnight. We 
were quite near the rear and had a much better road than on 
the night before, but the men were tired and it was hard for 
them to keep up. We went on until about three o'clock and 
then lay down out ol danger on high ground, not far from 
City Point. About eight o'clock dispositions began to be 



THE CHANGE OF BASE. I 1 / 1 / 

made for a great battle. The field or rather the farm is the 
most magnificent one for the purpose, I can imagine, with 
just enough hill and dale to afford good positions for artillery 
and cover for infantry." 

The report closes: "On Tuesday. July i, at eleven o'clock, 
the enemy having appeared in force, I was ordered to form 
in line of battle on the hill at Malverton as a reserve to the 
First Minnesota and Eighty-second New York Volunteers. 
When in this position received a severe fire from the enemy's 
artillery, and was soon ordered out of range and under cover 
of the woods. Remained in this position until one o'clock 
a. m., July 2, and was then ordered to withdraw quietly, tak- 
ing in my pickets. On the conduct of my command during 
the five days of labor and fatigue I have but to say that they 
all, officers and men, evinced a disposition to perform the 
arduous duties assigned them to the utmost of their ability 
and strength, and although not at any time under severe fire, 
advanced when ordered upon points of apparent danger with 
that same spirit and determination which they have ever 
shown in former engagements. 

"I have the honor to be, captain, very respectfully, 
"Your obedient servant, 

"John W Kimball, 
"Licnt.-Col. Fifteenth Massachusetts Infantry. 
"Captain Hebard, Assistant Adjutant-General." 

Thus the famous change of base ended, and the troops 
went into camp at Harrison's Landing in a position in which 
the baffled enemy could do them no injury, while they 
waited for new issues. 

McClellan still had from eighty to ninety thousand men. 
He had never been better situated for an offensive campaign 
as regards position. He now prepared a plan for a move- 
ment toward Richmond on the south of the James, some- 
what along the line afterwards taken by Grant. Reinforce- 
ments were promised him from the armies in North and 
South Carolina. The initial movement in the new campaign 



1 -S THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

was made August 3 to 7. by the divisions of Hooker and 
Sedgwick and Couch, who advanced to Malvern Hill, and 
after some skirmishing, occupied the old battle-ground. On 
the very day, however, that this movement began, an order 
was sent from Washington by General Halleck, who had 
recently assumed command of the armies, to withdraw the 
whole force from the Peninsula. Thus the Peninsular cam- 
paign, which had been entered upon with such high hopes, 
was ended. Although the primary aim of capturing Rich- 
mond was not attained, so that the Confederates had the 
credit of the victory and the moral prestige which it gave, 
yet their losses were proportionate to ours. If we are to 
consider the army of the rebels rather than their capital, the 
objective against which McClellan fought, then the cam- 
paign ended with the rebel forces much nearer final ex- 
haustion as compared to the Union forces than when it 
began. It must be remembered, too, that the withdrawal 
was made just as McClellan was entering upon a promising 
offensive movement. 

In the casualty returns for the period between June 25 
and Jul)- 2, the Fifteenth is reported to have had eleven 
wounded and twenty-seven captured or missing. Consider- 
ing the efficient work it had done, this loss seems small. If 
we would understand the real losses to the regiment during 
the Peninsular campaign, however, we must study the hos- 
pital reports, for many a man who was discharged for dis- 
ability during the summer and autumn, had incurred chronic 
complaints in the swamps of the Chickahominy 

The camp at Harrrison's Landing was more healthy than 
that at Fair Oaks had been, but man)' had not recovered 
from the wounds and diseases of the campaign, so that the 
hospitals were full. July 18, Surgeon Haven says: "The sick 
list is very large." The paymaster came July 21. July 22, 
there was a grand review of Sumner's corps. During the 
five weeks that McClellan's arm)' remained here, little that 
was eventful occurred. Selections from the letters of 
Richard Derby tell the story: 



AT HARRISONS LANDING. 179 

"Monday, August 4. The rebels say that this is the 
hottest part of Virginia, and our drill-ground is the very 
focus of the region round about. We have had but two 
events, of late, to remind us that we are in the vicinity of the 
enemy One night, about a week ago, the sudden and rapid 
booming of cannons and the whizzing of shells broke the 
stillness of the night. The rebels had planted a batter)- on 
the opposite side of the river, and were blazing away at us 
with a vengeance. It was some time before we got our big 
guns to bear on them. Here is another order: 'No brigade 

drill, prepare to move, — two days' rations in haversacks, and 
sixty rounds of ammunition;' so I must drop the pen and 
take up the sword. 

"Thursday evening, August 7. Here I am, seated again 
quietly in our old quarters, after a three-days' picnic. Our 
expedition was intended to surprise the rebels at Malvern 
Hill, — the scene of the great battle of July 1. Our division 
was to march round across country and fall upon their left 
flank, while another moved directly upon their front. But 
they were too wide-awake, and got wind of the movement, 
so that they could withdraw at pleasure. We marched most 
all Monday night, taking a little nap just before morning, 
and then advanced upon the enemy's pickets. Firing began 
at daylight, and was kept up pretty briskly for two hours. 
The Fifteenth, with its usual good luck, was in such a 
position as not to be engaged, and did not lose a man. Our 
post was an honorable one, and if the rebels had chosen to 
resist, it would have been a bloody one. We bivouacked 
among the graves of the killed of July 1, — those of the Con- 
federates being single, while those of the Federals were huge 
trenches, where all were tumbled in promiscuously, and some- 
times barely covered with loose earth. All the buildings in 
the vicinity were completely riddled with rifle and cannon 
balls. All the inhabitants, black and white, had fled. One 
rich old planter left so many proofs of disloyalty, that we 
burnt his dwelling and all his out-buildings. Skirmishing 



I SO THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

was going on between our cavalry scouts and the enemy's 
pickets day and night. When it became evident that we 
had drawn down from Richmond a pretty strong force pre- 
paring to attack us, we had gained all we wanted, and, at 
one-thirty this morning, we silently took our blankets on our 
arms and left, arriving in camp earl)' this morning, tired, 
dusty, hungry and sleepy. Our band is to be mustered out 
to-morrow, and, this evening, is giving farewell serenades 
which interfere materially with my writing. They are now 
playing 'Ever of Thee' — a beautiful tune that I am willing 
to devote a good share of my precious time to hearing. I 
call my time 'precious' because I ought to be sleeping, 
preparatory to early work to-morrow morning. To-morrow 
is the anniversary of our departure from Massachusetts. I 
hope to dine with General Devens, who has invited me to a 
dinner-party he gives in honor of the day." 

Chaplain Scandlin had been in doubtful health for some 
time, and he felt that under existing conditions it would be 
better to return to his old pastoral charge than to remain 
longer in the army. As early as July 18, Colonel Ward had 
written to Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball: "I hope Mr. Scand- 
lin will reconsider his determination to come home at the 
end of the year, as his wife informs me he intends to do. 
He is one of the few men who have the faculty of making 
themselves useful in almost any position, and the regiment 
can ill afford to lose him. The date assigned to his resig- 
nation is August 12." 

August 8, Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball wrote to Chaplain 
Scandlin from Harrison's Landing: 

"My Very Dear Friend: Having learned with deep regret 
of your determination to leave the military service of the 
United States, in which you have served so faithfully for the 
last twelve months, for the more pleasant and congenial 
duties of home and your pastoral relations, I cannot forbear 
to express to you my entire approbation of your course dur- 
ing our connection in this service. We came together 



CHAPLAIN SCANDLIN. iSl 

strangers, yet from the first I felt that I could rely upon you 
as a friend, not only in prosperity, but in adversity How- 
true were my first impressions I need not state here, but they 
have been more than realized. Your earnest and hearty 
devotion to the regiment, both spiritually and temporally, 
have met with the universal approbation of all who have 
witnessed it; night and day have you labored in the camp, 
on the battle-field, by the sick bed, and by your kind words 
have given consolation to many a brave comrade who has 
passed where war and all its relations are unknown, but 
where peace reigns supreme. I feel, dear friend, that much 
of the hearty good-will and harmony existing among the 
officers and men of the regiment and which does very much 
towards giving us the high position which we now hold, not 
only in true estimation of our immediate superiors, but of 
our own beloved country and state, is justly attributed to 
your Chrisian teachings, counsels and advice." 

A letter was also sent from the officers as a bod)-, 
expressing regret at his departure, gratitude for his services, 
and hopes for his future welfare. After Antietam, October 
5, 1862, he was urged to rejoin the regiment by a letter 
signed by every officer on duty, but his other duties seemed 
more imperative. 

Derby's letters continue: "August 11. We are again 
under marching orders, i. e., to hold ourselves in readiness 
to move at two o'clock this afternoon; destination not 
stated. We do not always march when we receive such 
orders, but the indications now are quite strong that we are 
going somewhere. Every one is guessing, and the general 
impression is that the whole army is going down the James 
River to Fortress M onroe. . The dinner at General Devens' 
was a very pleasant affair indeed. There were about twenty 
present, and we spent about four hours in social enjoyment. 
Mr. Scandlin has at last bid us good-bye. We shall miss him 
sadly He went down the river yesterday. The weather is 
hotter than ever experienced before, but there is not so 



l82 THE PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 

much sickness as when we first came here. Flies swarm on 
us like the plagues of Egypt. They are almost intolerable. 
We have to blow them out of our tents with gunpowder." 

The march down the Peninsula did not begin until 
August 16, at six a. m. At one o'clock only six miles had 
been covered. Then came a rest. That night the Fifteenth 
was on picket duty. On the following day the Fifteenth 
reached the mouth of the Chickahominy, after a march of 
about thirteen miles. Here it crossed, August 18, on a pon- 
toon bridge, two thousand feet in length. On the next da)' 
the regiment went on seven miles to Williamsburg, the next 
six miles to Yorktown, the next seventeen miles to Big 
Bethel, and the next about six miles to Newport News. 
This march was in pleasant weather and under favorable 
conditions. The letters continue: 

"August 24. We broke up our camp at Newport News, 
Sunday morning, and marched down to the landing. Mon- 
day morning we went on board the steamer 'Mississippi,'— 
a large, commodious boat, built to run between Boston and 
New York. This morning we arrived at the mouth of Aquia 
Creek, and now — three p. m. — the order has just been issued 
to disembark. There are three regiments on board (about 
twenty three hundred men), and ours being the last, we may 
not get off till morning. We shall probably go direct to 
Fredericksburg, as there is railroad communication with that 
point. Our voyage has been of great benefit to us, giving 
us good rest at night, and mattressed berths, and pretty 
good fare at table. I expect we have got to go into rough 
living again, but it won't be as bad as what we have seen. 
The hottest part of the season is past, and Northern 
Virginia is not as unhealthy as the Peninsula. Everybody is 
glad to get out of that swampy desert. 

'Alexandria, Virginia, Thursday morning. The first boat- 
load sent ashore at Aquia Creek returned with orders to 
proceed to Alexandria; and here we are, lying in the stream 



LOSSES OF PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN. 183 

opposite the city We shall probably land during the day." 
July 2, a new brigade, under General Nathan Kimball, 
was added to the Second Arm}- Corps. During August and 
September one hundred and seventy-five new recruits, 
mostly from Worcester County, were assigned to the Fif- 
teenth. A considerable number of these never joined the 
regiment. 

The following men were killed or mortally wounded at 
Fair Oaks:* Company C, Frank H. Fairbanks, Franklin 
H. Farnsworth; Company D, Edwin Blake (date unknown), 
William M. Blodgett; Company E, Corporal John Toomey, 
Luther C. Torrey; Company G, Adelbert L. Brown, June 18; 
Company H, Francis Hanley, July 27; Company K, Corporal 
Eli Syminster. As only five were buried on the field imme- 
diately after the battle, it is probable that one more of these 
men may have lived for some time after being wounded, 
May 31. One more is said to have been mortally wounded 
in Fox's Regimental Losses. The name of Henry N. Bemis 
has been by error sometimes included in this list. 

From the beginning of the Peninsular campaign to the 
battle of Antietam the following deaths are recorded in addi- 
tion to those killed at Fair Oaks: Company A, George H. 
Gallup, August 6; George F Newton, June 10; Samuel E. 
Pratt, June 25. Company B, David Bliss, September 13; 
George A. Spofford, July 17; John Skerrington, July 29. 
Company C, Sergeant Edward W Benson, August 4; William 
Carter, Jul) - 18; Francis E. Smith, July 25. Company D, 



* Circumstances connected with the publishing of this work re- 
quire that this list and others of a similar nature throughout the book 
should be printed before the Individual Record receives its final revision 
at the hands of the members of the regiment. Though great care has 
been used, errors will be likely to occur. If these lists differ from the 
Individual Record, the latter is to be accepted as final. 



184 THE PENINSULAR CAMPA1C.N. 

Sergeant F McCambridge, August 8; Lance-Sergeant Walter 
S.Shaw, July 17; Andrew S.Cobb, August 12; Mollis H.Howe, 
May 4; Chas. P Mansfield, June 12; G. O. Pierce, August 1. 
Company E, Cyrus Larned, September 2; Albert L. Williams, 
June 13. Company G, Lucius D. Boyden, August 26; William 
C. Greene, June 30; Daniel Harris, June 30; Cassius M Wilder, 
July 20. Company H, Henry M. Engly, July 3; Arnold 
Mowry, April 24; Franklin Waterman, June 1 1. Company 
I, Elisha T Bigelow, July 7; Company K, Michael Cos- 
grove, September 3; August Grobitz, June 14; Andrew F 
Simmons, April 20; Martin McBridge or McBride, April 2j 
This gives, including those at Fair Oaks, a total of thirty- 
seven deaths during this period. The number lost from dis- 
ability during the same period was ninety-three, the number 
from desertion eight, the number belonging to the band 
twenty (discharged per order of the war department), the 
number of officers from resignation or dismissal, seven. 
These were Colonel Charles Devens, Chaplain William G. 
Scandlin, Surgeon Joseph N Bates, Captain Henry Bowman 
of Company C, Adjutant George W Baldwin, First-Lieuten- 
ant Newell K. Holden.of Company G, and Second-Lieutenant 
Lyman Doane of Company F. This makes a total loss from 
all sources of one hundred and seventy-seven. Some of these 
were paroled Ball's Bluff prisoners who had already been 
dropped from the rolls as missing in action. This loss was 
offset by a gain of one hundred and fifty-three new recruits. 
This number of new recruits must be reduced by uncertain 
cases, recorded as "never left state," etc. Thus the monthly 
returns give only one hundred and fifteen as the number of 
recruits received in September. After the recruits were re- 
ceived, but before the 17th, there must have been, according 
to these monthly returns, about one thousand men in the 
regiment, of whom nearly half were absent sick or on 
detached service, or detailed for other duties on the day of 
the battle of Antietam. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 
August 26 — September 22, 1862. 

On the 26th of June, General Pope had been appointed 
to the command of the united armies of Northern Virginia. 
This force numbered about fifty thousand men. July 12, 
General Halleck, called from the West, was made General- 
in-Chief of the Union forces. Neither Pope nor Halleck had 
any sympathy with McClellan in his plan of operations against 
Richmond along the James. During July, Pope's army was 
advancing along the line of the Alexandria and Orange Rail- 
road with the object of cutting off the railroad connections 
of Richmond with Southwestern Virginia. General Jackson, 
who was conducting the campaign against Pope, being hard- 
pressed, asked Lee for reinforcements. General A. P Hill's 
division was sent to him, but Lee felt that he could spare no 
more troops while McClellan was threatening Richmond 
from the James. The army of Jackson, thus reenforced, 
was still inferior to that of Pope, but the transfer of Hill's 
division helped Halleck to so work upon the fears of the 
government for the safety of Washington that McClellan's 
army was called to its defense, August 3. This gave General 
Lee an opportunity to join Jackson with the force that had 
been previously required for the defense of Richmond. 
Jackson had fought Pope at Cedar Mountain, August 9, be- 
fore the arrival of Lee's main army, and had been obliged to 
withdraw to Gordonsville. The united armies of Lee and 
Jackson forced Pope to a disastrous retreat, with its destruc- 

13 



186 THK ANTIETAM CAMPAICX. 

tive battle at Manassas, August 29 and 30, and that at 
Chantillv, September 1. 

The troops of General McClellan were withdrawn from 
his command and sent to stay the advance of the victorious 
rebels. In accordance with General Halleck's instructions, 
the Second Corps, which reached Alexandria, August 28, 
started for Chain Bridge the next day The Fifteenth was 
in motion at four p. m., and with a pause of two hours at 
midnight, went on until it reached its destination. At 
Chain Bridge a camp was pitched. Here a long-promised 
rest was expected, but the distant booming of cannon told 
that a battle was raging, and at three o'clock p m., August 
30, the regiment set out once more and marched to Fairfax. 
Here there was a rest of four hours, from nine o'clock p m. 
to one o'clock a. m., August 31. Then the forced march was 
continued to Centerville. It rained during the da} 7 , and this 
added to the difficulty of the march. There were many 
stragglers found along the road, all telling the most woeful 
stories. The diary of A. B. Yeomans has these entries: 
"September 1. Brigade went out reconnoitering. Came 
back at night. Marched all night and got back to Fairfax 
in the morning." (In this reconnoitering the Fifteenth was 
not under fire, but it " lost several men who were taken 
prisoners.") "September 2. Formed line of battle and re- 
mained all day. In the afternoon were slightly shelled by 
the enemy At nearly dark the column moved back. The 
rebels brought up their flying artillery and annoyed the rear 
of our column. The First Minnesota, with one section of 
artillery, was formed across the road. Our regiment took a 
cross-road and waited an attack. The enemy's cavalry came 
upon the First Minnesota, who gave them a volley They 
fell back. We rejoined the column and marched until two 
o'clock. 'Panic' We bivouacked about two miles from 
Chain Bridge." 

Thus the Fifteenth took part with the rest of the Second 
Corps in covering the retreat after the battle at Chantilly 



COVERING THE RETREAT. 187 

Of these movements and the "panic" spoken of, Surgeon 
Haven writes: "We were then on the retreat towards Chain 
Bridge, the column passing on ahead and our brigade cover- 
ing the retreat. Shortly after, the enemy began shelling us 
from a concealed place on the left. We moved a little dis- 
tance and another battery opened on us on the right and 
behind. We moved on, still in good order, and about dusk 
the cavalry attacked us. They were received by an ambus- 
cade fire from the First Minnesota of our brigade and thrown 
back in confusion. A few of our men were wounded by the 
fire from the cavalry. Our march was continued through 
the night unmolested, but an unfortunate circumstance 
occurred on the way. We were going on a road through a 
dense wood when an over-turned wagon, some unruly mule, 
or something of the sort, started a panic, and some of our 
cavalry and other mounted men rushed through our ranks. 
I was leading my horse at the time, but held on to her, and 
we were both driven violently into the wood and brush, 
where the cavalry and some of the infantry on the other side 
of the road poured a volley into us. The whole affair hardly 
lasted five minutes, but in that time perhaps between twenty 
and thirty were killed and wounded." None of the Fifteenth 
were in that number. 

Yeoman's diary continues: "September 3. Crossed 
Chain Bridge and went into camp at Tenallytown, Maryland. 
An order was read to us that General McClellan had been 
reinstated. Great cheering. Camp called 'Camp Confi- 
dence.' " This order was greeted with equal joy by the 
Army of the Potomac as a whole, for McClellan had the love 
and trust of his old soldiers. "The Army of Virginia," by 
which name Pope's forces had been known, at this time 
ceased to exist as a separate organization. 

McClellan was now obliged to reorganize the demoral- 
ized army, which consisted of Pope's original forces, the rein- 
forcements from Burnside which had been sent to the Army 
of Virginia, and his old army which he had led on the Penin* 



1 88 THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

sula. It was necessary to do this and at the same time con- 
duct a most vigorous campaign against a victorious enemy. 
McClellan's mental qualities and the power of his name 
among his soldiers helped on the work of reorganization and 
circumstances compelled a certain degree of vigor in follow- 
ing and engaging the enemy. 

The wonderful success which had thus far attended Lee's 
movement emboldened him to enter upon new plans. He 
decided to cross the Potomac. He hoped that the people 
of Maryland would flock to his standard, that the disloyal 
sentiment in the North would be encouraged, that prestige 
would be gained abroad, and that some decisive blow might 
be struck upon the Union army before it had recovered from 
its retreat. If all these hopes failed him, he still might, as 
he thought, render an invasion of Virginia, for that season at 
least, impossible. 

By the 7th of September, the whole Confederate army 
was near Frederick City, but Lee was disappointed in his 
reception by the people of Maryland. He now moved 
across the South Mountain range, so that he might be close 
to his line of communication with Richmond through the 
Shenandoah Valley and threatened an invasion of Pennsyl- 
vania. There was a force of some twelve thousand Union 
troops in and near Harper's Ferry under Colonel Dixon S. 
Miles. McClellan urged that the town should be abandoned 
and Maryland Heights should be occupied, but Halleck in- 
sisted on the retention of Harper's Ferry. September 10, 
Lee made his first movement for the reduction of that place. 

Meanwhile the Union army had been slowly moving 
northward so as to protect both Washington and Baltimore, 
the Second and Fifth Corps, both under Sumner, forming 
the center. September 5, the Fifteenth Regiment reached 
Rockville. A short distance from the town, Camp Defiance 
was established. Here a considerable number of recruits 
from Worcester County joined the regiment on the 8th. This 
camp was left on the same day By the 10th, the regiment 



AT FREDERICK CITY. 1 89 

was within three miles of Clarksburg. On the nth, it moved 
on to Hyattstown. Here a small body of rebel cavalry was 
dispersed by a few shells from Kirby's and Tompkins' bat- 
teries. The regiment formed in line of battle and remained 
through the day On the 12th, Urbana was reached and on 
the 13th, Frederick City. Just before the arrival in Freder- 
ick, General McClellan rode by the regiment and was greeted 
with the most enthusiastic cheers. 

The brightness of the day. the natural beauty of the 
region, the charm of the quaint old town and the cordial 
greetings of the inhabitants combined to fill the hearts of 
the soldiers with cheer. At four p m. of this day, Richard 
Derby wrote: "We have just marched through the city, and 
are bivouacking in the clover-fields near by There has been 
a running fight between our advance of cavalry and flying 
artillery all day, but several miles from us. We could see 
the smoke of the cannonading on the mountains across the 
valley as we came down into Frederick; but it has gone 
over to the west side now. What the rebels mean by their 
movements, is a mystery; and of course our movements 
depend upon theirs; and I cannot tell where we shall go 
next." 

While at Frederick a copy of Lee's official order for the 
movement of his army on Harper's Ferry fell into McClel- 
lan's hands. This would have given a more energetic com- 
mander a chance to save the garrison there, and do irreparable 
injury to Lee's army, but McClellan was too dilatory. He 
ordered an advance by Crampton Pass and Turner's Gap 
through the South Mountain range. At each of these passes 
there was a spirited action on the afternoon of September 14, 
and both passes fell into the hands of the Union troops. The 
Second Corps was not engaged, but was in support at Turn- 
er's Gap. Just after dark it relieved the line of battle. Thus 
the way had been opened for the saving of Harper's Ferry, 
and Franklin's corps was within six miles of that place, when 
Colonel Miles surrendered with all his garrison. If he had 



IgO THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

possessed the courage to hold out a little longer, or if 
McClellan s arm)- had moved more quickly, this disaster 
might have been avoided. The same lack of vigor hindered 
McClellan from attacking Lee's army on the following day, 
and defeating it in detail. 

The special story of the Fifteenth during these three days 
is one of great hardship. During the night of the 13th, the 
men were on picket duty. Man}' of them had little rest 
during the night, and were obliged to start at seven the next 
morning, in some cases without any breakfast, on another 
long, exhausting march. Four p. m. found the regiment at 
Middletown, but before preparation could be made for sup- 
per, it was ordered forward again. At ten o'clock the half- 
starved and utterly worn out men reached the scene of the 
day's battle at Turner's Gap. Still there was no rest, for at 
ten-thirty the regiment was ordered to take the place of the 
Seventh Wisconsin and was in the front line all night. Yet 
even here such was the condition of the men that many of 
them found a little sleep. September 15, the regiment 
marched through Boonsborough and Keedysville, and then 
bivouacked. 

September 16, a third division was added to the Second 
Corps. An independent brigade under General Nathan Kim- 
ball had formed part of the corps since July 2. The regi- 
ments of this brigade and other regiments, new and old, were 
organized to make a full division, which was placed under 
command of General William H. French. 

Lee had now gathered the greater part of his scattered 
forces near Sharpsburg, between Antietam Creek and the 
Potomac, with both flanks on the curving river and with the 
creek in front, and was awaiting in this position of his own 
choosing, the attack of the Union army. 

September 16, Hooker's First Corps had crossed Antie- 
tam Creek by the upper ford and the bridge on the Keedys- 
ville road, and had skirmished with the enemy under Hood. 
Mansfield's Twelfth Corps had followed across the creek 
during the night. 



ig2 THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

The morning of the 17th opened cloudy and cool. "Thank 
God," said many; "we have not got to fight beneath a blis- 
tering sun." Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball says: "It has been 
the subject of much remark that troops never went into bat- 
tle more cheerfully than did ours that morning, so confident 
were all that the shattered enemy would be driven ere night 
across the river." At daybreak Hooker advanced against 
the enemy's left flank. This extended across the Hagers- 
town turnpike and then parallel to it, as is shown upon the 
accompanying map. General Hood had been relieved during 
the evening by Lawton's and Trimble's brigades of Ewell's 
division of Jackson's corps, and J. R. Jones with the division 
known as Jackson's own from the same corps. Stuart's cav- 
alry was still farther to the left. Artillery had been placed 
at various advantageous points by the Confederates. It was 
upon the line of J. R. Jones, Lawton and Trimble, supported 
by Hays, that Hooker's attack fell at early dawn. The su- 
preme struggle came at the cornfield between the East and 
West Woods. Although the three divisions of Hooker, un- 
der Doubleday, Meade and Ricketts, succeeded by the most 
heroic efforts in pushing back the Confederate lines to the 
Hagerstown turnpike and the West Woods, yet their effec- 
tive force was well nigh gone before the Twelfth Corps 
reached the scene of action. Thus ended the first of a series 
of battles. Had the Twelfth Corps been united with the 
First in this engagement, it is likely that Jackson would have 
been overpowered. As it was, he had suffered most terribly 
To use his own words: "The carnage on both sides was ter- 
rific. More than half of the brigades of Lawton and Hays 
had been killed or wounded and more than a third of Trim- 
ble's." 

The second struggle was at right angles to the first along 
the Hagerstown turnpike north of the Dunker (Dunkard) 
Church. The exhausted brigades of Lawton, Hays and 
Trimble had been relieved by Early's brigade of Ewell's 
division and by Hood's division of Longstreet's corps. Some 



MANSFIELD S ATTACK. 193 

of the troops of J R.Jones' division were still upon the field, 
and the Confederate artillery was firing most effectively 
from the hills in the rear. It was against this force that the 
two divisions of Mansfield, together with some remnants from 
Hooker's corps, were hurled. The enemy were protected by 
the fences along either side of the Hagerstown pike and by 
woods on the west of it which were full of rocky ravines. 
Here the two armies fiercely wrestled. Though Mansfield 
fell mortally wounded, yet his two divisions, the right under 
Williams and the left under Greene, fought on. Greene suc- 
ceeded in crossing the road and holding for a time a position 
to the north of the church. But before nine o'clock the 
Twelfth Corps had been so shattered that its power was ut- 
terly gone. Here a brief pause marks the division between 
the second and third struggle. For a second time the error 
of sending a single corps against the combined forces of the 
enemy in a position of their own choosing, had resulted in 
the destruction of the Union forces without the accomplish- 
ment of their purpose, yet it was to be tried once more. 

The men of the Fifteenth, together with the other soldiers 
of the Second Corps, had been called up at about four o'clock. 
The knapsacks had been packed to leave in the camp. 
From afar the men had waited with anxious hearts, uncertain 
of the outcome of the battle, of the movements of which 
they could now and then catch glimpses through the woods 
and smoke. Sumner had received orders the night before 
to be ready to follow Mansfield an hour before daybreak. 
He was ready at the appointed hour, but while the lion- 
hearted leader impatiently waited, one after another the 
death-glutted hours passed by. It was twenty minutes past 
seven before he received final orders to march. Not a 
moment was lost. Sedgwick's division moved first in three 
lines. It forded the Antietam where the water was up to 
the knees of the soldiers. The Fifteenth was the third regi- 
ment in the brigade line, and including the First Company 
Andrew Sharpshooters, had twenty-four officers and five 



ig4 THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

hundred and eighty-two men in action. A considerable 
number of these men were new recruits, but as they marched 
to their first baptism of fire, side by side with the war- 
scarred veterans who had learned the lesson of unfaltering 
courage at Ball's Bluff and on the Peninsula, the spirit of 
their comrades took possession of their souls, and they 
moved on without wavering. The list of casualties, which 
were as many among the new recruits as among the soldiers 
of more experience, shows that all alike faced every peril of 
the battle. 

After crossing the creek and going a quarter of a mile up 
a gentle slope, the division was formed into battle lines, in 
column by brigades. General Gorman's brigade was in ad- 
vance, Dana's was second, Howard's third. The regiments 
in Gorman's brigade were arranged with the First Minnesota 
on the right, the Eighty-second New York next, then came 
the Fifteenth Massachusetts, with the Thirty-fourth New 
York on the left. There were between sixty and seventy 
paces between the brigades as they advanced simultaneously 
Before they had gone fifty yards they came under a sharp 
fire from the enemy's concealed batteries. The three lines 
moved rapidly forward for about three-quarters of a mile 
through the East Woods, a noble grove of oaks, cleared of 
underbrush, then throwing down a fence, they entered the 
corn-field strewn with the dead and wounded of the earlier 
conflict, then crossing the Hagerstown turnpike, with Dun- 
ker Church to their left, they passed through the West 
Woods, which the enemy could no longer hold against our 
fresh attack, to the edge of the open ground beyond. 
While passing through these woods the Thirty-fourth New 
York became separated from Gorman's brigade, and found 
itself on the left of the Hundred and Twenty-fifth Pennsyl- 
vania of the Twelfth Corps. 

The division had now reached a position more advanced 
than any other occupied by the Union forces during the 
battle. It had even gone past the real front of the rebel 



SEDGWICK S POSITION. 195 

line into a gap between the troops which had been opposed 
to Williams' division of the Twelfth Corps on the right, and 
those which had been opposed to Greene's division on the 
left. It had found none of the troops of Hooker or Mans- 
field in its line of advance in such a condition as to render 
an)' efficient aid in an attack on the enemy. French's 
division of the Second Corps was half a mile to the left and 
rear, fighting with the enemy at Roulette's and Clipp s 
farms. Richardson's division, which had been delayed some 
three-quarters of an hour, was still further away. Sedgwick 
was practically alone with his three brigades, to meet all that 
remained of the forces which had withstood the corps of 
Hooker and Mansfield, and such new troops as could be 
hurried to that part of the field. Sumner evidently had no 
clear idea of the position or condition of Hooker's and 
Mansfield's corps at this time. If it was his purpose, as has 
been suggested, to fill in the gap between Greene and 
Williams with Sedgwick, he had failed to make such con- 
nections as to protect his flanks. 

The three brigades were all facing west in extended lines, 
with no protection whatever for the exposed flanks. As 
Gorman's brigade emerged from the West Woods it received 
a destructive volley from the enemy, who were in front, not 
more than fifteen yards away, behind a farm-house, a barn, 
an orchard and stacks of corn. Here were all the troops 
which were left, capable of further fighting, from the di- 
visions of J. R. Jones, PLwell and Hood, and a portion of 
D. H. Hill's division. Six hundred yards away to the right 
and front were the rebel batteries, pouring in "a most terrific 
fire of grape and canister." During the next fifteen or 
twenty minutes, the Fifteenth and its companion regiments 
stood firmly in line and even advanced some ten yards, 
though men were falling thick and fast. Here a battle-flag 
was captured from the rebels by the Fifteenth, and it was 
borne from the field as a trophy. The Fifty-ninth New 
York Regiment in the second line began firing at the rebels 



1 96 THE AXTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

through the first line, and did as much harm to their friends 
as to their enemies. It was not until Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kimball had called the attention of General Sumner, who 
was riding along behind Gorman's line, to this fatal error, 
that the firing was stopped. The forty or more rounds of 
ammunition expended by the Fifteenth at this time did 
much execution on the rebels, notwithstanding their pro- 
tected position. One of their batteries was twice silenced 
by the Fifteenth and the Andrew Sharpshooters attached 
to it. 

If Sedgwick's division had been obliged to contend only 
with the troops in front, it is probable that the valor of his 
men might have won the day But reinforcements, called 
from the right, now began to pour in to the aid of the 
exhausted enemy As Sumner sees men coming from the 
left, realizing now, when it is too late, that his confidence in 
his troops and his lack of information concerning the 
position of the opposing forces have caused him to advance 
into dangers that even Sedgwick's division cannot success- 
fully meet, he cries: "My God! we must get out of this." 
He orders General Howard, more by signs than words, for 
words can be no longer heard, to bring the third line into 
position to meet the approaching force. But it is too late. 
A few minutes before it would have been easy to have 
faced enough troops to the south to have guarded in some 
measure against just such an attack, but now it is impossible. 

The fresh divisions of McLaws and Walker, both of 
Longstreet's corps, coming from the Confederate center 
along the rear of their line, fall at once, together with the 
troops previously upon the field, upon the front, left flank 
and rear of Sedgwick's division. Even had the blow been 
given entirely from the front it must have proved irresistible. 
Striking as it does, the division can use but little of its 
strength. The regiment on the left of Howard's brigade 
crumbles and vanishes, and the whole line withdraws. The 
second line, which is now the rear, stands more firmly, but 



THE CONFEDERATE ATTACK. I97 

its resistance is ineffectual. Meanwhile, Gorman's brigade, 
with the Fifteenth in the most perilous position on the left, 
stands "loading and firing as if on dress parade." There is 
a depression at the left of the Fifteenth. Here the rebels 
are in a ravine, and with a most murderous fire rake the 
line. From the rear, too, the thick-coming bullets seek 
their victims, while from the right and front infantry and 
artillery pour in their leaden rain with redoubled fierce- 
ness. Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball's horse is shot under 
him. The bearer of the state colors is wounded. Charles 
R. Frazer, the color-sergeant, seizes them, and bears both the 
flags in the fore front of the battle with a valor that will win 
for him a commission. Soon he is wounded, but other hands 
bear the colors no less defiantly aloft. In less than twenty 
minutes, more than half the regiment has been killed or 
wounded, yet the men obey with reluctance the command to 
withdraw. The movement is made in good order, and, when 
it has retired about one hundred yards to the right and 
rear, Gorman's brigade faces about and by a volley checks 
the advancing foe. Then it moves on once more. 

The Fifteenth, under the orders of General Gorman, took 
its position about five hundred yards to the right of and a 
little in the rear of its original battle-line. Here, under 
cover of the artillery, the remnant of the regiment awaited 
the orders which the exigencies of the battle might cause to 
be given to it. Fortunately the enemy were not in a con- 
dition to follow up their advantage, for other bodies of 
Union troops now demanded their attention. French's 
division of the Second Corps, which had diverged from 
Sedgwick's and had engaged the enemy at Roulette's and 
Clipp's farms, had succeeded in pushing them back to and 
beyond a sunken road known as the "Bloody Lane." Soon 
Smith's division of the Sixth Corps reached the field and 
filled the gap between Sedgwick and French. Richardson 
was on the left of French. After a fierce struggle con- 
tinued by Richardson's troops until noon with varying sue- 



I98 THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

cess, at last the Union line, composed of Sedgwick s, Smith's, 
French's and Richardson's divisions in the order given, from 
right to left, was established. Slocum's division of Frank- 
lin's Sixth Corps had also come up, and it would have been 
possible for the Union army which had suffered so from 
fighting in detail, to have renewed aggressive action in mass 
with a good prospect of success, as Burnside with the Ninth 
Corps, after five hours of fatal delay, had at last taken and 
crossed the Stone Bridge over the Antietam on the left at 
one o'clock and gained the crest at three, and Porter's 
reserve corps might have been brought into action. But 
the dismay caused by the losses of the morning, and over- 
estimating the number of the enemy, led to the rejection of 
the proposal which Franklin made to this effect, and thus 
the battle was closed. 

During the latter part of the day the Fifteenth was 
stationed in support of a battery on a hill near the house of 
J. Puffenberger on the Plagerstown pike. On the following 
day the two armies remained in position with a constant 
expectation of a renewal of fighting. On the field between 
the lines lay the dead and wounded. The fire of the 
skirmishers prevented any efficient steps on either side for 
the care of these. On the 19th, the Union troops advancing, 
found that General Lee had withdrawn across the Potomac. 
After burying the dead and carrying the wounded to the 
hospitals, the Fifteenth, with the rest of the Second Corps, 
went through Sharpsburg to the Potomac River, September 
22, forded at Harper's Ferry, and went into camp at Bolivar 
Heights on the same ground occupied six months before. 
As General McClellan did not follow up his advantage over 
Lee, the Antietam campaign ended at this point. 

General Devens in an address at the dedication of the 
monument of the Fifteenth at Gettysburg in 1886, said: "At 
Antietam, when I was moving up with my brigade on the 
morning after the principal battle, anticipating its renewal, 
my orderly, George W Alirick, said to me, 'General Sedg- 



TRIBUTES TO THE FIFTEENTH. I99 

wick is wounded lying in a hut near the road.' I jumped off 
my horse and ran in for a moment. After speaking of his 
wound, which although it disabled him for a time, was not 
dangerous, General Sedgwick said to me, Your old Fifteenth 
was magnificent yesterday; no regiment ever fought better.' 

. It certainly was a sufficient compliment when he said in 
his report that its 'conduct was not different from what it 
was on all other occasions.' " Captain Church Howe, an 
aide to the commander of the division, and Lieutenant 
William R. Steele, ordnance officer of division, were especially 
commended by General Howard, who commanded the 
divison after General Sedgwick was wounded. 

General Devens said at another time: "The Fifteenth 
exhibited a courage and fidelity more than worthy of veteran 
troops, for it was worthy of the holy cause which had drawn 
its men from their peaceful homes." 

General Gorman said in his report: "The coolness and 
desperation with which the brigade fought could not be sur- 
passed." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball reported: "My entire regi- 
ment behaved most gallantly during the whole engagement, 
evincing great coolness and braver)', as my list of casualties 
will show Although suffering terribly from the fire of the 
enemy, it was with great surprise they received the order to 
retreat, never entertaining for a moment any idea but that 
oi complete success, although purchased at the cost of their 
lives. The order forbidding the carrying of wounded men 
to the rear was obeyed to the very letter. Of my line offi- 
cers, without exception I cannot speak in too high praise. 
They were all at their posts, bravely and manfully urging on 
their men and equally exposed with them. Those wounded 
refused all assistance, ordering their men to return to the 
ranks and do their duty." Major Philbrick and Adjutant 
Hooper were especially mentioned " for coolness and prompt- 
itude." 

A member of General Couch's staff in a private letter 



200 THE AXTIETAM CAMPAIGN". 

wrote: "General Devens is greatly affected with the fate of 
his gallant regiment. What a magnificent history it has! Its 
colors have waved in eight battles, its officers and soldiers 
have fallen about them by hundreds, and the name of the 
Massachusetts Fifteenth will be forever historic, .grandly 
memorable, so long as suffering and courage are applauded." 
The losses of the Fifteenth at the battle of Antietam, 
that great harvest of death, were far larger than those of any 
other regiment engaged. From six hundred and six officers 
and men, including the First Company Andrew Sharpshoot- 
ers, three hundred and twenty, over fifty-two per cent, were 
reported as killed or wounded, and twenty-four were missing. 
This gives a total of three hundred and forty-four. The 
Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania of Mansfield's Twelfth Corps 
stood second with two hundred and sixty-six; the Seventy- 
second Pennsylvania of Howard's brigade, Sedgwick's divis- 
ion, was next with two hundred thirty-seven. There were 
eight other regiments which lost above two hundred men 
each, and there were six that lost a greater per cent than the 
Fifteenth in this engagement. This was a much greater 
loss in killed and wounded than the Fifteenth suffered 
in any other battle, and it stands high among the foremost 
regimental losses in a single day's battle for the Union army 
in the Civil War taken as a whole. To the number of the 
killed we may well add a large number of those who were so 
severely wounded that they died shortly after the battle. 
Fox in his volume of Regimental Losses in the Civil War, 
gives the number of killed and mortally wounded as ninety- 
eight for the regiment alone, and one hundred and eight for 
regiment and Andrew Sharpshooters. Only three infantry 
regiments lost more in killed and mortally wounded in a 
single engagement during the whole war. These were the 
Fifth New York, at Manassas, one hundred and seventeen; 
the Fifteenth New Jersey, at Spottsylvania, one hundred and 
sixteen, and the Forty-ninth Pennsylvania, at Spottsylvania, 
one hundred and nine. While the loss of the regiment 



AFTER THE BATTLE. 201 

alone was much greater at Antietam than at Gettysburg, the 
per cent of loss to numbers engaged was less. Here it was 
fifty-six and seven-tenths, and at Gettysburg sixty-one and 
nine-tenths. 

Surgeon Haven stated: "A lot of our killed and wounded 
lay beyond our lines and within those of the rebels. I made 
several vain efforts to get at them, and particularly to find 
Tom Spurr. During the night the enemy retreated and 

early in the morning we went over and found our dead and 
wounded — an awful sight." Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball 
wrote of those who were left on the battle-ground: "Almost 
all the wounded were found in or about a barn near the field, 
where, as well cared for by the enemy as the circumstances 
would permit, they impatiently awaited our arrival. The 
robbed and disfigured bodies of our noble dead were laid by 
kind hands in the humble graves hastily dug and prepared 
for their reception." 

The bodies of a considerable number of the members of 
the Fifteenth are still resting in the now beautiful cemetery 
at Antietam, and here in 1886 and again in 1898 their graves 
were visited by some of their surviving comrades. 

Much the larger portion of the wounded had retired to 
the rear before the withdrawal of our troops from their ad- 
vanced position, or accompanied them in their movement. 
Those whose wounds were most severe were cared for, as far 
as possible, in the neighboring houses and barns or were re- 
moved to the Antietam hospital established at Smoketown, 
near Keedysville. This consisted of hospital tents and was 
capable of comfortably accommodating nearly six hundred 
patients. Here they received the best of care and the most 
skillful treatment that circumstances could allow. But even 
thus the horrors of the hospital after such a battle are beyond 
description. Those whose wounds were more slight, either 
found their own way or were carried to Boonsboro and on to 
Frederick, and thence were sent to Washington, Baltimore 
and elsewhere. Many relatives and friends from home vis- 

14 



202 THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

ited these hospitals seeking those who were dear to them. 
.Some of these were able to cheer the hours of convalescence, 
others to say a last farewell, but many found that they were 
too late to do more than care for the bodies of those whose 
life had already been sacrificed. 

The commissioned officers who were killed or mortally 
wounded were: Captains Clark S. Simonds, Company B, and 
Richard Derby, Company C; Lieutenants Thomas J. Spurr, 
Company G, and Frank S. Corbin, Company I; Captain John 
Saunders and Lieutenant William Berry from the First 
Company of Sharpshooters. This number is smaller in 
proportion to that of the enlisted men than it would have 
been if the regiment had been fully officered. 

Captain Clark S. Simonds was born in Groton, Massachu- 
setts, February 24, 1834. His parents moved to Fitchburg 
in his early youth. He entered the Fitchburg Fusiliers 
some years before the war broke out. He was among the 
most eager of the members of that company to offer his 
services to the country. When John W Kimball was made 
major of the Fifteenth, Clark S. Simonds was made captain 
of Company B by the unanimous wish of the members of 
the company He was a most efficient officer. We have 
seen how he entered the battle of Ball's Bluff, though suffer- 
ing from an accidental wound; how he was captured there 
while bravely fighting; how he was for almost four months a 
prisoner at Richmond. When released he immediately re- 
joined his company and led it through the Peninsular cam- 
paign. Of the events connected with his death, Lieutenant- 
Colonel John W Kimball wrote: "On that memorable morn- 
ing, when the trumpet sounded the advance, well do we 
remember the coolness and quiet manner in which Captain 
Simonds moved his men to the front, and with what courage 
and determination he fought during that terrible engage- 
ment, in which, in the short space of less than twenty-five 
minutes, over one-half of that gallant regiment lay dead or 
wounded upon the field; with what reluctance he gave the 



CAPTAINS SIMONDS AND DERBY. 203 

order to his men to fall back, in obedience to superior 
officers. He' passed safely through that awful storm of shot 
and shell, to fall by a random shot thrown into the little 
grove where the regiment was re-forming after having fallen 
back from their first position; standing in his place just be- 
hind his company, cheering them by noble words of en- 
couragement and hope, and regretting the loss of those who 
had fallen, while the tears rolled down his manly cheek as 
he looked for those he loved and found their places vacant, 
a rebel shell came whirling and shrieking through the wood, 
striking the ground about thirty yards in advance of the line, 
ploughing up the earth, yet speeding on its mission of death. 
It struck Captain Simonds directly over the heart, killing 
him instantly He fell without a groan, and the last word 
he uttered was 'Colonel,' addressed to him who was in com- 
mand of the regiment. His men gathered around him, and 
with tears coursing down their bronzed cheeks they tenderly 
bore him to the rear, hoping that he might yet speak to 
them once more, but no, he was dead." 

Captain Richard Derby belonged to one of the old 
Xew England families. He was born in Medfield, Massa- 
chusetts, October 3, 1834. He entered Lawrence Academy 
at Groton at the age of fourteen. He was a scholar of 
excellent ability He had intended to enter college, but the 
failure of his health forced him to relinquish this ambition. 
Later he attended the private school of Rev. Joseph Allen 
in Northboro, and took a course at a commercial college. 
He was skillful in the use of tools and had considerable 
talent in drawing and music. He worked for a time as a 
salesman for a dry goods firm in Beloit, Wisconsin. He 
settled upon some government land in Minnesota and built 
himself a house, where he lived for a year and a half. Work 
as a salesman in the West and Boston filled up most of the 
intervening time between 1856 and the opening of the 
Civil War. When the President's first call for troops was 
issued, he enlisted from Boston in the Fourth Battalion Rifles. 
He was at Fort Independence until August, when he received 



204 THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

a commission as second-lieutenant in the Fifteenth Regiment. 
He was assigned to Company H. His letters, collected in a 
memorial volume entitled "The Young Captain," have been 
one of our chief sources of information in regard to the his- 
tory of the Fifteenth Regiment. From these we have been 
able to catch many glimpses of his life and character. He 
was made first-lieutenant November 22, 1861, and captain 
August 6, 1862. He commanded Company C. The follow- 
ing letter was written to his mother by his friend and subor- 
dinate officer, Lieutenant Walter Gale : 

"Bolivar, Va., September 24, 1862. 
"My Dear Madam: I trust that you will pardon my delay 
in giving you the particulars of that sad event, the announce- 
ment of which must have already reached you. Our poor 
wounded comrades have engrossed so much of our attention 
that we have not found time to communicate with the 
friends and relatives of those gone from us to return no 
more. Even now, it is painful in the extreme, to bring up 
again the picture of that terrible day. We left camp in 
cheerful spirits, though with something like a premonition 
that great events were at hand. I chatted pleasantly with 
Richard, who was almost a brother to me, and we went for- 
ward hand in hand, as it were, as we had often done before. 
When we approached the enemy, he asked me to attend to 
the men on the right of the company while he gave orders to 
those on the left. In a moment heavy volleys were poured 
into our ranks, and finding myself slightly wounded I sought 
the shelter of a tree. While binding my wound, I saw the 
lieutenant cheering on his men in the most heroic manner; 
it was a scene that I never can forget. Two minutes later 
he also was laid at the foot of the tree, fatally wounded in 
the temple. He was quite unconscious, apparently in almost 
a childlike sleep; and thus, without suffering, he passed 
from life to immortality. Oh, how sadly did his dear friend, 
Major Philbrick, and myself gaze upon his fair face! We 
exchanged significant and sorrowful glances; and, looking 
at the battle before us, we found ourselves nearly surrounded 



LIEUTENANT GALE S LETTER. ±0$ 

by the enemy Hastily retreating, we were obliged to leave 
our dead and wounded; but, before this, I had secured 
everything of value about our dear brother, except his 
sword and belt; this was so firmly fastened that I could not 
secure it. 

"On the following day, we made three attempts to 
get across to those who were left behind, but the enemy 
refused to grant this privilege. On Friday the field was 
deserted, and so much time had elapsed since the engage- 
ment that it was almost impossible to recognize the most 
familiar faces. Such a great change had taken place that 
we were obliged to relinquish our desire to send home the 
remains for interment; and they were buried in a small 
garden-spot, quite near the scene of action. It is known as 
the Lucca Place, and is about one mile from the village of 
Sharpsburg. Any one in the neighborhood will point out 
the location, — the exact spot is marked by a headboard, — 
and the proprietor has promised that this, together with those 
near it, shall be preserved. Yesterday, Major Philbrick and 
myself, with the aid of a borrowed key (his own being lost), 
unlocked his valise, and placed in it his watch, pistol, gold 
ring, and other articles of value. To-day, I have directed 
this to you at Auburndale, and shall forward it by Adams' 
Express; and if I can be of any further service to you, do 
not, I beg of you, fail to allow me the privilege. I had 
found in him such a genial companion, with so much to love 
and respect, that I could not quite reconcile myself to the 
thought that we were parted for this life; and yet I almost 
longed to be with him, if I might leave such a fair name and 
glorious record. This line is constantly in my mind, and 
will always associate itself with his memory: — 

'That life is long which answers life's great end.' 

"Deeply sympathizing with you in your great bereave- 
ment, I am, with much respect, 

"Your obedient servant, 

"Walter Gale." 



206 THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

Lieutenant Thomas Jefferson Spurr was the grandson of 
General John Spurr, the son of Colonel Samuel D. Spurr. 
He was born in Worcester, February 2, 1838. He prepared 
for Harvard College in the public schools of Worcester. 
He was the best scholar in his class at the university, but 
trouble with his eyes forced him to forego his studies for a 
while. He finally continued them with the aid of a reader. 
He received his degree in 1858. He studied law in the 
office of Devens and Hoar and at the Harvard Law School. 
He was travelling in Russia when the war broke out. He 
hurried home, for foreign travel could have no attractions 
for him when his country was in peril. When he reached 
home, at the request of Colonel Devens, he received a com- 
mission as lieutenant in the Fifteenth and was assigned to 
Company E, January 1, 1862. In the absence of the captain 
he was obliged at once to assume command of the com- 
pany, of which he was for a while the only commissioned 
officer. April 29, he was transferred to Company G. It 
was a difficult position, but such were the ability and 
character of Lieutenant Spurr that he soon won the highest 
respect of his men and they became deeply devoted to him. 
He served with distinction through the Peninsular campaign. 
His brother-in-law, Senator George F Hoar, has given a 
description of his closing days, which we copy from the 
Harvard Memorial Biography: 

"He joined his regiment in the fall of 1861. I never saw 
him again until I was summoned to Hagerstown after the 
battle of Antietam. He was dressing the line of his com- 
pany, about nine o'clock of the morning of the battle, the 
regiment being under a severe fire, when his thigh was struck 
by a minie ball which shattered the bone. Two of his men 
came where he lay and offered to carry him to the rear. He 
ordered them back to the ranks and refused all assistance. 
The place where he lay was a short distance in front of a 
wood, to which the regiment was almost instantly compelled 
to retreat. The ground where he fell was not again occupied 



LIEUTENANT THOMAS JEFFERSON SPURR. 20? 

by our troops until after the battle. He lay on the ground 
where he fell all of Wednesday and through Wednesday 
night. On Thursday the enemy occupied the ground. 
Among them was a college acquaintance and contemporary 
( whom I believe to have been a Major Hale of South Caroli- 
na), who treated him with great kindness, caused him to be re- 
moved to a farm-yard near by and laid on the ground between 
two hay-stacks, and gave him a blanket, which we are glad 
to preserve. Thomas la)- in this farm-yard until Saturday, 
when the ground was attain occupied by our forces, and he 
was then removed to a hospital. On Monday he was taken 
to Hagerstown where his mother and I, with Doctor Sargent, 
found him on Wednesday evening. Early the next morning, 
Thursday, he was carefully examined by the surgeons, who 
were able, by extracting the splinters of bone from his flesh, 
to relieve the agony which he suffered since he was wounded, 
but found his recovery hopeless. He said to me after the 
examination, T suppose you will tell me the result when you 
think it is best.' It would have dishonored that brave soul 
to keep it back, and I told him the whole truth. He heard 
it bravely and cheerfully. He said he hoped his company 
would be satisfied with him and feel that he had deserved 
their confidence; that he was not conscious of having had a 
single thought for himself after the first bullet was fired. He 
added that he believed he had the confidence of Colonel 
Kimball. He lay through this day and the next, suffering a 
good deal, and gradually growing weaker, but with his mind 
perfectly clear and calm. There is too much of a private 
and personal nature in the conversations of those two days 
to make it proper to repeat them here. Doctor Sargent, the 
distinguished physician who kindly and generously left his 
pressing professional duties at home to give his dying young 
friend the benefit of his skill, writes: ' I shall consider myself 
as more than compensated for any sacrifice I have made, by 
the elevating and purifying iufluences of that death-bed, — 
the death of the Christian patriot; of the excellent son and 



208 THE ANTIETAM CAM I'AIC.N. 

brother, whose translation in the clearness of his intellect, 
and even in the fullness of wisdom, was such as I never be- 
fore witnessed.' " 

First-Lieutenant Frank S. Corbin was born in Dudley, 
Massachusetts. His father was a farmer and the boy worked 
on the farm and attended the common schools. When the 
war broke out he was working in the shoe factory of his uncle, 
in Webster. He was full of patriotism and enlisted at the 
first opportunity. He drilled with the boys as one of them, 
and his ability and popularty won for him the position of 
second-lieutenant. He was greatly beloved by the men of 
the company, and his superior officers, Captain George C. 
Joslin and First-Lieutenant Amos Bartlett, spoke of him in 
the highest terms. May 21, 1862, he became first-lieutenant. 
He was very ill with a fever from about June 1 to August 1. 
His patriotic ardor led him, as a convalescent patient, to the 
battle-field of Antietam, where he fought most bravely and 
received wounds of which he soon died. His body was car- 
ried to Webster and buried with fitting obsequies. 

The names of the men who gave their lives for their 
country on that fatal day, or died soon after from wounds 
then received, must be recorded without comment, though 
each is worthy of the most complete memorial: 

Company A — Corporal Franklin Gardner (October 6). 

Company B — Captain Clark S. Simonds, George Adams 
(October 7), John Campbell, Daniel Carpenter. 

Company C — Captain Richard Derby, First Sergeant 
Joseph P Johnson (October 14), Zadoc C. Batterson, Hiram 
A. Chambers, George O. Fitch (October 17). John Frazer, 
Harlow D. Getchell (October 14), Thomas Hastings (Sep- 
tember 20), Charles E. Holbrook, John P Larkin, Waldo B. 
Maynard (September 24), Robert R. Moses (October 5), 
Thomas P Munyan (October 27), George \V B. Sawyer, 
Leonard M. Towsley (September 27), Charles E. Warren 
(October 2). 

Company D — Corporal E. D. Jordan, Barney Cone)-, 



LOSSES AT ANTIETAM. 20O, 

Silas D. Marsh, Francis H. Noyes, Leander J. Owen, William 
L. Sholes, George H. Thompson, Melville Walker. 

Company E — Sergeant Amos H. Shumway, John H. 
Curran, Alfred W Davis (September 22), James H. Davis, 
Edwin E. Rindge (October 24), Alexander Thompson, Con- 
rad M. Tower (or Conrad Amptaeur), Charles H. Wheelock. 

Company F — Sergeant Elisha F Johnson, Corporal 
William L. Adams (November 7), Corporal William L. 
Blood, Corporal Joseph C. Fretts, Corporal John W 
Heath (October), Henry R. Bliss, Shepard Brown, William 
H.Clark (October 1), Benjamin Davis, John H. Hillman, 
Charles Perry (September 27), Alfred L. Russell, James E. 
Sargent, William E. Vaneaver (November 5), Justus C. 
Wellington. 

Company G — First-Lieutenant Thomas J. Spurr (Septem- 
ber 27), Sergeant Jonathan P Stow (October 1), Arthur J. 
.Andrews, Asa T. Bryant, George E. Burns (November 15), 
Harrison J. Clisbee, Orin L. Davis, Benjamin R. Elliott, 
James Hughes (September 28), Francis H. Marble (No- 
vember 26), C. I. Merriam, Charles L. Mitchell (October 24). 
Lewis H. Moore, William E. Morse (December 30), Alfred 
Snow (October 18). 

Company H— Corporal Henry A. Collar, Corporal James 
B. Fletcher, Andrew Addison, Henry W Ainsworth, O. W, 
Batchelor, Samuel Emerson (September 26), Patrick Fine- 
gan, Franklin L. Hayden (September 27), Isaac E. Marshall, 
Charles D. Smith (September 27), George N. Smith. 

Company I — -First-Lieutenant Frank S. Corbin, Sergeant 
Edwin L. Parmenter ( October 15), Henry L. Amidon, Lucius 
H. Briggs, George Butler, Henry Butler (November 14), 
William S. Chapman, Edward L. Day (September 20), Charles 
G. Foster, Henry Hathaway (September 20), Godfred Reid- 
man (September 30), Aaron Sargent, George R. Stone, Alfred 
Tourtellott (October), Moses Wood. 

Company K — First-Sergeant Thomas Furnald, Adam N. 
Baker, E. R. Buffum, Thomas Kelley, Thomas Magomery 



210 THE ANTIETAM CAMPAIGN. 

(October ), David Rodgers (December 27), James Shay, Jos- 
eph T. Smith, John L. Starrett, Francis F Young (Nov. 7). 

Unassigned — Amos G. Plympton. 

This gives a total of one hundred and four, six more than 
are given in "Regimental Losses." There may be in some 
cases an open question whether wounds received September 
17 caused death.* 

The list of killed reported by Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball 
from the First Company Sharpshooters (attached) was as 
follows: Captain John Saunders, First-Lieutenant William 
Berry, John Q. Adams, Joseph S. Ingalls, Marcus M. Par- 
menter, Warren Snow, Martin V Strong, Richard A. Van 
Moll, George Whittemore. 

* For explanation and revision of above list, see Individual Record. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

UXDER BURNSIDE. 
September 18 — December 15, 1862. 

On the day after the battle of Antietam, only one hun- 
dred and seventy-four men answered the roll-call. This 
number increased as those who had been slightly wounded 
returned. A passage from a letter written October 5, by W 
J. Coulter, from Bolivar Heights, though dealing especially 
with Company C, gives a general idea of the condition of the 
regiment as a whole: " Company C at the present time num- 
bers seventeen men for duty, including drummer and bugler. 
Any one would not recognize in it the 'Clinton Light Guard' 
of old, who about five months since encamped on these same 
heights, and almost on the same ground they occupy now. 
Things have changed wonderfully with them since March 
last. The company was nearly full then, and each man was 
confident of at least seeing an end put to this rebellion ; if 
nothing more, by the coming fall. The time when these 
expectations were supposed to be realized has arrived, and 
the company (now called the guard, what there is left of it) 
finds itself encamped on the same old heights, ready for an- 
other start, but not under the same auspices, as they look at 
it. Affairs do not seem to look so favorable to them 

now as they did last spring. Now, they see a prospect of 
being in the service during their full term of enlistment; 
then, six months at the farthest would wind up the rebellion. 
But you must not think from what I have said that the Clin- 
ton boys are discouraged. Far from it. There is as much 



?I2 UNDER BURXS1DE. 

determination in them to-day as there was six months since. 
Thev have learned to act — not to talk about it; and when 
the time comes you will find them as ready and willing to do 
as ever." 

President Lincoln reviewed the troops at Bolivar Heights 
shortly after the battle. As he passed the Fifteenth, General 
McClellan, who was riding with him, turned in his saddle 
and pointed at the colors of the regiment. The old flag had 
seen such service that it was no longer safe to unfurl it when 
the wind blew strongly 

The troops were paid and drew clothing while in camp at 
Bolivar. The need of clothing had become imperative. 
Surgeon Haven, writing October 12, 1862, says: -, We have 
lain quiet at Bolivar Heights, with the exception of taking 
our turn at picket duty, though expecting any day to march. 
Several cavalry skirmishes have occurred 'and some of our 
pickets have been carried off, but beyond this there has been 
no fighting. Over twenty of our poor wounded fellows have 
died since I left them." 

On the 26th of October the regiment went about two 
miles up the Potomac between the river and the railroad on 
picket duty, but came back to camp on the following day. 
October 27, a statement was made that one company of the 
regiment was armed with Harper's Ferry rifles, calibre sixty- 
nine, nine companies with Springfield rifles, calibre fifty-eight, 
and the Andrew Sharpshooters with Sharp's rifles. On the 
30th the advance movement along the Blue Ridge began. 
The Second division of the Second Corps, temporarily under 
the command of General Gorman, crossed the Shenandoah 
on a pontoon bridge, passed around the base of Loudon 
Heights, and moved nearly to Hill Grove. The regiment 
encamped in the woods for the night.. The next day was 
spent pleasantly on picket duty up among the mountains. 
November 1, Gregory's Gap was occupied. Sunday morning, 
November 2, the regiment marched on and bivouacked in 
line of battle during the night. The next day Snicker's Gap 



NEAR ASHBY S GAP. 21 3 

was occupied. November 4, the regiment moved on through 
Paris toward Ashby's Gap. W J. Coulter thus describes 
this movement: "Leaving Hancock's division (formerly 
Richardson's) in possession of the Gap, the rest of the troops 
moved on about four miles further, driving the rebel cavalry 
before us, where we encamped in line of battle for the night. 
The next morning we moved on toward Ashby's Gap, the 
Fifteenth being in advance. Two companies on the right, 
A and B, were deployed as skirmishers, and we carefully felt 
our way along, the enemy silently retiring before us. When 
within about four miles of the Gap, we formed a junction 
with the column moving on our left, and as the enemy had 
apparently made a stand, the troops were formed in line of 
battle. The right wing of the Fifteenth was deployed as 
skirmishers, and the left wing supported the right. A few 
shells were thrown into the woods in front of us, as 'feelers,' 
and then the Fifteenth, which was deployed, received orders 
to advance and take possession of the hill, a little to our 
right, which was done without interruption. The taking of 
this hill ended the movements for the day. The main sup- 
port was stationed on the hill and the pickets thrown out 
about half a mile further for the night. The night passed 
away quietly. The next morning about nine o'clock we ad- 
vanced to take possession of the Gap with the expectation 
of having a skirmish with the enemy before doing so, but 
the rebels had left during the night, leaving us in possession 
of Ashby's Gap. 

"While our commanding officer, General Gorman, was 
taking a view of the country from Ashby's Gap, and the 
troops were resting along the road leading to the Gap, Gen- 
eral McClcllan and staff passed along to the front. As he 
passed the Fifteenth, the members of which were looking 
rather 'rusty' after the two or three days of hard marching 
which they had just gone through, he said, looking kindly 
down upon us, ' Boys, are you tired?' " 

The regiment stayed until the 6th in the " dirty little 



214 UNDER BURNS! DE. 

village of Paris" just below Ashbv's Gap. After the baggage 
train had passed through the Gap, Gorman's brigade followed 
at a little distance to the rear, as a guard. The sutlers who 
stayed behind at Paris to trade with the citizens were cap- 
tured by a dash of the rebel cavalry. We find during this 
march along the Blue Ridge, in Yeoman's diary, italicized 
but unexplained entries such as "mutton" "chickens." Is it 
possible that any of the boys of the Fifteenth could account 
for these words? J. E. Miner writes: "We never find any 
young men where we go. They are all in the rebel arm)'. 
About half the houses which we pass are empty Poultry, 
sheep, cattle and hogs are plenty There are so man)- hogs 
that the woods and pastures are full of them." 

Gorman's brigade remained in a commanding position 
only a few miles from Ashby's Gap until the 8th. \\ J. 
Coulter writes: "The wind was very raw on the /th and the 
air was full of snow most of the day. You can imagine how 
agreeable it is to be out in a raging snow-storm night and 
day, without an)- shelter more than would be afforded by a 
sheet spread over the fence with the four corners pinned to 
the ground." On the 8th, the regiment left " Camp Snuw 
Storm" and moved to Rectortown. After a rest it went on 
through Salem, marching until two o'clock a. m., when it 
bivouacked at a little distance from Warrenton. The next 
day the regiment entered Warrenton and encamped. 

On the morning of November 10, the three divisions of 
the Second Corps were drawn up on the left side of the 
Centreville turnpike. On the right side was the Fifth Corps. 
Between these two lines rode General McClellan, taking his 
last farewell of the soldiers whom he had led so long. 
General Walker says: "Every heart of the thirty thousand 
men was filled with love and grief, every voice was raised 
in shouts expressive of devotion and indignation; and when 
the chief had passed out of sight, the romance of war was 
over for the Army of the Potomac." 

November 12, Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball, who had 



PROMOTION OF LIF.UTENANT-COLONEL KIMBALL. 21 5 

commanded the regiment so wisely and valiantly since the 
promotion of Colonel Devens, April 27, 1862, was made 
colonel of the Fifty-third Regiment Massachusetts Volun- 
teers. He did not leave Falmouth until November 24. Of 
his services in connection with the Fifteenth it is impossible 
to speak too highly The noble name it won in the Penin- 
sular and Antietam campaigns was due in no small measure 
to his leadership. Through his care the men were always 
kept in the best possible condition for meeting all demands 
which might be made upon them. When the hour of action 
came the}' had perfect confidence that as far as he was con- 
cerned, all their valor and energy would be directed into 
such channels as to bring about the greatest result with the 
least sacrifice. Moreover, he had endeared himself to each 
man personally by the interest he felt in them as individuals. 
One who knew him well throughout his service in the regi- 
ment, says: "Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball is one of the 
bravest, kindest, truest men God ever made in his own 
image. He is well worthy to lead the Fifteenth; I have no 
terms for the high respect in which I hold him; brave as a 
Spartan in battle, kind, with a warm, active benevolence; 

courteous, with a home-bred workman's courtesy, that shows 
a delicacy of spirit and truth of taste not surpassed in the 
drawing-room; firm, prompt, able, he is one of nature's real 
noblemen, an officer of whom the old commonwealth must 
be proud." 

The command of the Fifty-third came to him unsought, 
and he would much rather have remained with his own 
Fifteenth, had not duty compelled him to go elsewhere. 
His feelings toward the Fifteenth are well shown in a letter 
he wrote to friends who presented him with a horse and 
equipments when he assumed his new command: "If the 
noble old regiment (the Fifteenth ) which I have had the 
honor of commanding for the past seven months has earned 
and won for itself a name worthy of record and a place in 
history, it is to them that the honor belongs, and not to me, 



2l6 UNDER BURNSTDE. 

for it was the united determination of officers and men to do 
their duty at all times and under all circumstances, that has 
earned for them honorably and justly the name and fame 
which they have acquired. I need not remind you of the 
suffering they have endured without a murmur, and the 
great sacrifice of life in behalf of their country, which has so 
fearfully thinned their ranks. It has been very great indeed; 
the dust of many a brave soldier of the Fifteenth hallows 
the hillsides and valleys of Virginia and Maryland, and that 
ground, though held by traitorous hands, is still sacred and 
dear to us; and by the memories of the noble dead now 
sleeping their last sleep far away from their friends and 
homes, let us pursue this war more vigorously and earnestly 
to an early and successful termination; by the memories of 
the heroes who fell at Ball's Bluff, Fair Oaks and Antietam, 
as well as of those who have passed away none the less 
honorably, because not in battle, we must, we will conquer." 

At a later date he said: "This ended my official con- 
nection with the Fifteenth Regiment, but although my 
membership had ceased, my love for and deep interest in the 
regiment and my old comrades continued unabated to the 
end of their service. I anxiously followed their movements, 
and proudly watched, as though still one of them, their un- 
wavering devotion to the cause and flag the)/ so loyally 
followed, heartily rejoicing in their successes and sincerely 
mourning with them in their reverses, losses, sufferings and 
misfortunes." 

It is sufficient to say of Colonel Kimball's nine months 
service with the Fifty-third Regiment in the Teche Country 
and at Port Hudson that it was no less worthy than that 
with the Fifteenth. He was made brevet brigadier-general 
United States Volunteers, March 13, 1865. Since the close 
of the war he has served the state in various high positions 
with equal ability and faithfulness. General Kimball, at 
this date of writing, is auditor of the State of Massachusetts. 
He has always taken the deepest interest in all that con- 



GENERAL WILLIS A. GORMAN. 217 

cerns the welfare of the surviving members of the»Fifteenth 
Regiment. 

November 13, Major Chase Philbrick was made lieutenant- 
colonel, and Captain George C. Joslin, major. In the con- 
tinued absence of Colonel Ward, the command of the regi- 
ment devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Philbrick. 

General Willis A. Gorman, under whom the Fifteenth 
had been brigaded since the removal of General Stone, when 
General McClellan was superseded by General Burnside in 
November, 1862, was ordered to report to General Curtis at 
St. Louis, Missouri. He was assigned to the command of 
the District of Arkansas. Here he served efficiently until 
1S64, when he resigned on account of ill health. After the 
war he devoted himself to public and private service. He 
died May 20, 1876. Men of the Fifteenth sadly missed his 
brave, rough, whole-souled leadership. General Alfred 
Sully, who had previously been commander of the First 
Minnesota, succeeded to the command of the brigade. A 
member of his old regiment says of him: "Brave and most 
capable in action, yet always careful to guard against any 
foolish or needless sacrifice of his men; blunt, yet kind in 
manner; humorous and playful as a boy; always manifesting 
implicit confidence in the honor and good conduct of his 
men and relying on that as the only restraint, while never 
relaxing any necessary discipline, he was perhaps more 
generally beloved by all than any other of our regimental 
commanders." He was no less esteemed as a brigade 
commander. 

A new regiment, the Nineteenth Maine, which had just been 
recruited, had been added to the brigade. It had reached 
camp at Bolivar Heights, October 4. The veterans were 
always inclined to have a little sport with new recruits. W 
J. Coulter relates the following incident: "Scattered over 
the ground which the Nineteenth Maine selected as their 
camping ground were a few shells, some of which were 
filled. The boys did not seem to know the 'nature of these 

15 



2lS UNDER BURNSIPE. 

animals;" some of them went to work and constructed fire- 
places out of a few scattered around. Just as their camp- 
fire got nicely to burning, whang ! went one or two of the 
shells, causing the boys who were gathered around to beat a 
hasty retreat to the rear, and alarming the whole camp. It 
was their first experience, and one of them said 'he'd rather 
have a cannon go off by him than have a shell burst;' he 
thought the shell made the loudest noise." 

General John Sedgwick, who was wounded at Antietam, 
never returned to the command of the division, but as soon 
as he was able to rejoin the army, he was placed at the head 
of the Sixth Corps. He was succeeded in the command of 
the Second Division by General Oliver O. Howard. As 
we have already seen, General Gorman assumed his duties 
during some weeks of absence, and as Howard was soon 
promoted, his actual command of the division was brief. 
He was known to the division as the "Christian soldier." 
The prayer-meetings which he had every morning in his 
tent for staff officers, and the rebukes which he administered 
to the men for swearing, are frequently noted in the 
soldiers' letters. His kindness and efficiency rendered him 
an excellent commander. 

There was a change, too, at the head of the corps, for 
General Sumner was given command of the Grand Right 
Division, composed of the Second and Ninth Corps, while 
Major-General Darius M. Couch became commander of the 
Second Corps. Darius M. Couch was born at South East, 
Putnam County, New York, July 23, 1822. He was grad- 
uated at West Point in 1846. He served in the United 
States Artillery, 1846-1855. He was commissioned colonel 
of the Seventh Massachusetts Infantry, June 15, 1861 He 
was mustered as brigadier-general United States Volunteers 
in August, 1861. He served with great distinction in the 
Peninsular campaign at the head of the First Division of the 
Fourth Corps. He was made major-general, July 4, 1862. 
General Francis A Walker thus compares Couch with 



GENERAL DARIUS U. COUCH. 2IO, 

Sumner: "The oldest corps commander of the army was 
succeeded by one of the youngest. Sumner was of magni- 
ficent presence ; though never arrogant or unkind, the 
consciousness of high rank showed itself in every lineament 
and every movement; though not boastful, he was never 
backward in self-assertion, whether for himself or his troops. 
Couch, on the other hand, was a slight man, of singularly 
quiet demeanor, whose unaffected modesty found a natural 
expression in ever)' tone, look and gesture; who shrank from 
every form of display, and could scarcely tolerate a staff 
large enough to do the daily work of his headquarters in 
camp or in the field. Sumner had a daring, adventurous 
disposition, which could hardly bear to take account of 
obstacles; Couch possessed a strongly conservative temper, 
which led him to carefully scrutinize every project that 
involved a possible collision with the enemy, and to take 
unwavering pains to gain an advantage or avert a peril. 
But when the battle was once joined the two men were as 
much alike as ever were father and son, in their indomitable 
courage and impetuous energy. The caution of his temper 
never led the younger soldier to exaggerate the numbers of 
the enemy or to distrust the valor and endurance of his 
troops. When he had done all that in him lay to prepare 
for action and insure success, he went into the actual conflict 
without an apprehension of defeat. Our great war brought 
out a wonderful wealth of manly vigor; but in all the armies 
of America, on either side, rode no man across the bloody 
spaces of the battle-field more calm and resolute. Danger 
never depressed or dulled his faculties. On the contrary, it 
gave just that degree of stimulus which brought them into 
their keenest activity; and those only truly knew the man 
who heard his voice and looked into his eyes in the crisis of 
some terrible fight." 

General Ambrose E. Burnside was personally liked by 
the soldiers of the Arm)' of the Potomac, but the doubt 
concerning his ability to command such an army and the 



220 UNDER BURNSIDE. 

indignation at the dismissal of General McClellan led to a 
deep feeling of mistrust, which augured ill for the success of 
his campaign. 

On the 15th of November, the Second Corps again began 
its forward movement. The corps moved in heavy-marching 
order in three columns, one in the road and the other two 
through the fields on the left and right. Howard's division 
was on the left. The first day carried them past Warrenton 
Junction, the next two days brought them to within half a 
mile of Falmouth on the banks of the Rappahannock. Here 
they encamped in the woods. The pleasant weather that 
followed and the abundance of fuel made the soldiers fairly 
comfortable. But Thanksgiving day was cheerless. One of 
the soldiers says: "We spent most of the day standing 
around the camp-fires telling what we should have for dinner 
if we were at home. Our dinner on that day was chiefly 
salt pork and hard-bread. We had the same for breakfast, 
and for supper some looked into the bottom of their haver- 
sacks, while others warmed up what was left from their 
dinner." In the last letter of Surgeon Haven's which has 
been preserved we read: 

"Near Falmouth, Va., November 27. 1862. 

"We are opposite Fredericksburg. Its rebel pickets and 
ours within talking distance. The movements of the people 
and soldiers in the city can be distinctly seen. We have 
been expecting a great fight every day, but in the mean- 
time the rebels have erected more batteries and are largely 
increased in numbers, and I do not see how we can cross 
the river without great loss of life.. . This is Thanks- 
giving day and the pleasantest weather we have had for 
some time. It is hard work to get any eatables here, but 
we have been saving a turkey for the day." 

A letter by a member of the regiment states: " For some 
time previous to the battle we had been unusually busy 
building log cabins, under the impression that we were to 
spend the winter on the east bank of the Rappahannock 



BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG. 221 

Many of us had completed buildings on which we had be- 
stowed labor and thought enough, at least, to have con- 
structed a home for a life-time." In a letter written from 
this camp, Joseph E. Miner thus describes the way in which 
beans were baked here: "We parboil them and then put 
them in iron pails a little larger than a water-pail. We dig 
holes in the ground and brick or stone them up on four 
sides. A fire is built in one of these holes and kept going 
until it is very hot. The live coals are taken out and the 
pails of beans are put in. Boards are put over the holes and 
dirt is thrown upon the boards. The beans are left in over 
night and in the morning they are as good as those that have 
been baked in an oven." 

When General Burnside resolved to move toward Rich- 
mond by way of Fredericksburg, he asked General Halleck 
to have pontoons at Aquia Creek ready for him on his 
arrival at Falmouth. If they had been ready, Fredericks- 
burg and the surrounding heights might have been occupied 
with little or no resistance. But Sumner's Grand Right 
was obliged to wait from the 17th to the 25th before they 
appeared. The river was fordable under somewhat dis- 
advantageous conditions. Sumner wanted to cross at once 
in this way, but Burnside did not think it best. Meanwhile 
the rebels were receiving such reinforcements that any 
advance would be attended with great loss of life and doubt 
of final success. When the boats did arrive, it is said that 
Burnside did not feel that it was wise to advance under the 
existing circumstances, but was at last, after a long delay, 
forced to do so by the pressure brought to bear upon him 
from Washington. 

On the evening of December 10, the artillery, one hun- 
dred and forty-seven guns, was placed along the left bank of 
the river in such positions as to best protect the crossing of 
the forces. At daylight the beginning was made. E. J. 
Russell writes: "The morning was warm and delightful for 
December and the troops were in the best of spirits; the 



222 UNDER BURNSIDE. 

scene of the general breaking up of the camp was exciting 
in the extreme.. ..After a short, two-miles' march, our bri- 
gade was halted back of the hills northerly from the 
Lacy House, and remained in that position until four p m., 
and while there we listened to the terrible firing.- None 
of us can ever forget that artillery fight. It lasted for six 
hours." 

Another writes: "Here and there we caught glimpses of 
a little puff of thick smoke that rapidly dispersed itself in 
the clear cold air of that winter's morning along the hills 
over the river, and a moment after came the well-known 
whiz ! bang ! and flutter, that we had learned to know so well 
on the Peninsula and at Antietam. It told us that our foes 
were awake and ready for us. Presently we took up our 
position under cover of a hill directly opposite to the upper 
part of the town, and there we lay all day, listening to the 
quick, heavy boom of the cannon, that swept back and forth 
across the valley, and echoed and rolled and echoed back 
again, until we seemed breathing an atmosphere of sound." 

The rebels could not oppose the crossing of our troops, 
for the town and the region along the river banks was com- 
manded by our artillery. The stone-walls, the cellar-holes 
and rifle-pits near the stream were, however, filled with sharp- 
shooters who hindered the building of pontoon bridges. 
The Seventh Michigan and Nineteenth Massachusetts 
swiftly crossed in the boats and drove out the sharpshooters 
there. The Twentieth Massachusetts followed in boats. The 
bridge was now quickly built and the rest of Hall's brigade 
crossed, but it was already near dusk. The Twentieth 
Massachusetts gallantly cleared the street which leads from 
the bridge to the city. 

From the report of Captain Charles H. Watson which in- 
cludes those of Lieutenant-Colonel Philbrick and Captain 
John Murkland, we learn that there were two hundred and 
eighty-seven men and sixteen officers present in the Fifteenth 
Regiment and the Andrew Sharpshooters attached to it. 



BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG. 223 

"About sundown, ""this report says, "we took up our line of 
march in the rear of the Eighty-second New York, and 
crossed the Rappahannock where we formed a line of battle, 
our right resting upon the left of the bridge, our line extend- 
ing along the bank of the river, covering the Thirty-fourth 
New York which was in our advance." Only Howard's 
division of the Second Corps was able to cross that night. 

While the men were spending the night here by the river 
bank an amusing incident occurred. E. J. Russell tells the 
story. "Some of the most ventursome began foraging in the 
houses and yards near the river bank, and soon was heard in 
the company, in a soft whisper, 'Honey!' What are shot 
and shell, fatigue, or sleepiness, when such dulcet whisper- 
ings were sounding in the ears of hungry men? Soon in they 
come. ' Lieutenant, have some honey Free as water. Look 
and see how white and nice! Isn't this a treat?' and many 
other muffled ejaculations. Now, honey can be taken up 
very successfully in December; not so in June, and bees 
were supposed to be perfectly harmless in winter, and they 
are, unless taken to the fire. Alas! the sequel. After the 
contents of a hive or two had been distributed among the 
men, and we have turned in by the camp-fire to get a short 
rest before daybreak, up starts Amasa Kimball: 'Jerusalem! 
I'm bit! Xo 'taint nother; it's them pesky bees. Mighty! 
there's another!' when off come pants, drawers and socks, 
double-quick. Up starts another. My gracious! there's a 
pin sticking into me!' A general routing up, some swearing, 
some laughing; honey placed out to cool, haversacks turned 
inside out, clothing brushed, and the tired soldier sinks to 
sleep to dream of hornets and Jersey lightning (which he 
found two days later)." 

Sully's brigade, together with those of Owen's and Hawk- 
ins', were ordered in the morning to carry those parts of the 
town from which the enemy had not been dislodged on the 
preceding night. The report continues: "The next morning 
we received orders to march up the street, the First Minne- 



224 UNDER BURNSIDE. 

sota leading. After advancing one square, we filed to the 
right and marched towards the outskirts of the town, where 
we formed a line of battle, covering the First Minnesota. 
Orders came to throw out a company of skirmishers. Com- 
pany A, under command of Lieutenant Jorgenson, was de- 
tailed and duly posted. While taking their position they 
captured three rebel prisoners, who were forwarded to the 
brigade commander. We then received orders from the 
general commanding to move. Here Major Philbrick as- 
sumed command. We moved one square to the left, and 
formed a line of battle on Princess Anne Street. Company 
B was here detailed as a support to Company A. At dark, 
Companies C, H and G were sent to relieve Companies A 
and B, under command of Captain John Murkland of Com- 
pany G." 

"When we arrived in front of the Gordon place," E. J. 
Russell writes, "and while standing in place, rest, an old 
darkey very cautiously put out his head and then dodged 
back, repeating the operation two or three times, until he 
gained confidence and found that he was not to be eaten by 
the abolition soldiers. Just then General Sully went up to the 
piazza and tried the door, which he found locked, and, after 
trying two or three windows was just in the act of going in, 
when one of the soldiers sung out: 'Look out, there, Sam, 
somebody's going to break in there.' The old darkey looked 
at him and us with the most comical expression, and very 
modestly said, so that we could all hear, 'Well, I suppose 
dey will. Some of dese chaps is privilege characters.' Com- 
ing from one who probably knew not the rank of the intrud- 
er, the unintended joke and the manner of its delivery was 
irresistible, and was followed by a shout in the regiment." 

The whole of Sumner's Grand Right had crossed the river 
before the end of the 12th. Franklin's Grand Left had also 
crossed lower down. Hooker's Grand Center still remained 
on the north bank. Some of the men of the Fifteenth slept 
that night on feather beds for the first time for eighteen 



BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG. 225 

months. A hundred or so were taken from the houses and 
placed in a row and on these rested some three hundred sol- 
diers fully equipped, boots and all. The report of the regi- 
ment further states: "Companies C, H and G were relieved 
the next morning at nine o'clock by two companies of the 
Nineteenth Maine. The remaining companies of the regi- 
ment were sent to the relief of the First Minnesota as pick- 
ets. These companies were soon called in, when the regi- 
mental line was formed on Fauquier Street, the right resting 
on the corner of Princess Anne Street. We were here 
ordered to relieve the pickets of Colonel Owen. On our 
march, which was a double-quick step, a shell from the ene- 
my passed through our lines, killing Surgeon S. F. Haven, 
Jr., and wounding color-sergeant, color-corporal and sur- 
geon's orderly. The regiment halted in the road near the 
front, when the lieutenant-colonel commanding went in 
search of the pickets to relieve and was at this time wounded 
by one of the enemy's sharpshooters. Captain John Murk- 
land of Company G, the senior captain present, took com- 
mand, and finding the regiment was exposed to the enemy's 
sharpshooters, they having already wounded many cf our 
men, he moved the regiment to the left of the road, under 
cover of the hill. We were here ordered to remain by an 
aide of Colonel Owen, though exposed to a heavy fire from 
the enemy While here, Hazzard's battery took position on 
the crest of the hill, and, being in want of men to manage the 
pieces, they called on Captain Murkland for volunteers. 
This call was quickly responded to by ten privates, although 
the battery was under a heavy fire from the enemy's sharp- 
shooters and batteries. We were soon ordered by General 
Howard to the front. We went up the road and took our 
position on the left of the First California, Colonel More- 
head, where we remained until one o'clock the next morning, 
when we were relieved by a battalion of regulars." 

Thus with comparatively slight loss the Fifteenth passed 
that terrible 13th of December when so many thousands fell. 



226 



UNDER BURNSIDE. 




The Union Right at the Battle of Fredericksburg. 

The Union troops were not massed in the attack as in the map, but followed each 
other at intervals. The house in front of 8 was known as the Brick House. 

1— Whipple. 3— Sykes. 3— Griffin. 4— Getty. 5— Humphreys. 

6— Sturgis. 7— Hancock. 8— French. 9— Howard. 



BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURG. 227 

When that day's sun went down the planless battle had been 
valiantly fought and the useless slaughter had been fully 
consummated. Recall the story. /\cross the wide plain 
swept by the deadly fire of artillery, up the slope against im- 
pregnable ramparts, held by nearly eighty thousand of the 
veteran soldiers of Longstreet and Jackson, our troops were 
recklessly sent by single divisions. The heroic daring of 
our men contributed to their destruction no less than the 
paltriness of their numbers. The thick mists of the morn- 
ing were scarcely breaking when at ten o'clock, from Frank- 
lin's Grand Left, Meade's division began its advance against 
Jackson s corps. Through the withering fire it passed, 
slowly at first, pausing to overcome obstacles; at last, 
gathering power and speed with movement, it penetrated 
the rebel line only to be driven back after a loss of forty per 
cent., by the overwhelming forces which poured in upon its 
flanks. The support of Gibbon's division and a portion of 
Birney's availed only to cover the retreat. It was afternoon, 
when from the Grand Right, French's division of the Second 
Corps, supported by Hancock's, was hurled against Long 
street's forty thousand, securely intrenched on Marye's 
Heights. The rebel cannon ploughed great furrows in the 
unwavering line, but on it went with Kimball's brigade in 
front, until it was within one hundred and twenty-five yards 
of that fatal stone-wall behind which the rebel infantry 
stood in the Telegraph Road. No human prowess could go 
further through that sheet of bullets winged with death. 
Resolved not to lose a foot that has been gained, the living 
lay down among the dead at the farthest point of advance, 
some within forty yards of the wall. Then came the Third 
Brigade and then the Second to meet with like repulse. 
Though those brigades of French had lost twelve hundred 
men in the vain struggle, still Hancock, undaunted, sent his 
three brigades in quick succession to attempt the impossible, 
and two thousand as heroic men as God ever made were 
swept from his ranks. Howard's brigades, led by Owen, 



228 UNDER BURNSIDE. 

Hall and Sully, were ordered to go to the crest of the hill, 
but General Couch, fearing that the victorious enemy might 
take the offensive, changed his purpose, and sent Hall to 
the right and Owen to the left, while Sully's regiments were 
held near the town as a support in case of need. It is not 
necessary to dwell on the unprecedented valor of the 
batteries of Hazard and Frank, on the unavailing efforts of 
Sturgis of the Ninth Corps, of Carroll of the Third Corps, of 
Griffin and Humphrey of the Fifth Corps. It would be 
merely a repetition of loss upon loss. When night made an 
end of the battle some twelve thousand men were either 
killed or wounded or missing, and nothing had been gained. 

E. J. Russell thus speaks of the closing hours of that day: 
"After it seemed that any further attempt to take the 
position was useless, the order to the Fifteenth was given to 
move to the front, and I well remember the feeling I had 
was one akin to a forlorn hope; but when we went up the 
road and deployed into the field near the brick house, I 
remember General Walker saying: 'Here's the Fifteenth 
Massachusetts. Go in old Massachusetts, there is plenty to 
do.' Over the dead and wounded to the forefront. Every 
moment we expected a volley. But as soon as we were in 
line of battle a sudden stillness came over the field. It was 
just at dusk, and scarcely a shot was fired after. The ground 
was literally covered with the dead and wounded, and the 
groans of the latter were interspersed with the cry of ' Water,' 
1 Give us some water,' ' For God's sake, take me out of this.' " 

It was not until the night of the 15th that the bewildered 
Burnside could make up his mind to withdraw his troops to 
the northern bank of the river. Watson's report tells the 
work of the Fifteenth during the 14th and 15th: "We retired 
to our old position on Princess Anne Street, where we re- 
mained until nine o'clock the next morning. The brigade 
then took up its line of march, the Fifteenth leading, and 
halted, the right resting on the railroad, and there remained 
until eight p. m., when we received orders to report to 



SAMUEL FOSTER HAVEN. 220. 

Colonel Morgan of the First Minnesota. We marched to 
the front and relieved a battalion of regulars, our right rest- 
ing on the left of the First Minnesota, all resting on the left 
of the road. During the night the regiment was occupied 
in throwing up rifle-pits, and all of the next day was kept 
close to the ground by the enemy's sharpshooters and 
batteries, which wounded many of our men. We were not 
relieved from picket, but were ordered by the general com- 
manding the brigade to report back to our old camp." 

A soldier writes December 15: "The longest day I ever 
knew. We were on picket for thirty hours in succession, and 
this whole time we had to lie on our faces to keep from being 
shot by the enemy " 

Some of the regiments broke and run under this fire, but 
the Fifteenth did not yield, and it might have been said of 
it as General Sully said of its companion regiment, the First 
Minnesota, on the same day, "The Fifteenth Massachusetts 
never runs." It was about eleven o'clock p. m. of the 15th 
that the regiment recrossed the river. The passage of the 
river was effected without loss and the troops camped in 
their old position. 

The loss of the Fifteenth in this movement as a whole 
was four killed, twenty-five wounded and two missing. 
Among the killed was Surgeon Samuel Foster Haven. 
Charles L. Caswell, William Matthews and Sylvester Oakes 
were, it is said, all killed or mortally wounded by a single 
shot of the enemy. Among the wounded, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Chase Philbrick, Adjutant I. Harris Hooper and Lieutenant 
Adoniram J. Bradley 

Samuel Foster Haven, Jr., the son of S. F Haven, was 
born in Dedham, Massachusetts, May 20, 1831. Before he 
was five, his mother died. When he was eight he went to 
Worcester to live. He was prepared for college in the pub- 
lic schools of that city. He was graduated from Harvard 
College in 1852. He received his degree as Doctor in Medi- 
cine in 1855. He studied two years in Europe. He prac- 



230 UNDER BURNSIDE. 

ticed for a short time in Boston, but went to Worcester in 
1858. He made a specialty of diseases of the eye. He was 
a student by nature, a man of the broadest culture and most 
accurate scholarship. He showed marked ability as an 
author and when he entered the army he left an important 
work nearly ready for the press. He was commissioned 
assistant surgeon of the Fifteenth, August 5, 1861, and on 
the departure of Surgeon Bates he was made surgeon, July 
21, 1862. We have had frequent occasion to quote his let- 
ters and these have revealed much of the spirit of the man. 
His service at Ball's Bluff, Fair Oaks and Antietam were 
characterized by valor and gentleness, no less than by pro- 
fessional skill. His superior officer, Surgeon Sherman, wrote 
of his conduct at Fredericksburg: " Witnessing his self-expos- 
ure at the battle of Antietam, I had, as Medical Director of 
the Second Division, detailed your son, in a written order, 
in event of battle, to repair to the division hospital, and give 
his services there instead of in the field with his regiment. 
When I communicated this order to him, he evidently felt 
disappointed. He expressed a strong choice to go wherever 
his regiment went; and when the column to which the Fif- 
teenth Massachusetts was attached was about to pass over 
the bridge in front of Fredericksburg, he was expostulated 
with, and reminded of the previous order; but he asked as a 
special favor to be allowed to go with his regiment, and said 
that as soon as the fight was done he would return to the 
hospital and remain there." He was wounded in the leg by 
a shell on the 13th. His leg was amputated, but he never 
recovered from the shock. 

Doctor Morrill Wyman said of him in an address read at 
the annual meeting of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 
June 17. 1863: " One, yet in early manhood, an only child, 
inexpressibly dear to his father, a scholar, learned in his pro- 
fession, his mind improved by foreign study, responded to 
the call of the country Always faithful, chivalrous, daunt- 
less, almost reckless of his life, he believed with Baron Percy 



SAMUEL FOSTER HAVEN. 23 1 

his place of duty to be wherever a soldier fell; read}- with 
instant aid for the wounded, he was ever in the thickest of 
the fight; he fell at his post. What more could we ask? He 
is held in grateful remembrance by his fellow soldiers who 
admired his humane bravery, and by his friends who knew 
the kindly qualities of his heart. What more could we wish ?" 
The following lines were taken from a poem which ap- 
peared in the Worcester Spy in his memory: 

"With skillful touch he turned away 

Death's wishful hand from wounded men, 
But when was done that doleful day, 
The living laid him with the slain. 

"Thy hurt to heal, O native land! 

What mortal might, he did and dared; 
And when all service of his hand 
Seemed not enough, his heart he bared, 

"And laid his life upon thy hurt, 

Ijv losing all, to make thee whole." 



CHAPTER IX. 

WINTER AND SPRING AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 
December 16, 1862 — June 10, 1863. 

DuRifsG the weeks which followed the battle of Frede- 
ricksburg the Army of the Potomac in general, and the 
Fifteenth Massachusetts in particular, were in a state of dis- 
couragement and demoralization never equalled at any other 
time during the war. The promotion of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kimball, the absence of Colonel Ward together with that of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Philbrick, Major Joslin and Adjutant 
Hooper, the lack of a chaplain and the death of Surgeon 
Haven, left the regiment without field officers and with a 
limited staff, and the number of line officers present for duty 
was far too small. Under such conditions it is no wonder 
that the general feeling of the army should exist in an ex- 
aggerated form among the meagerly officered men of the 
Fifteenth. 

Sergeant David M. Earle's diary, omitting personal mat- 
ters, has the following entries during the next month: "Fri- 
day, Dec. 19. Captain Rockwood assumed command of the 
regiment. The rest of the Ball's Bluff prisoners returned. 
The regiment was called up at one o'clock to cover a party 
working at the river. — Sunday. Dec. 21. Visited the Massa- 
chusetts Thirty-sixth. We passed the general hospital. They 
were burying the dead and amputating limbs. — Wednesday, 
Dec. 24. To-day we had a great review by General Sumner. 
It was a poor show. — Thursday, Dec. 25. Christmas day. 
Sergeant Ball and I took horses and rode to the Massachu- 



CAPTAIN LEONARD WOOD. 233 

setts Thirty-sixth and Tenth. — Friday, Dec. 26. The regi- 
ment went on picket. Things look dark, with no prospect 
of brighter times. — Saturday, Dec. 2j. The regiment did 
not come in until nearly noon. In the afternoon we had 
guard mounting. — Monday, Dec. 29. During the night or- 
ders came to be ready to move at twelve hours notice. Dur- 
ing the day all was bustle and confusion but nothing impor- 
tant took place. — Tuesday, Dec. 30. No movement to-day. 
Everything remains quiet. — Wednesday, Dec. 31. To-day 
we were mustered for the last two months' pay. Amasa 
Walker called on us during the operation. A very cold day. 
— Sunday, Jan. 4. A beautiful, cool day. The regiment 
went out on picket. — Monday, Jan. 5. The regiment came 
in about noon and immediately went out to a review by Gen- 
eral Sedgwick. It was a big thing. — Friday, Jan. 16. The 
regiment went on picket. About noon orders came to move. 
This evening the order was countermanded. A cold, windy 
day. — Saturday, January 17 The regiment came in at noon, 
just in time to be too late for the review by General Burn- 
side. — Sunday, Jan. 18. Captain Wood was dishonorably 
discharged. It created quite a sensation throughout the 
division.— Monday, Jan. 19. Captain Wood's discharge was 
read on dress parade. •• Captain Wood was serenaded by 
the men of the regiment. — Tuesday. January 20. Captain 
Wood left the regiment. He made a speech before leaving, 
and it was a good one. The boys gave him three rousing 
cheers." 

The case of Leonard Wood needs a more detailed state- 
ment. His wife was dangerously sick, and he applied for a 
ten days leave of absence and obtained the approval of all 
intermediate officers till it reached General Sumner's head- 
quarters. The paper was returned "disapproved," with some 
general remarks appended that no family exigency could be 
urgent enough to relieve an officer from his duty Captain 
Wood felt that the duty he owed to his family imperatively 
demanded his return home; therefore he forwarded his res- 

16 



234 WINTER AND SPRINT. AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

ignation, which was approved at all intermediate headquar- 
ters, "but was sent back by General Sumner with an order 
dismissing Captain Wood dishonorably from the service." 
Everyone who was associated with Captain Wood knew him 
to have been a brave, conscientious and faithful officer. The 
general feeling of the army was such, however, that the res- 
ignation of officers would have been alarmingly frequent if 
the most stringent measures had not been taken to restrain 
this tendency. At any other time the resignation would 
have been accepted without question, but in the then existing 
circumstances the individual was sacrificed for what was es- 
teemed the good of the whole. 

General Burnside had made plans for a movement by 
which he hoped to turn the flank of the enemy, and on De- 
cember 30, this movement had actually begun, as we have 
seen from the record in Earle's diary, December 29, when a 
dispatch from President Lincoln forbade Burnside to begin 
active operations without informing him. Thus all the prep- 
arations which had been made went for naught, and the gen- 
eral sought a personal conference with the president. It was 
January 19, before the army could be made ready for motion 
again. It was intended to cross at United States Ford on 
the morning of the 21st. The weather since the battle of 
Fredericksburg had been excellent up to this time, but on 
the night of January 20, a terrible storm came on and the 
roads were rendered impassable. Thus the army of Burn- 
side was stuck in the mud, while Lee massed his forces to 
oppose the passage of the river. As advance was impossi- 
ble, the Union army tried to return, but even this could not 
be done until corduroy roads had been built. As Sumner's 
Grand Right had been encamped in a position visible to the 
enemy, while it was hoped that a movement of the Grand 
Left and Grand Center might escape their notice, it was 
arranged that Sumner should not move until the rest of the 
army had reached the southern bank of the river, and that 
then he should cross directly to Fredericksburg. Thus the 



GENERAL JOSEPH HOOKER. 235 

Fifteenth escaped the discomfort and miser)' of the "Mud 
Campaign." 

Turning once more to Earle's diary we read: "Thursday, 
Jan. 22. A cold, rainy day Orders came this noon to be 
ready to move at a moment's notice. — Friday, Jan. 23. This 
noon the army moved back into its old camp, feeling rather 
used up. They were all covered with mud and not a few of 
them swore at the luck. — Sunday, Jan. 25. Captain Rock- 
wood received his discharge and Captain Murkland took 
command of the regiment. Surgeon Monroe reported for 
duty. — Monday, Jan. 26. Regiment on picket. Reported 
that General Hooker is in command of the Army of the 
Potomac." 

The retirement of General Burnside gave great satisfac- 
tion to the soldiers, and the appointment of General Hooker 
to the command tended to restore a feeling of confidence 
which had been lacking since Fredericksburg. The title of 
"Fighting Joe Hooker" indicates the impression of the gen- 
eral which prevailed in the army and in the country at large. 
It was, however, as an inspector and organizer that Hooker 
did his best work for the Army of the Potomac. The morale 
of the army was restored and its effective strength greatly 
increased. It was under his command that the use of the 
trefoil as a corps badge was begun. The color used by the 
Second Division was white. On this same 26th of January, 
General Sumner retired from the army on account of his 
increasing infirmities. Within three months he died at his 
home in Syracuse, New York. 

The diary continues: "Tuesday, Jan. 27. Lieutenant 
Prince was appointed acting adjutant. — Wednesday, Jan. 28. 
Snowed hard all day and evening. Captains Murkland and 
Eager and Lieutenant Prince were summoned to appear be- 
fore a court of inquiry, to answer charges against the regi- 
ment, touching its loyalty and discipline. — Friday, Jan. 30. 
The regiment was paid off to-day. Major Baird of the Eighty- 
second New York took command of the regiment. — Sunday, 



2}f> WINTER AND SPRING AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

Feb. I. An order came granting furloughs to soldiers. — 
Tuesday, Feb. 3. Cold day and night. Commenced making 
out report of the absentees of the regiment for Joe Hooker. 
The new colors came for the regiment." 

In this connection, a self-explanatory letter written a few 
weeks later by Colonel Ward is inserted: 

"Camp near Falmouth, Va., 

"February 22, 1863. 

"Hon. Waldo Lincoln, Mayor, Worcester. 

" My Dear Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the 
receipt of your note of the 14th inst, informing me of the 
action of the City Council, and hasten to reply. 

" 'The old flag,' the stars and stripes which were presented 
to the Fifteenth Regiment by the ladies of Worcester and 
which have been through so many battles and never yet dis- 
graced, have been sent, at the request of the state authorities, 
to Boston, and in return we have received new ones. It 
would have been our choice to have returned the national 
flag to the fair hands that made it, for they were preemi- 
nently entitled to it, and there the torn and tattered emblem 
of our nationality would feel more at home, where it would 
receive the hearty congratulations of its nearest friends. 

"They are a curiosity to behold; still one cannot look 
upon them without a feeling of pride mingled with sadness, 
proud of the honorable position the)- have always taken in 
every battle; sad to think of the many brave and noble dead 
that have fallen beneath them. The regiment was slow to 
part with them, but they had become so mutilated that they 
had not been unfurled for a long time, except in battle, and 
then only as a sign of defiance, a challenge for supremacy to 
a treacherous and unscrupulous foe. Inasmuch as the flags 
are now in possession of the state, the regiment is not inclined 
to dictate as to their final disposal, but any arrangement the 
city government can make with the state authorities will be 



OFFICERS. 237 

perfectly satisfactory to the regiment. With many thanks 
for your kindness, I have the honor to remain, 
''Very truly yours, 

"George H.Ward, 

" Colo?iel Fifteenth Mass. Fo/s." 

These flags are still kept by the state, and maybe seen at 
the state house. 

"Wednesday, Feb. 4. The coldest day I have seen since 
I enlisted. The regiment was inspected by Major Macy of 
the Massachusetts Twentieth. — Thursday, Feb. 5. A cold, 
stormy day and rainy evening. About four o'clock this 
morning the regiment was called up to go on picket. The)' 
turned out at five o'clock and moved at six. The)' returned 
at four o'clock, just in time to save getting wet. Colonel 
Ward and Major Joslin returned. Colonel Ward takes com- 
mand of the brigade, and Major Joslin of the regiment." 

E. J. Russell says of the condition of the regiment at this 
time: "No general in the army had such a personal hold 
upon the men as General McClellan. Whether that confi- 
dence was misplaced or not we will not discuss here, but his 
removal was the cause of discouragement and demoralization 
in the army, and it was felt in our regiment, and the failure 
of Burnside at Fredericksburg augmented it, and through 
the months of January and February, especially after the 
attempt known as the Mud campaign, both officers and men 
were sour and continually grumbling. Our best officers 
were upon the sick list or wounded, and the patriotic ther- 
mometer marked several points below zero; but when Ward, 
Joslin and Hooper returned and some of the old members 
from Ball's Bluff and Antietam came back, the old spirit re- 
vived and never again left it until the end of its term of 
service." 

With the resignation and honorable discharge of Captain 
George W. Rockwood, the last of those who were captains 
in the regiment when it left Worcester, had gone from their 
companies, for Captain Charles H. Watson had resigned and 



238 WINTER AND SPRING AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

been honorably discharged January 21, 1863. Two of those 
who had been captains, Chase Philbrick and George C. Jos- 
lin, remained as field officers; two had died in battle; the 
other six, including Rockwood and Watson, had resigned. 
Nor were any of those who had gone from Worcester as first- 
lieutenants, longer with the regiment, for Amos Bartlett, 
who had been commissioned captain, May 21, 1S62, had re- 
signed January 7, 1863. Two of these lieutenants had been 
detached to the Signal Corps, one had died, four had resigned 
from their lieutenancies and three had resigned after having 
become captains. Of those who were second-lieutenants 
when the regiment left Worcester, two, Lyman H. Elling- 
wood and Charles H. Eager, yet remained as captains. Of 
the others, three had died and four had resigned. 

In addition to Lyman H. Ellingwood and Charles H. 
Eager, the captains with the companies at this time were 
John Murkland, Walter Gale, Hans P Jorgensen, Albert 
Prince, Adoniram J. Bradley and Edward J. Russell. These 
men, and the lieutenants also, who were then in service, were 
men who had risen from the ranks on account of merit. It 
is a somewhat peculiar fact that not a single line officer in 
the regiment had received his commission for the position 
he was holding February 1, 1863, before the battle of 
Antietam, September 17. 1862. Thirteen commissions to 
line officers were issued to date from the month of January 
alone. A better body of officers than these has seldom 
fallen to the lot of an)- regiment, and the remarkable im- 
provement which took place in the condition of the Fifteenth 
during the next few months was due no less to them than to 
the field officers, Colonel Ward and Major Joslin. 

As we have already noted, Colonel Ward had been absent 
from the regiment since Ball's Bluff, and had remained at 
his home in Worcester for a year. He wore an artificial leg, 
but his wound had not healed satisfactorily and was still a 
source of trouble. During most of this time he had been 
engaged in recruiting. Not only had he sent recruits to the 



MAJOR GEORGE C. JOSLIN. 239 

Fifteenth and Forty-second, but the Thirty-sixth and Fifty- 
first had been in a large measure the results of his efforts. 
For the next five months he knew no rest, but kept alternat- 
ing as circumstances demanded, in command of the brigade 
and the regiment, and in both positions found great need of 
hard work. 

Major George C. Joslin was a native of Leominster, born 
August 19, 1839. He came of military stock, being the 
youngest son of Major Elias Joslin who was for many years 
a member of the Massachusetts Militia, and served during 
the War of 1812 for coast defense. He was educated in the 
schools of Leominster. He went to Worcester to live when 
he was sixteen years old, and became a dry goods clerk 
there. He had belonged to the City Guards for three years, 
and in i860 had been fourth-lieutenant. He went out in the 
Third Battalion Riflemen under Major Devens as second- 
lieutenant. At Colonel Devens' desire he was made captain 
of Company I of the Fifteenth. He was wounded at 
Antietam in the arm, and was commissioned major while a 
convalescent at home on a furlough. This commission was 
granted at the request of Colonel Ward and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Philbrick. Both of these men knew and appreciated 
his ability as a disciplinarian. As Colonel Ward served for 
a considerable portion of the next five months as commander 
of the brigade, and Lieutenant-Colonel Philbrick was in- 
capacitated for service by ill-health and the wound he 
received at Fredericksburg for most of the time previous to 
his resignation, April 16, 1863, the duty of bringing the regi- 
ment once more into a good state of discipline and feeling 
devolved in a large measure on Major Joslin. How well this 
task was done, the work of the regiment in the campaigns 
that followed amply showed. 

Of Lieutenant-Colonel Philbrick, Colonel Ward wrote, 
March 5: "Lieutenant-Colonel Philbrick just arrived. He is 
a little lame, but is feeling well." March 28, he adds: " He 
has gone to Washington on a four days' furlough. He is con- 



240 WINTER AND SPRING AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

siderably used up. He is a man of iron constitution and is 
the last man to cry. 'Hold, enough!'" — April 14: "Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Philbrick has tendered his resignation. He has 
been unfit for duty for several days. He cannot get well 
here, and rather than ask for a furlough, has applied for a 
discharge. He is a very valuable officer." His discharge 
was dated April 16. From Ball's Bluff to Fredericksburg he 
had been foremost in every danger. He commanded the 
regiment from the promotion of Lieutenant-Colonel Kim- 
ball until he was wounded at Fredericksburg. Without fear, 
overflowing with enthusiasm for his work, keen and resource- 
ful, he was a natural leader of men. In his resignation the 
regiment met, as Colonel Ward states, "a most serious loss." 
He afterwards held for many years a prominent position on 
the state police and detective force He was at one time 
city marshal of Lawrence. He died November 30, 1893. Maj. 
Geo. C. Joslin succeeded him as lieutenant-colonel, April 17. 

In a letter, written February 6, Colonel Ward says: "So 
here I am finally again with the old Fifteenth, which looks 
as well as I expected. The boys were much pleased to see 
me. Things are taking a new turn and good order and good 
feeling will prevail again: I arrived here about noon while 
the regiment was at the river on picket duty I rode down 
to see the boys and met them returning to camp about half 
way there. I reported soon after my arrival to General 
Howard, who was apparently delighted to see me, and im- 
mediately issued orders putting me in command of the bri- 
gade. It is General Gorman's brigade, the best in the service. 
The Fifteenth looks so differently I should not have known 
it, if I had met it accidentally. There is but little sickness. 
The men are looking exceedingly well, what is left of them. 

Sergeant Earle's diary continues: "Saturday, Feb. 7. 
The men left for home with their furloughs. — Wednesdav, 
Feb. 11. Preparations were being made for a grand in- 
spection and review of the brigade by Colonel Ward, but 
the storm prevented. — Friday, Feb. 13. The regiment on 



ANNALS. 241 

picket. — Saturday, Feb. 14. This morning a list of pro- 
motions for the regiment came in. — Monday, Feb. 16. We 
had a battalion drill, and a good one, too. Made arrange- 
ments for a new house. Engaged team to go after it. — 
Tuesday, Feb. 17. A snowy day, and towards night it rained 
quite hard. Could not go after my new house. — Thursday, 
Feb. 19. Another rainy day. Captain Ellingwood in com- 
mand of the regiment. — Friday, Feb. 20. This morning we 
had a guard mounting, a 'big bull.' — Saturday, Feb. 21. I 
had the good luck to get lumber for my house. — Sunday, 
Feb. 22. When I woke up this morning I found to my great 
surprise a foot of snow on the ground and a hard storm 
raging. It snowed until sundown, and was very cold. 
Grand jollification in honor of Washington's birthday — 
Monday, Feb. 23. I commenced building my new house; 
labored hard. — Tuesday, Feb. 24. Worked on my house. — 
Wednesday, Feb. 25. Succeeded in getting my house nearly 
completed. — Friday, Feb. 27 The regiment went on picket. 
— Saturday, Feb. 28. The regiment came in from picket 
and was mustered for pay. Took up quarters in my new 
house." 

Colonel Ward wrote, March 5: 'We have had a grand 
review today by General Hooker. Nine brigades of infantry 
were out, besides artillery and cavalry It was a splendid 
sight. Our brigade behaved itself finely, and I had reason 
to be proud of it. — March 12. General Sully has returned 
and taken the brigade. The regiment has now a complete 
set of field officers present, which has not been the case 
before since the battle of Ball's Bluff. — March 18. I was 
corps officer of the day yesterday, and was on horse-back a 
good portion of the time. I went the entire picket line of 
our corps from right to left, making about eighteen miles. 
My headquarters were at the Lacy house on the bank of the 
river, opposite Fredericksburg. From where I was, I could 
converse with the people in Fredericksburg. The rebel 
pickets are posted thickly all up and down the entire river 



242 WINTER AND SPRING AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

as far as I went. The Lacy house was one of the finest 
houses in all Virginia, and furnished magnificently, but now 
it is a complete wreck. Washington's mother was buried 
just across the river, and I could easily see the monument." 
Though suffering much from his leg, he says: "I don't want 
to go home until the war is ended, and then go with the old 
Fifteeenth." 

In Sergeant Earle's diary we find: "Tuesday, March 17 
This afternoon heavy and rapid cannonading was heard on 
our right which continued for a number of hours. Toward 
night the firing ceased, and everything became quiet. 
(Supposed to be cavalry raid.) — Wednesday, March 18. 
This afternoon we played a game of ball with the New York 
Thirty-fourth, and beat them. — Thursday, March 19. This 
morning we had a battalion drill, and a good one, too. — 
Saturday. March 21. A snowy day. This morning quite 
heavy musketry on our left. Supposed to be a rebel raid." 
During March and April ball playing is frequently mentioned 
in the diary The game played in those days was the old- 
fashioned round ball. Practice games inside the regiment 
occurred almost daily, and there were several great games 
with the New York Thirty-fourth. Our boys were so 
successful that the captain of the New York team gave up 
the contest with the confession that if they "had been play- 
ing for nuts his men wouldn't even have had the shucks." 
The interest taken in these games in the army as a whole 
almost rivalled that taken in the races, sparring matches and 
cock-fights of Meagher's troops. 

The following extracts are made from the letters written 
by Joseph E. Miner during the month of March: "We had 
a good time yesterday on picket. We were close to the 
river. We could see the rebels, and they could see us. 
They sent across little boats made of cornstalks. They sent 
over a Richmond paper, and wanted us to send one of our 
papers in return. We did not speak to them, as it is against 
orders.. Two men have to go out each morning to cut 



ANNALS. 243 

wood for the regiment. Wood is not very plenty around us 
now, although when we first came here there was nothing 
but woods. We have to go two miles away from the camp 
to get it. Since the woods have been cut down we can see 
the city from our camp; it is only about a mile away in an 
air line. There is little sickness in the regiment. Most 
of the men seem happy. We are living first-rate. Joe 
Hooker takes better care of his men than Burnside did, but 
I expect we shall have to fight to pa)' for it. We do not 
have windows in our houses, for we make the roofs with our 
tents, so the houses are very light. The sides are built of 
logs and the dirt banked up against them, so it is very warm. 
As we have fireplaces, the houses are comfortable." 

Turning once more to Earle's diary: "Tuesday, March 
31. Woke up and found it snowing hard. It was very cold. 
— Wednesday, April 1. This morning about four o'clock we 
were called up to form a line of battle, supposing the rebels 
to be nearly down upon us. We remained up until daylight, 
and nothing of much note took place. It proved to be a 
great April fool. — Friday, April 3. This afternoon we had a 
brigade review by General Gibbon, our new division com- 
mander." 

General O. O. Howard had been assigned to the com- 
mand of the Eleventh Corps. General John Gibbon who 
succeeded him had done valiant service at Fredericksburg, 
and was a most efficient commander. 

Colonel Ward was made very indignant by a proposal for 
consolidating regiments which was brought forward at this 
time. As the morning report of the regiment for April 9 
showed that there were still six hundred and seven names on 
the rolls, without including the Andrew Sharpshooters, the 
need of consolidation was less pressing than it afterwards 
became. Colonel Ward wrote, April 14: "Dr. Munroe 
looked at my leg today, and told me I was unfit for active 
service. Camping out in the rain he thought especially bad 
for it. I don't want to resign." .April 23, Colonel Ward 



244 WINTER AND SPRING AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

went to Washington to have his leg examined. April 26, he 
wrote: "I feel now more keenly than ever the loss of my 
leg, for I am forced to believe that I cannot endure active 
service." 

Again turning to Earle's diary: "Thursday, April 9. This 
afternoon at dress parade appointments were read and the 
assignments made. — Friday, April 10. Lieutenant Henry C. 
Ward [a brother of Colonel Ward] took command of Com- 
pany F, E. J. Russell command of Company D. — Saturday, 
April 11. This morning I commenced my duties as second- 
lieutenant of Company I. Was on dress parade in command 
of the company. — Sunday, April 12. We listened to the 
funeral sermon of Lieutenant Spurr, read by Colonel Ward. 
— Monday, April 13. The regiment was inspected by 
Captain Hale of the Nineteenth Massachusetts. — Tuesday, 
April 14. This forenoon orders came about moving which 
created considerable excitement and talk. Saw General 
Hooker ride past. — Thursday. April 16. Enjoyed myself 
playing ball with the New York Thirty-fourth. Senator 
Wilson of Massachusetts was present at dress parade. — Fri- 
day, April 17. The Andrew Sharpshooters left our regiment." 

The First Company Andrew Sharpshooters had now been 
attached to the Fifteenth for more than a year. Through 
the Peninsular campaign, at Antietam where the gallant 
Captain Saunders fell, at Fredericksburg, in the camp and 
on the march, the company had shared the fortunes of the 
regiment. From April 17 to August 1 1, 1863, it was attached 
to the Second Division, Second Corps headquarters, and on 
the latter date it was attached to the Twentieth Massachu- 
setts. In all, this company had on its rolls the names of two 
hundred and thirty-three officers and men. Of these, seven- 
teen were killed in battle, twenty-two died of wounds and 
disease and sixty-four were discharged for disability. The 
most severe loss of the company was at Antietam, where it 
shared the disastrous fortunes of the Fifteenth Regiment. 

A private of the Fifteenth Regiment was condemned 



THE CHANCELLORSVILLE CAMPAIGN. 245 

April 12, 1863, to be deprived of two months' pa}', and "to 
be marched through the regiment once a day for six days 
with the word 'skulker' in large letters posted on his back." 
The number of such cases in the Fifteenth was much smaller 
than in most regiments. 

Earle's diary further states: "April 18. This morning 
Lieutenant-Colonel Philbrick left the regiment for home, 
discharged. — April 22. Paymaster King arrived to-day. — 
April 24. Major King finished paying the regiment. The 
boys had a time all through the regiment. Great demand 
for orders on the sutler. — April 27. Orders were read on 
dress parade to be in readiness to move in the morning. — 
April 28. All the troops around here but our division moved 
at sunrise, up the river. We remained to do picket duty. — 
April 29. Twelve men were detached to serve in 'A,' First 
Rhode Island Battery." 

April 27, this order was issued: "Whenever camps are 
broken up preparatory for the march, the kindling of bon- 
fires, the burning of straw or rubbish, unusual noise or cheer- 
ing or any other acts by which the enemy may be apprised 
of the movement, are strictly forbidden. 

"General Gibbon." 

\s the Fifteenth took comparatively little part in the 
Chancellorsville campaign, its story may be briefly told. A 
demonstration for the purpose of deceiving the enemy was 
made lower down the Rappahannock as early as April 21, 
but the first real movement was not made until the 27th. On 
that date the Fifth, Eleventh and Twelfth Corps proceeded 
toward Kelly's Ford, which was twenty-seven miles above 
Fredericksburg. By the morning of the 29th, these troops 
were across the Rappahannock, and by the afternoon of the 
30th they had forded the Rapidan and concentrated at 
Chancellorsville. Meanwhile the First and Third Divisions 
of the Second Corps had gone to United States Ford, and as 
soon as Couch learned that the Rapidan had been crossed, 
he also went over the Rappahannock, so that these two 



246 WINTER AND SPRINC AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

divisions of the Second Corps bivouacked on the night of 
the 30th within a mile of Chancellorsville. 

During the three days in which these brilliant movements 
were being effected by the right wing, the left wing, com- 
posed of the First, Third and Sixth Corps and the Second 
Division of the Second Corps under General Sedgwick, so 
manoeuvred below and opposite Fredericksburg that General 
Lee was unable to determine what the plan of Hooker might 
be. After Chancellorsville had been occupied, the Third 
Corps was detached from the left and sent over the Rappa- 
hannock at United States Ford, to unite with the Fifth, 
Eleventh, Twelfth and part of the Second Corps. Twelve 
thousand cavalry under Stoneman had been sent around to 
destroy Lee's connections and cut off his retreat. 

The right wing pushed forward on Friday beyond the 
wilderness around Chancellorsville and gained a position on 
a ridge with open ground in front. This was a position 
peculiarly adapted for handling to advantage both wings of 
the army At this point, some unaccountable madness 
seized the commander, and in spite of the most earnest 
remonstrances of his subordinates, he ordered his hitherto 
successful troops to withdraw from this ideal battle-ground 
to the tangled thicket from which it had just emerged, a 
thicket where surprise would be easy, where the effective 
force of a large portion of his army would be lost and where 
cooperation between the parts would be well nigh impossible. 
From this time on, Hooker's management was marked by 
hesitancy and weakness, which resulted in the defeat of his 
mighty army by a much inferior force. 

On Saturday. May 2, while Lee engaged the attention of 
the Union troops from the front, Stonewall Jackson made a 
concealed movement with a force of twenty-six thousand 
men. so as to fall on the extreme right of the Union line, 
where the Eleventh Corps stood under command of General 
O. O. Howard. At a little after five p. m. Jackson had reached 
the point for which he was aiming, and falling upon troops, 



THE CHANCELLORSLVILLE CAMPAINGN. 247 

who were surprised and were defectively arranged for meet- 
ing such an attack, he swept them before him in utter rout. 
A simultaneous attack, which McLaws had made on the left, 
was repulsed by Hancock's division of the Second Corps, 
especially through the able leadership of the youthful Colonel 
Nelson A. Miles. By dark, Jackson's advance had been 
stayed by the Third Corps, Hay s brigade of the Second 
Corps and Pleasanton's cavalry force. It was here that 
Stonewall Jackson received wounds which resulted in his 
death. 

As Reynold's First Corps had been withdrawn from the 
left wing under Sedgwick and had already reached Chancel- 
lorsville, notwithstanding the demoralization of the Eleventh 
Corps, Hooker still had a force greatly superior to that of 
Lee. On Monday morning he determined, however, to 
withdraw from Chancellorsville toward the river, so as to 
cover the fords. During the day there was continuous 
aggressive action on the part of Lee, but Hooker allowed 
half of his troops, fighting most heroically, to suffer defeat 
from overwhelming numbers, while the other half stood un- 
engaged within immediate call. 

Leaving the right wing, let us return to the left, under 
General Sedgwick. As early as April 28, some of his troops 
had crossed the Rappahannock some three or four miles 
below Fredericksburg, and from that time on to May 2 a 
part of his force was on the south side of the river, but 
Gibbon's division of the Second Corps remained at Falmouth. 

Earle's diary contains the following record: "May 1. 
Turned out before light and prepared for a move. About 
eight we were ordered to guard a part of the New York 
Thirty-fourth, they having mutinied. Quite an excitement 
prevailed until about noon, when General Gibbon made a 
few remarks to them and they concluded to take up their 
arms again. During the whole day we were ready to move, 
but no orders came, and night finds us here in our old camp. 
Heavy firing kept up on the right during the day. and about 



24S WINTER AND SPRINC AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

dark it was almost one continual roar." Among "the re- 
marks" of General Gibbon, it is said that he told the men of 
the Thirty-fourth that if they did not obey his commands, he 
should order the guard, that is, the Fifteenth, to fire at them, 
and no one doubted he would do it. 

The reason for the "mutiny" of the Thirty-fourth New 
York is to be found in the fact that many of the men claimed 
that their term of service expired May 1. As General Alfred 
Sully reported that it was "not in his power to enforce disci- 
pline in his command," he was relieved by General Gibbon. 
Thus Colonel Lafflin of the Thirty-fourth New York com- 
manded the First Brigade in the movement across the river. 
It was decided by a court of inquiry that the special order 
of General Gibbon relieving General Sully was not warranted 
by the facts of the case, but Sully never afterwards returned 
to the command, but was assigned to duty against the 
Indians in Minnesota and Dakota. 

As the First and Third Corps had gone to Chancellors- 
ville, Sedgwick had only his own Sixth Corps and Gibbon's 
division of the Second Corps, when at eleven p. m., May 2, 
he received orders "to cross the Rappahannock at Fred- 
ericksburg immediately upon receipt of the order, and move 
in the direction of Chancellorsville." He was also ordered 
"to attack and destroy any force on the road." As General 
Sedgwick had the Sixth Corps already on the south side of 
the river, upon the Bowling Green Road, he advanced from 
there and ordered Gibbon to construct bridges and cross 
near the Lacy house. The Sixth Corps, after a little 
skirmishing, had occupied the town before Gibbon had 
crossed, but the heights beyond were held by the rebels. 
The report of Major George C. Joslin, who was in command 
of the Fifteenth at this time, reads: 

"I have the honor to report that at eleven o'clock on the 
night of the 2d instant, I received orders to have my com- 
mand in complete readiness to move at a moment's notice, 
with muskets loaded. At about midnight, the regiment took 



THE CHANXELLORSVILLE CAMPAIGN. 249 

the position assigned it (at the head of the column), and 
marched to the rear of the Lacy house, opposite the city of 
Fredericksburg, and remained at rest until sunrise. The call 
for twenty-five volunteers for special service was promptly 
met and the men furnished. 

" Soon after sunrise, the regiment marched, left in front, 
across the pontoon bridge into the city of Fredericksburg, 
and stacked arms in a street running parallel with the river, 
and to the right of the city. From this position the regi- 
ment marched to the right, across an open plain, commanded 
by the earthworks of the enemy. The enemy now opened 
upon the column with their artillery with very accurate aim, 
but the men marched steadily and without disorder, although 
shells were bursting directly above their heads. My com- 
mand marched as far to the right as it was possible to go, as 
a bridge, which crossed the canal at this point, had been de- 
stroyed. Remained in line of battle awaiting orders, the 
men having excellent cover. Two companies were ordered 
forward to feel the enemy, and, having discovered the posi- 
tion and force of the enemy, returned without loss, although 
several shots were fired at them. 

" Upon the evacuation of the rifle-pits by the enemy, 
caused by the success of our forces on the left, I was ordered 
to return to the city, and recrossed the before-mentioned 
plain, again under artillery fire. Marched through the city 
and to the heights beyond, just occupied by our forces. 
After a short rest, ordered to return to the city and await 
orders. 

"At three-thirty p m. ordered to recross the river and 
support a battery [A, First Rhode Island Artillery] which 
was placed in position to protect the upper pontoon bridge. 
My command has remained in this position until date, await- 
ing further orders. 

"The loss sustained by my regiment was very slight, 
being but two men slightly wounded. Some prisoners were 
captured by my men and sent to headquarters. No property 



25O WINTER AND SPRIN<i AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

was lost save that belonging to the wounded men, and noth- 
ing captured from the enemy. 

"The officers and men of my command behaved well, 
both on the march and under fire, and at the close of the day 
no men were absent or unaccounted for." 

At dusk of the 4th, Companies A, B, E and G went into 
the rifle-pits above and below the bridge to cover its removal. 

Lee, confident that Hooker would not have the wisdom 
or courage to make an offensive movement with his forces 
at Chancellorsville, boldly sent a strong force against Sedg- 
wick, who now had only the Sixth Corps. Sedgwick, though 
unassisted by Hooker, had fought grandly at Salem Heights, 
and though he met heavy losses, was able to withstand the 
enemy On the 4th, it seemed that he would be crushed by 
an overwhelming force, but fortunately the attack of the 
enemy was delayed, and during the night of the 4th he re- 
crossed the river at Bank's Ford. Hooker, who had done 
no fighting since the 3d, withdrew on the night of the 5th to 
the north bank of the river, and thus the campaign of Chan- 
cellorsville was ended. 

The Fifteenth remained near the bank of the river until 
the 8th. Earle's diary continues: " Friday, May 8. This 
afternoon we moved our camp back one-fourth of a mile from 
the river, into a very pleasant place near the railroad. — May 
11. This morning I was appointed acting adjutant of the 
regiment. Lieutenant-Colonel Joslin and Major Hooper 
commenced the duties of their respective offices. — May 13. 
News came to-day of the death of Stonewall Jackson. — May 
17. Prayer-meeting at the Lacy house. — May 18. This 
afternoon we had a battalion drill. — May 19. This afternoon 
we had a division drill by Paddy Owens, near the Phillipps 
house. It was a tiresome affair. — May 23. This afternoon 
we had a review of our brigade, near the Phillipps house. — 
May 27. Had a battalion drill this afternoon. Colonel Ward 
arrived from Washington. — May 28. This afternoon we had 
a brigade review by Colonel Morehead, Major Hooper com- 



ANNALS. 2;i 

manding. — May 29. A hot, dusty da}" Our division was 
reviewed by Major General Hancock. Colonel Ward on 
duty." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Joslin had gone home on a furlough. 
Colonel Ward wrote on the 29th: "Here I am again with the 
regiment opposite Fredericksburg. We have a very nice 
place back of the Lacy house, in full view of Fredericksburg 
and all the rebel works. They and we are drilling every day 
with only the river between us." The colonel speaks of the 
neatness of the camp and of a visit from Ex-Chaplain Scand- 
lin, June 4. Rev William G. Scandlin was at that time con- 
nected with the Sanitary Commission, and was afterwards 
captured by the rebels at Gettysburg. 

The diary: "June 2. Had a division fight this afternoon. 
— June 3. The regiment was paid to-day for the months of 
March and April. — June 5. This morning we discovered the 
rebel camps to be evacuated and everything seemed to indi- 
cate that the\ - were off. This afternoon our troops com- 
menced crossing below the railroad bridge. Quite heavy 
cannonading continued for about two hours, the enemy not 
replying. Sedgwick's corps began crossing about dark. — 
June 6. Had a battalion drill by Lieutenant-Colonel Joslin. 
Rumors of a move, but no definite orders. — June 7. This 
afternoon at dress parade, I read the death sentence of Rich- 
ard Hixon of Company K. [This sentence was not executed, 
for Richard Hixon was afterwards transferred to the Twen- 
tieth as absent wounded.] June 9. This evening we had a 
little shelling from the rebels, but they did very little dam- 
age. This morning the New Vork Thirty-fourth left for 
home, their term of service having expired. It seemed like 
losing a friend, for they had been with us over twenty months. 
— June 10. Had a battalion drill. This evening about sev- 
enty-five rebel prisoners passed through our camp. They 
were taken upon our right. Brigadier-General Harrow 
assumed command of our brigade. Major-General Hancock 
assumed command of the corps." 



2^2 WINTER AND SPRINC AT CAMP FALMOUTH. 

William Harrow had formerly commanded the Four- 
teenth 'Indiana. General Couch's resignation arose from his 
lack of confidence in General Hooker as a commander of the 
army, and was tendered soon after the battle of Chancellors- 
ville. He was appointed commander of the Department of 
the Susquehanna, and the Pennsylvania militia was organized 
under his direction to meet Lee's invasion. He afterwards 
commanded the Second Division of the Twenty-third Army 
Corps. 

Winfield S. Hancock was born in Pennsylvania. He was 
graduated at West Point, 1844. He served with honor in the 
Mexican and Seminole wars. In the Peninsular campaign 
he commanded a brigade in Smith's division of the Fourth 
and Sixth Corps. We have seen how he succeeded Richard- 
son in the command of the First Division of the Second 
Corps. At Fredericksburg and at Chancellorsville he had 
displayed a rare ability which gave promise, afterwards amply 
fulfilled, that he would be a worthy successor even to such 
leaders as Sumner and Couch. 

The losses of the Fifteenth from all causes, during the 
seven months from November 1, 1862, to June 1, 1863, accord- 
ing to the consolidated morning reports, was four hundred 
and thirty-seven. Of these, two hundred and seventy-five 
men were discharged for disability, and twenty-seven com- 
missioned officers were lost by resignation, promotion, or 
transfer. This loss was in part offset by a gain of one hun- 
dred and seventy-three. There were only eight recruits 
during the whole seven months. The net loss was two hun- 
dred and sixty-four. The total number in the regiment May 
31, 1863, was five hundred and seventy-one, of whom three 
hundred and forty-six were present for duty. The men re- 
maining had become so well seasoned that the hard marches 
of June withdrew but twenty-eight from this number. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN'. 
June 14 — July 4, 1863. 

The Army of the Potomac had lost many men in its two 
disastrous attempts to drive the rebels from the southern 
bank of the Rappahannock. The spirit of discouragement 
and dissatisfaction which had prevailed among the officers 
on account of these failures had led to many resignations 
and transfers to other fields. The expiration of the terms of 
service of a considerable number of nine months' and two 
years' regiments had still further diminished this army In 
June, General Hooker had only about one hundred thousand 
men under arms. 

The morale of the Army of the Potomac was much better 
in June than it had been in January General Hooker cared 
for his troops more wisely than General Burnside had, and 
they were under much better discipline. The diaries and 
letters of the members of the Fifteenth show nothing of that 
spirit of insubordination and despondency in the opening 
summer, which had prevailed in the middle of the winter. 
Yet, as the resignation of General Couch showed, General 
Hooker's fatal hesitancy at Chancellorsville had destroyed 
the confidence of his subordinates. For the same reason, 
he was distrusted by the authorities at Washington and 
therefore his plans were received with suspicion, and his 
movements were restricted. Moreover, the forces on the 
Peninsula, at Washington, at Harper's Ferry and at Win- 
chester, were neither placed at his disposal or allowed to 



2- ? 4 THE (-.Kl'TVSBUKC CAMPAIGN. 

cooperate effectively with him. With such lack of confi- 
dence, both among those who were under him and those 
above, no general could reasonably hope for success, and 
aggressive action became almost impossible. 

On the other hand, Lee's army was larger in proportion 
to the force opposed to it, than it had been at any time since 
1861. Those who had been wounded or made prisoners at 
Antietam, had, for the most part, returned to service. The 
losses at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville had been com- 
paratively slight. The ranks had been swollen by recruiting 
and conscription. The confidence reposed by the govern- 
ment in General Lee gave him absolute control of all the 
forces in Virginia. Thus the number of troops in the three 
corps under his command at the beginning of June, 1863, 
was but little less than the numbers in the seven corps in the 
Army of the Potomac. These troops were filled with the 
confidence begotten of victory, and reposed the most im- 
plicit trust in their leader The death of Stonewall Jackson 
had, however, removed from the army Lee's best lieutenant. 
This proved to be a greater loss than was realized at the 
time, for Ewell, his successor, lacked the qualities which 
gave Jackson the power in battle "to ride the whirlwind and 
control the storm." 

The belief that an aggressive warfare was more likely to 
result successfully than that which was purely defensive, the 
need for victories in the East to counterbalance the losses 
in the West, the excellent condition of the Confederate 
arm)-, the eagerness of the soldiers, inspired by confidence 
in themselves and in their leader, all combined to persuade 
General Lee to enter upon an invasion of the loyal states. 
He determined to move by the Valley of the Shanandoah 
where the Blue Ridge would hide his advance. 

Longstreet's corps started on the 3d of June, and by the 
7th had reached Culpeper Court House. Lwell's corps 
followed on the 4th and 5th in the same direction. It was 
not until Hill's corps began its preparations on the 5th that 



THE NORTHWARD MOVEMENT. 2 $5 

Hooker suspected the movement. He immediately asked 
General Halleck for permission to attack Hill's corps if he 
found it unsupported, but Halleck refused. Thus Hooker 
was obliged to content himself with a reconnaissance at the 
river on the 5th and 6th. He also sent the cavalry under 
Pleasanton toward Culpeper to discover and report any 
movement in that direction. June 9th, this cavalry force 
became engaged with Stuart at Brandy Station, and after a 
fierce struggle in which the losses were about equal on each 
side, Pleasanton, having unmasked the movement of the 
rebel army, reported to Hooker. Hooker was more eager 
than ever to attack Hill's isolated corps, and would have 
desired, if successful in this, to move on Richmond, but he 
had imperative orders that Lee should be followed and 
Washington should be covered. 

Though General Halleck knew that Lee was advancing 
by the Valley of the Shenandoah, he failed to inform General 
Milroy who commanded sixty-nine hundred men stationed 
about Winchester. So Milroy was surprised, and though he 
fought valiantly, some four thousand of his troops were cap- 
tured and the rest were scattered in flight. 

The northward movement of Hooker's army began June 
11. The Third Corps moved in advance, then the First, 
then the Eleventh. These three corps which constituted 
the Right Wing, were placed under the command of General 
Reynolds. These corps, together with the Fifth under 
General Meade, moved toward Manassas. It was not until 
the 13th that the three other corps, the Second, Sixth and 
Twelfth, began their march, and as the Second acted as a 
rear guard, it was the last to leave. 

We turn once more to Earle's diary: "June 14. Finished 
preparing to move, and immediately after dark we left our 
camp. Marched about three miles and halted for an hour, 
when we were ordered back into camp. — June 15. Arrived 
at our old camp about one o'clock this morning, and after 
two hours' sleep left again. Arrived at Stafford Court 



256 THE (iETTVSr.L'RG CAMI'AICN'. 

House at eight a. m., and after an hour we left tor Dumfries. 
Crossed Aquia Creek and went into camp for the night 
about a mile from the creek. Had only fifty-three men to 
stack arms. The hardest day's march we ever had. Captain 
Russell was sunstruck." 

The following issued by General Gibbon speaks for itself: 

"June 15, '63. 

"There are occasions when a man is obliged to leaveliis 
ranks, but in the vast majority of cases the straggler is a 
skulking, cowardly wretch who strives to shift his duties 
upon the shoulders of more honest men and better soldiers. 
The fact that such regiments as the Fifteenth, Nineteenth 
and Twentieth Massachusetts arrive in camp with few less 
than they leave with in the morning, is sufficient proof that 
straggling, even in the worst weather, is inexcusable, and 
the general commanding the division regrets to notice such 
a vast contrast in some of the regiments of the division. 

"General Gibbon." 

Turning to the diary again: "June 16. Were called up 
at three o'clock this morning, and arrived at Dumfries about 
eight o'clock a. m. After two hours' rest we moved on, and 
at dusk went into camp at Wolf Run Shoals. A very hard 
day's march. Saw men dead by the roadside. — June 17. 
Had a good night's sleep, and left for Fairfax Station about 
nine a. m. Arrived at Sangster's Station at four o'clock, and 
went into camp. Colonel Ward commanding brigade. — June 
18. Had a good night's rest. The warmest night I ever 
experienced." 

June 12, Colonel Ward wrote: "The regiment is in good 
shape, and I am all right. I shall fight if I can get a chance, 
that is certain; nothing but my leg will stop me. I can ride 
anywhere anybody can, but if we are obliged to go where 
horses cannot, I shall be obliged to stop. I am in for it, and 
shall take the chances." June 19, he wrote from Fairfax 
Station: "From Dumfries we came directly to this place, 
which is about fifteeen miles from Alexandria. The men all 



AT THOROUGHFARE GAP. 257 

agree in saying it was the hardest march they ever had. 
The first night we halted, not over quarter of the full num- 
ber were with the regiment. The rest had fallen out from 
fatigue and exhaustion. The men are entirely used up, and 
ought not to move for several days. I never saw anything 
like it. The men would go as long as they could stand and 
then fall." 

Earle's diary continues: "June 19. We started for Cen- 
treville (at about three p m.), which place we reached about 
five o'clock. — June 20. Had a refreshing night's sleep. This 
morning witnessed a raid on the sutler of the Ninth Massa- 
chusetts Battery Brigadier-General Hays ordered two 
pieces of the batten' and one regiment to disperse the 
crowd. It was a great time and afforded much fun. About 
noon we left for Thoroughfare Gap. Passing through 
Gainesville about dark, we reached the Gap about midnight 
and turned in for the rest of the night. We passed the 
old Bull Run battle-ground and saw marked evidence 
of a great battle. Riding along, I saw two skulls lying 
in the road kicked round by the passers-by Also saw 
hands and feet of those half buried, and the whole 
ground was completely strewn with the bones of the dead. 
The march was a long one, and after dark very tiresome. — 
June 21. Had a few hours' rest. Changed our camp into 
the woods." 

Leaving the Fifteenth stationed near Thoroughfare Gap 
for the next three days, let us once more consider the move- 
ments of the rebel army as a whole. Hill's corps had fol- 
lowed the rest of Lee's forces northward as soon as he saw 
that Hooker had abandoned his position about Falmouth. 
At this time the head of the Confederate army was near 
Martinsburg, a hundred miles away. The next four days 
Lee devoted to the concentration of his troops except for a 
cavalry raid, which penetrated Pennsylvania as far as Cham- 
bersburg and spread consternation through the peaceful 
valley of the Cumberland. General Hooker, meanwhile 



25S THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

waited at Centreville and Manassas to see whether Lee would 
move through that section as in the Antietam campaign, or 
go directly northward. The cavalry of Pleasanton, sent out 
to reconnoiter along the passes of the Blue Ridge, did some 
valiant fighting between Aldie and Ashby's Gap with the 
rebel cavalry. When Longstreet's corps reached this pass, 
Pleasanton followed its movements and kept Hooker in- 
formed. 

While Longstreet was thus operating along the Blue 
Ridge, Ewell's corps went across the Potomac under orders 
to capture Harrisburg, if possible. On the 23d, Lee ordered 
Hill and Longstreet to follow Ewell. Hill went first, and 
Longstreet, acting as rear guard, had brought up his forces 
by the 27th so that they were near those of Hill at Cham- 
bersburg On the same day Ewell was at Carlisle preparing 
to attack the capital of the state, which was defended only 
by the newly recruited militia of Pennsylvania, under the 
command of General Couch. General Hooker having been 
apprised of the advance of Lee, and knowing that Washing- 
ton was no longer in danger from the west, sent the Eirst, 
Third and Eleventh Corps, under General Reynolds, across 
the Potomac at Edward's Ferry on the 25th, with orders to 
locate at Middletown and shut out Lee from entering east- 
ern Maryland. Two days later the other four corps had also 
crossed. 

For the 25th of June, Earle's diary has this entry: "Left 
camp this morning for Gum Springs. Passing through Hay- 
market we were severely shelled by the rebels who had 
placed a battery in a very commanding position. They con- 
tinued their fire until silenced by one of ours. I never saw 
so hard shelling before. Arrived at Gum Springs and went 
into camp at about nine o'clock." The shelling here spoken 
of was done by Stuart's artillery. One man in Company K 
of the Fifteenth was wounded. Stuart at this time was just 
entering upon his expedition around the rear of the Union 
army, which withdrew his cavalry from the main army of 



OX THE OLD CAMP-GROUND. 259 

Lee at the time it was most needed by him. At Gum Springs 
General Alexander Hays brigade, consisting of four New 
York regiments, joined the Second Corps. General Hays 
was put in command of the Third Division, while Colonel 
Willard commanded the brigade. Alexander S. Webb had 
succeeded General Owen in command of the Philadelphia 
brigade at Thoroughfare Gap. 

On the 26th, the Fifteenth crossed the Potomac at Ed- 
ward's Ferry and bivouacked about midnight near the bank. 
On the 27th it passed through Poolesville and camped at the 
foot of Sugar Loaf Mountain. The following order was read 
to the regiment before the march began: 
( General Order No. zoj. ) 

"The Fifteenth and Nineteenth Massachusetts Volun- 
teers, for marching to-day in the best and most compact 
order and with the least straggling from their ranks, are 
excused from all picket duty and outside details for four 
days. By command of 

" Brigadier-General Gibbon." 

This may well be associated with the other implied com- 
mendation by General Gibbon, issued June 15. 

Despite the most heroic endurance, the march had been 
telling upon Colonel Ward most seriously. The following 
extracts are taken from the last letter his wife ever received 
from him. It was written from Poolesville, June 27. He 
says: "I am still in command of the brigade. General Gib- 
bon has returned, but General Harrow is sick and rides in an 
ambulance. I expect it will be my turn next, as I feel very 
much like it now All are surprised to see how well I stand 
it. I have not had my leg off for three days, neither has it 
been dressed. I have always said the war was too far off 
for the North to fully realize its magnitude. The time has 
now come for action. The vigorous and earnest prosecution 
of the war is inevitable, and the quiet slumber of the people 
of the North will get most shockingly disturbed. I am writ- 
ing this out-of-doors in the open field on the old camp-ground 



260 the Gettysburg campaign. 

at Poolesvillc. I have just reached down and picked a leaf 
of clover which you will find inclosed- We have not seen 
the worst of this rebellion yet, and I almost shudder at the 
thought of what we are to pass through before the struggle 
is over, but I still trust and believe that things will come out 
well One thing is certain, our men will fight much better 

with their faces turned homeward." This letter, like all 
those written by Colonel Ward, abounds in expressions 
of the most tender affection for his family. The closing 
words of this final letter of the stern soldier, as he went on 
to his last fierce conflict, were: "Love and kisses to the chil- 
dren." 

On the 28th, the army passed through Urbana to Frede- 
rick City On this day there was another change in the com- 
mand of the Army of the Potomac. General Hooker, who 
had managed the campaign thus far with great judgment, 
though constantly thwarted in his bolder schemes by General 
Halleck, had sent in his resignation. The immediate occasion 
of this action was the refusal of Halleck to allow the evac- 
uation of Harper's Ferry and the consequent cooperation 
of French's large force with the main army. General George 
G. Meade, commander of the Fifth Corps, was placed at the 
head of the Army of the Potomac. Quiet, with little self- 
assertion, scholarly, courageous, but never reckless, he seemed 
by nature more adapted to the retirement of academic life 
than to the turmoil of campaigns. He was entirely unknown 
to the great body of the soldiers. This promotion was ac- 
cepted by them without protest, but without enthusiasm. 

It was too late to change the plans of General Hooker 
even if it had been desirable. General Meade directed his 
troops northward through the valley between the South 
Mountain on the west and Parr's Ridge on the east. On the 
29th, the First and Eleventh Corps reached P.mmettsburg, 
the Third and Twelfth Taneytown, while the right wing, in- 
cluding the Second, Fifth and Sixth Corps, were located 
between this point and Westminster. Through carelessness 



GENERAL MEADE'S PLAN. 26l 

in the deliver)' of instructions, the Second Corps had not 
started as early as it should have done. It was eight a. m. 
before the Fifteenth left camp. During the next twelve 
hours it marched by way of Liberty and Johnsville to Union- 
town, a distance of over thirty miles. "The greatest march 
ever known," says Earle. 

On the 30th, the main body of the army rested, while the 
cavalry reconnoitered the position of the enemy and watched 
the passes. Buford's division entering Pennsylvania discov- 
ered a body of rebel troops at Fairfield and reported to 
Reynolds. As Reynolds had been ordered to occupy Get- 
tysburg, which is nearer to Fairfield than to Emmettsburg, 
on the next day with the First Corps, he directed Buford to 
hurry hither and take possession before the enemy could 
reach it. General Meade had determined to manceuver in 
such a way as to bring on a battle as soon as possible, pro- 
vided suitable conditions could be found. As he was unac- 
quainted with the topograph)- of the country and uncertain 
concerning the plans of Lee, he was still feeling his way 
On Jul\- 1, the orders given required the First Corps to be at 
Gettysburg, the Eleventh near by. the Third at Emmettsburg, 
the Twelfth at Two Taverns, the Second at Taneytown, the 
Fifth at Hanover and the Sixth at Manchester. 

Meanwhile General Lee had become aware that the 
Union forces had crossed the Potomac. Fearing to be cut 
off from Virginia, he determined to cross the South Moun- 
tain and concentrate his troops at Gettysburg. He recalled 
Ewell from the banks of the Susquehanna and set the other 
two corps in motion from Chambersburg and Fayetteville. 
Heth's division of Hill's corps reached Cashtown on the 29th. 
Pettigrew's brigade was sent to Gettysburg on the next day. 
Buford, who had promptly followed Reynold's order, was 
discovered to be already in possession. Pettigrew retired to 
await reinforcements. Hill ordered Heth to take Gettys- 
burg in the morning of July 1, and Lee hastened the concen- 
tration of his troops upon this point. 



262 THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

Nine carriage roads and one railroad meet at Gettysburg. 
From thence one can go directly to all the centers of trade 
between the Susquehanna and the Potomac. It is, therefore, 
a point of great strategic importance. It is near the head- 
waters of the Monocacy. Into this river, by means of Marsh 
Creek, the drainage of its hills is poured southward through 
two small streams, Willoughby's Run on the west, and Rock 
Creek on the east. Plum Run is a branch of the latter stream 
and lies between the two. On the east of Willoughby Run 
and parallel to it, is a long line of hills, known as Seminary 
Ridge. Half a mile to the east of this ridge is the town of 
Gettysburg at the foot of the northern extremity of another 
group of hills, known as Cemetery Ridge. This ridge has 
rocky summits at the ends; that at the north, eight} - feet 
above Gettyburg, is known as Cemetery Hill ; those at the 
south are known as Little Round Top and Round Top. The 
latter is two hundred and ten feet above Gettysburg. Be- 
tween the two extremities of the ridge the elevation is less 
and the land is not so rugged, and was in July, 1863, for the 
most part under cultivation. To the east of Cemetery Hill 
is Culp's Hill, which rises from Rock Creek. The Emmetts- 
burg road passes southwesterly along a transverse ridge 
which crosses the valley from Cemetery Hill to a point in 
Seminar}- Ridge opposite Little Round Top. The triangular 
valley thus formed is drained by Plum Run, the rock}- gorge 
of which is known as Devil's Den. Where the Millerstown 
road intersects this Emmettsburg road was a peach orchard. 
The two main ridges offered strong lines to the two armies. 
The direction of approach naturally gave that on the west to 
the Confederates, and that on the east to the Federals. 

On the morning of Jul}' 1, however, Buford's cavalry was 
stationed to the northwest of Gettysburg along the 
Chambersburg road as far to the west as Willoughby's Run. 
Here, at six a. m., was the first encounter. Though Buford's 
effective force was less than four thousand men, he held in 
check Heth's division. He hoped that Reynolds might 



BATTLE OF JULY I. 263 

bring up the First Corps before he should be overwhelmed 
by the fresh forces which he saw advancing. 

At last Reynolds appeared with Wadsworth's division. 
His keen eye perceived the advantage of the position. He 
sent word for his other division and Howard's Eleventh 
Corps to hasten at their utmost speed, and then arranged 
the few men at his disposal in such a way along the slope of 
Oak Hill, which rises from Willoughbv's Run, that they 
were able to withstand successfully the attack of the enemy. 
Then he fell. The soldiers, unconscious of their loss, fought 
no less valiantly, and succeeded in maintaining their position 
until one after another the remaining divisions of the First 
Corps and those of the Eleventh reached the field. It was 
then half-past one. General Howard had assumed com- 
mand, and he sent word to Sickles to bring forward the 
Third Corps, and to Meade telling him the position of affairs 
and that he was awaiting his orders. The Confederates had 
been somewhat slow in taking advantage of their superiority 
of numbers, but now. during the early afternoon, all of Hill's 
corps and part of Ewell's were sent into action. The rebels 
had twenty-two thousand men on the field, the Federals 
sixteen thousand four hundred. The management of the 
Federal troops has been much criticized, and to faulty dis- 
positions, no less than to the numerical advantage of the 
rebels is attributed the rout of the two divisions of the 
Eleventh Corps, which were engaged, and the retreat of the 
First Corps, after a stubborn resistance, through the streets 
of the town, where thousands of their number were taken 
prisoners. Thus, at about four o'clock, the hills by 
Willoughby's Run, Seminary Ridge, and even the town of 
Gettysburg, were in the hands of the enemy. Four thousand 
men had been captured by them, a large number had been 
killed, and more had been wounded; the roads were full of 
fleeing soldiers. Most of them, however, rallied around a 
brigade which had been left by Howard in reserve oh 
Cemetery Hill. 



264 THE CETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

Just then, Hancock, who had been sent to assume com- 
mand if Reynolds was no longer living, appeared. His 
presence brought order to the chaotic mass. The men re- 
gained their confidence, and the lines were reformed. Culp's 
Hill was occupied. Cemetery Hill was strengthened. The 
enemy, notwithstanding the advantage gained up to this 
point, hesitated to renew their attack until it was too late. 
Soon our Twelfth Corps came up, and before dark the Third. 

We left the Fifteenth resting at Uniontown. On the 30th 
it was mustered for pay. At eight a. m., July I, the regiment 
started for Taneytown. About noon heavy cannonading 
was heard, and the Second Corps was hurried to the Penn- 
sylvania line. The Fifteenth bivouacked that night three 
miles from Gettysburg, behind a barricade of rails. An hour 
before daylight on the next day the regiment started for the 
battle-field, and at sunrise had been placed in position be- 
hind Cemetery Ridge, together with the rest of the Second 
Corps. While the Fifteenth was here, Colonel Ward, who 
had been relieved of the command of the brigade by the 
arrival of General Harrow, took command of the regiment. 
He made a short address to his men, and impressed upon 
them the necessity of standing firmly by their colors. 

On the morning of July 2, all the Confederate army had 
arrived on the battle-field, except Pickett's division and 
Law's brigade of Longstreet's corps. Ewell's corps was in a 
curve about Culp's and Cemetery Hills. His left was on 
Benner Hill, east of Rock Creek, his center was in the 
village of Gettysburg, and his right on Seminary Ridge. 
Hill's corps came next along this ridge, with one division in 
the rear on the Chambersburg road. Longstreet's corps was 
still further along the ridge, with his extreme right across 
the Emmettsburg road. Slocum commanded the Union 
Right and Right Center on Culp's and Cemetery Hills, 
opposite Kwell. He had the Twelfth, Eleventh and First 
Corps. Then came Hancock's corps on the left center along 
Cemetery Ridge. Sickles' Third Corps held the left, and 



jg 



_C7 



SO 






o 






PC? 



&&! 



pa 



t^ 



%>■ 



eg 






u 



w 



on 



H 



itf 



j 



a 



D A/ 



n n 
1 1 in 
1 1] iu 
U U 



MX 



fpjfrsjstpoQ 



H 



*-/V 



n 






ft* 



o_ 



pwi 



V 



/» « 



Milium 



P\^ 



f 



<s 



6' 



t% 



Q 



^ 



*«&. 



7/1^' '///'• '/;" 



77?^ 



> 



•^ 



/ 



^ 



A/ 



y 



<3 QO, 



00^ 



8«1 



si 

3 
o 



*• 2 

a a 

^ > 

V.T3 g 

1) en .S 

.c 5 ~ 

3 U 'a 

a p 

a) St t3 

C i-i 0) 

^ 3 8 



a; m 



O " I- 

en c 

ft S 



55 LJ fl 



o 

.a 

a 

o 

.a 



2^-S 

a ■ -■ 



■a .a .-a 



m 



c 
o 
o 

01 



en P-< 
S3 -B *> 

a *■ oj 

O 1j *" 

- &12 



a 
o 
in 

a 

& o 

H " 



P5 



■ . o 



o 
P. 

CU . 

X 
+-> 

ft 



S B 
hh a> 






be « *" 

s o o 

to w h 

-m o 2 

G £ S 

X rt ft 
bo ■• u 

2 §5 

^ X . 
t) #> <^ 

8 M ir 



BATTLE OF JULY 2. 265 

/as supposed to extend as far as Round Top. The Union 
Ine was in a curve less than four miles long; the two wings 
n a direct line on the chord of the arc were much nearer 
han this. The fact that the Union line was the interior line 
made it shorter and stronger than that of the rebels, and 
made the transfer of troops more easy. 

Sickles, troubled by the lack of elevation at his part of 
the line, made the mistake of throwing out his corps to the 
transverse ridge at the point where the Millerstown road 
crosses the Emmettsburg road. This lengthened his already 
attenuated line and formed an angle, which is a poor for- 
mation for resistance to an attack. On the side of the 
angle toward Round Top was Birney's division, with Gra- 
ham's brigade at the vertex at the peach orchard, where the 
roads intersect. De Trobriand's was to the left and then J. 
H. H. Ward's. The other side of the angle was held by 
Humphrey's division. Meanwhile neither of the Round 
Tops was occupied. General Meade was informed by 
Sickles in regard to his position, but just as he had examined 
and condemned it, the attack of the rebels began, and it was 
too late for a change. 

Lee's plan was to attack Sickles' corps with the right 
under Longstreet, roll it up on the Second Corps, and then 
hurl the center under Hill on the confused mass. He failed, 
however, to give sufficient strength to the first attacking 
column. It was after three o'clock before Hood's division 
began the advance. After the movement had begun, Hood 
diverted Law's division and sent it against Little Round 
Top. Two other divisions followed. At this time General 
Warren and three members of the Second Corps were alone 
on the summit of Little Round Top. As he saw the danger 
to the position, Warren dashed away to seek defenders, 
while the three men waved their flags in such a way as to 
give the enemy the impression that a force held the position. 
The head of the Fifth Corps had just arrived on the field 
with orders to strengthen the left. Vincent's brigade was 

18 



266 



THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 



posted by Warren's orders on the slope of Little Round Top. 
O'Roke's regiment and Hazlett's battery scaled the sides. 
There was a terrible struggle, but the position was held by 
the brigades of Weed and Avers which came up later. 
Little Round Top, and with it the whole Union line, was 
saved. 

Between the peach orchard and the rocky gorge of Devil's 
Den, there was a wheat-field and woods. Hood's first attack 
on Sickles' line fell on General J. H. H. Ward's command of 
Birney's division at Devil's Den. It was repulsed. The next 
blow fell further to the right, on De Trobriand. Again the 
rebels were driven back, but as brigade after brigade pressed 
against their meagre forces, Ward and De Trobriand were 
slowly forced to yield. Barnes' division of the Fifth Corps 
came to the aid of Birney's overpowered troops. The lost 
ground was partially recovered. Then, it was lost again. 
Caldwell's division of the Second Corps came to the relief of 
Birney and Barnes. The rebels were now in the wheat-field 
and in the woods to the south and west. The brigades of 
Cross and Kelly charged across the wheat-field on the rebels 
who were behind the stone-wall on its outer edge. More 
than a third of their men fell. The brigades of Brooke and 
Zook followed and drove the rebels from the wall back 
through the wood, but in vain, for the enemy were on both 
their flanks as well as in front. Our men were forced to 
retreat, leaving half their number dead or wounded. The 
division of McLaws' fell on Graham's brigade of Birney's 
division at the peach orchard. There was a stern but ineffec- 
tual resistance. The loss of the peach orchard destroyed all 
possibility of regaining the ground where the troops of Ward, 
De Trobriand, Barnes and Caldwell had fought so long and 
bravely, or of holding the line occupied by Humphreys' divis- 
ion along the Emmettsburg road. McLaws was on Humph- 
reys' left flank at the vertex of the angle, and Anderson s 
division of Hill's corps also advanced against him, overlap- 
ping his right where there was an open space between it and 



BATTLE OF JULY 2. 26/ 

the left of the Second Corps. Humphreys' two brigades 
were obliged to retire to Plum Run with the loss of half their 
effective force. In this movement the fortunes of the Massa- 
chusetts Fifteenth were directly involved. 

Some hours before his retreat, Humphreys had urged 
General Gibbon to close the line by filling up the open space 
between them. This could not be done, but two regiments, 
the Eighty-second New York and the Fifteenth Massachu- 
setts, were sent to a brick house known as the Codori house, 
which was to the right of Humphreys' line, near the Emmetts- 
burg road. The Ward monument now marks this position. 
Brown's battery (B, First Rhode Island) was placed in the 
rear and to the left of these two regiments. The story of 
the Fifteenth is told in the report of Lieutenant-Colonel 
loslin: "Earl) - on the morning of the 2d, we moved from our 
place of bivouac, immediately in the rear of the First Minne- 
sota, and took our position in close column by regiments 
near the battle-field, stacked arms, and remained until about 
four o'clock in the afternoon, when the enemy opened fire 
from their batteries. Colonel Ward, who had been in com- 
mand of the brigade, was here relieved, and took command 
of the regiment, and moved by order of General Harrow to 
the front of our batteries, and took position on the right of 
the Eighty-second New York, their left resting near a brick 
house about two hundred yards to the front, nothing con- 
necting on our right. Here we built a small breastwork of 
rails behind the fence, during which time the enemy were 
engaged on our left, and there was a rapid picket firing in 
our front. We remained in this position about half an hour, 
when the pickets were driven in, and the Eighty-second New 
York became engaged. Upon the approach of the enemy, 
the batteries in our rear opened fire with grape and cannister, 
by which we lost a large number, killed and wounded. 

"At this time the Eighty-second New York fell back, 
exposing our left and rear to the deadly fire of the rebel 
infantry. Here Colonel Ward received wounds from which 



268 THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN'. 

he has since died. We now opened a rapid fire, but being 
left alone, could hold the position but a short time, when we 
retired in some disorder, being pressed so closely that we 
lost quite a number of prisoners, captured by the enemy 
We reformed our line in the rear of the batteries, and rejoined 
the brigade, which was moved after dark to the front line, 
and took position on the left of the First Minnesota, which 
was the extreme left of the brigade, where we remained until 
about two-thirty p m. of the following day." 

To this modest report, we add the account of General 
Harrow: "As the enemy advanced, the first of the division to 
engage them was the Eighty-second New York and the Fif- 
teenth Massachusetts Volunteers, from their position on the 
Gettysburg and Emmettsburg road. These two regiments, 
in the aggregate not more than seven hundred strong, and 
without support on their line, but partially protected by the 
rails of a fence which the)' had hastily taken down and piled 
in their front, gallantly sustained an unequal contest against 
greatly superior numbers until the enemy's advance had 
reached their left flank, when they retired, but not before 
suffering heavy losses and inflicting more than a correspond- 
ing punishment upon their assailants. It was in this advanced 
line that Colonels Ward (of the Fifteenth Massachusetts) 
and Huston (of the Eighty-second New York) both fell, 
mortally wounded (each since dead), and here also many 
line officers were killed and wounded." General Gibbon re- 
ported: "They, the two regiments, did most excellent serv- 
ice in checking the advance of the enemy and preventing 
them from cutting off the Third Corps from our lines." Gen- 
eral Hancock reiterates the same idea: "The two regiments 
and battery referred to above as having been advanced by 
General Gibbon to the vicinity of the brick house did excel- 
lent service in protecting it from being cut off from the line 
of battle." 

General Devens in an address delivered at the dedication 
of the Ward monument, June 2, 1886, said: " It was nearly 



WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH. 269 

seven o'clock in the evening before the storm fell upon the 
Fifteenth and Eighty-second New York. \\ right's Georgia 
brigade now advanced, and would have struck or swept 
around the right flank of the Third Corps but that it was en- 
countered by these regiments. The engagement was des- 
perate; from their advanced position the two regiments were 
to some extent under the fire of our own men as much as 
that of the enemy. The Eighty-second, whose left was now 
wholly uncovered, was first forced back, and the whole 
weight of the assault fell upon the Fifteenth. It was neces- 
sary to retire to the line of the Second Corps, and thither it 
fought its way back. But the two regiments had done their 
work well in protecting the flank of their own corps, for as 
the enemy followed closely they were handsomely repulsed 
by the Second Brigade of their division, and by a portion of 
the Thirteenth Vermont, which had just reached that part of 
the field. In this fearful conflict we had to mourn the loss 
of many brave officers and men, among them Colonel Ward, 
who, gallantly fighting as his regiment steadily retreated, 
received the mortal wound of which, a few hours later, he 
died. Lieutenant-Colonel Huston was mortally wounded. 
But if terrible blows had been received, they had been most 
terribly returned. The Georgia brigade of Wright had left 
on the field either killed or seriously and perhaps mortally 
wounded three of their regimental commanders, Colonel 
Warden of the Twenty-second Georgia, Major Ross, com- 
manding Second Georgia, Colonel Gibson, commanding 
Forty-eighth Georgia, and its loss in subordinate officers and 
men was proportionately heavy. I have spoken somewhat 
full}- of the conduct of the Fifteenth of the 2d of July, for, 
from the isolated position which it and its companion regi- 
ment occupied they rendered a peculiar, dangerous and most 
gallant service." 

In regard to being under the fire of our own men, William 
J. Coulter wrote shortly after the battle : " Our artillery threw 
grape and canister which, no doubt, was intended to go over 



27O THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

our heads; but a good share of it struck our regiment. One 
discharge of canister from our own guns wounded the cap- 
tain of Company E, the orderly-sergeant and a private of my 
own company." 

Thomas J. Hastings states concerning the withdrawal: 
" Being in this position, under fire from men in the rear, in 
front and on the flank, there seemed to be nothing for our 
men to do but to fall back to the main line. But a score or 
more of the gallant men seeming to be resolved, standing as 
they were in battle on loyal soil, not to retreat, resolutely 
stood their ground along the road, loading and firing until 
enveloped by the enemy, and those who survived were taken 
prisoners." It may be added that most of them escaped 
within a few days while being taken through the Pennsyl- 
vania mountains. 

It is impossible to separate definitely the losses of the 
Fifteenth on July 2 from those on July 3. The record of the 
Eighty-second New York shows that under similar condi- 
tions, one hundred and fifty-three men were lost on the for- 
mer day and only sixty-nine on the latter, and it seems 
probable from the records in the company books, which 
have been preserved, that the losses of the Fifteenth Massa- 
chusetts may have been in a like proportion. 

As General Sickles had been wounded, General Hancock 
was given command of the Third Corps in addition to his 
own, the immediate command of which fell on General Gib- 
bon. As all the troops which General Sickles had stationed 
in the angle in front of the line as originally planned, had 
now been driven back, with all those of the Fifth and Second 
Corps, which had been sent to their assistance, General 
Hancock tried to make firm the line originally planned along 
Plum Run. The troops at his disposal were all too few to 
do this in the presence of a victorious enemy. He sent the 
Nineteenth Massachusetts and the Forty-second New York 
against those who were pressing upon Humphreys; Colonel 
Willard's brigade was ordered to stop a gap left by the retir- 
ing troops of Birney Williams' division of the Twelfth 



WORK OF THE FIFTEENTH. 2/1 

Corps and Newton's First Corps, dispatched by Meade from 
the right, were established in a weak place in the line be- 
tween Cemetery Ridge and Round Top; the First Minnesota 
was hurled effectively but with great loss against a rebel 
regiment which had penetrated the Union line. An attack 
made by Anderson on Gibbon's division was handsomely 
repulsed. When General Meade himself came up with two 
regiments of the Twelfth Corps under Lockwood, the line 
had been practically established. Later, there was a little 
aggressive action on our part and some guns lost earlier in 
the day were recaptured from the enemy. Needed reinforce- 
ments were sent to the aid of Howard and Slocum. The 
arrival of a portion of the Sixth Corps added greater strength 
and when darkness came the line from Round Top to the 
end of the left center was stronger than it had been before 
the battle began. 

No attack was made on the right under Slocum by Ewell's 
corps until near nightfall. The Federal forces on Cemetery 
and Culp's Hills had been depleted to reenforce the right 
and were therefore in a poor condition to resist an onset. 
The advance of Early on Cemetery Hill was beaten off by 
Howard with the assistance of Carroll's brigade. The nat- 
ural strength of his position was such that Greene, with the 
assistance of troops from Wadsworth and Schurz, repelled 
the attack of Johnson from his own lines, although it was 
ten o'clock before the conflict ended. On the extreme right 
Johnson's troops gained possession of some intrenchments 
from which the defenders, under Williams, had been sent to 
the left earlier in the day. This position was held by John- 
son during the night. 

On the night of the 2d of July, Colonel Joslin was detailed 
as the officer of the day His oral order was something 
like this: "I have detailed to you a certain number of men; 
you may place them as far front as you deem prudent. The 
troops must have sleep, and I shall hold you responsible for 
the safety of the Second Corps." It was a night of deep 
anxiety, of most horrible sights and sounds. As the line 



272 THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

was beyond the Emmettsburg road, our wounded men were 
gathered in, and few, if any, were obliged to stay out over 
night. 

To General Lee the result of the action of the 2d seemed 
to be on the whole in his favor. Sickles' line had been 
driven back and Johnson had effected a lodgment on the 
Federal right at Culp's Hill. Therefore, though less confi- 
dent than on the day before, the Confederate commander 
determined to continue his attacks on the 3d. Longstreet 
urged a movement around the Union left, as he had re- 
peatedly done before, but Lee decided to push the advantage 
gained by Johnson the night before, and to send a strong 
force against Cemetery Ridge where the Second Corps lay. 

It was intended that the two blows should be delivered 
simultaneously. Slocum's troops on the right, however, 
failed to wait for Johnson's attack, but assumed the offensive 
as soon as the light broke. Williams' division of the Twelfth 
Corps, then under command of General Ruger, had returned 
from the left during the night. General Geary had also 
been recalled. Thus the Twelfth Corps was reunited and 
eager to begin the attack as soon as the sun appeared. At 
first our artillery poured a heavy fire on the enemy for fifteen 
minutes. Then Johnson, who had been strongly reenforced, 
anticipating the advance of his foe, hurled his troops against 
the intrenchments of Geary who had joined his other 
brigades to that of Greene. For seven hours the Twelfth 
Corps, assisted by Shaler's brigade of the Sixth Corps, 
struggled with the enemy. At the end of this time Johnson 
had been driven out and the line completely restored. 

At about eleven o'clock a strange hush fell on the 
battle-field. This remained unbroken for two hours, while 
the opposing armies waited in deep suspense under the 
oppressive heat of the July sun for the decisive contest 
which they knew must come. Lee, notwithstanding the 
defeat of Johnson, clung to his idea of an attack on the left 
center of the Union line. This attack was entrusted to 



PICKETT S CHARGE. 273 

Pickett's division of Longstreet's corps, supported on the 
left by Heth's division under General Pettigrew, together 
with two brigades of Pender's division under Trimble, and 
on the right by Wilcox's brigade of Anderson's division. 
All of these supports were of Hill's corps, and were for the 
most part inferior as soldiers to the fifteen fresh, veteran, 
Virginia regiments of Pickett, which numbered forty-nine 
hundred men. The total number of the attacking column 
was between fourteen and fifteen thousand. Longstreet, 
who had the directing of the attack, begged Lee not to in- 
sist upon it, as he declared that success under the existing 
circumstances would be impossible, but Lee was immovable. 
At one o'clock, one hundred and thirty-eight pieces of 
artillery opened fire from the Confederate lines. Eighty 
pieces from the western front of the Federal lines replied. 
The Union soldiers, were lying with guns clutched in their 
hands, behind the stone wall or such slight fortifications 
as they had been able to construct. The Fifteenth was 
at this time some twenty-five or more rods to the left of 
the monument which now marks the final struggle. This 
artillery battle, the grandest ever known on the Amer- 
ican continent, lasted for nearly two hours. Then some 
of the Union batteries stopped firing, and some were with- 
drawn to give place to others. The rebels, thinking our 
guns silenced, slackened their fire. At this instant our 
troops saw Pickett's division with its supports emerg- 
ing from the Confederate lines some fourteen hundred 
yards away. In perfect order, adapting their movements to 
the nature of the ground traversed, the troops of Pickett, 
Pettigrew and Trimble, moved steadily forward on their 
terrible task. If they broke the Union line, the final success 
of their cause seemed assured; if they failed, they must for 
the future struggle against hope. The Union line stood in 
silent admiration of their daring, yet confidently bracing it- 
self to meet the shock. As Pickett crossed the Emmetts- 
burg road, McGilvery's forty pieces of artillery opened upon 



2/4 THE (iETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

his right flank, doing fearful execution. The artillery of the 
Second Corps under Hazard had exhausted all the ammu- 
nition except canister, otherwise it might have done like 
service. As it came within infantry range, Pettigrew's 
division was in front of Hays', and Pickett's faced Gibbon's. 
Bullets and canister rapidly thinned the rebel ranks. Many 
of the troops of Pettigrew were recent recruits, and were 
unable to advance to close contact. General Hays' report 
states: "When within a hundred yards of our line of infantry 
the fire of our men could be no longer restrained. Four 
lines rose from behind our stone wall, and before the smoke 
from our first volley had cleared away, the enemy, in dismay 
and consternation, were seeking safety in flight. Every 
attempt by their officers to rally them was in vain. In less 
time than I can recount it, they were throwing away their 
arms, and appealing most piteously for mercy." Here, two 
thousand prisoners were taken. 

Some of the bravest of the troops of Pettigrew and 
Trimble join Pickett. Willcox has failed to properly sup- 
port Pickett's right, and Stannard's Vermont brigade, 
stationed in an advanced position to the left of the Second 
Corps, is pouring its terrible fire upon this flank. Now the 
rebels are within range of Gibbon's division, which rains 
leaden death upon them. Yet, all undaunted, after a momen- 
tary pause, the Virginians slightly turning their course, which 
has previously been directly toward Harrow's brigade, 
charge upon the very crest of the hill where Webb's Penn- 
sylvania brigade is waiting them behind the stone wall. 
This line falls back under the irresistible blow. Now the 
rebels are over the wall and now they are upon the guns of 
Cushing's battery. The Union line is pierced, and the Con- 
federate battle-flags wave over Cemetery Ridge. But al- 
ready Hall and Harrow have come to the assistance of 
Webb, and a line four deep has been formed in front, and 
surging masses of men are pressing upon Pickett's flanks. 
Military formations are lost ; but one purpose fills every 



PICKETT S CHARGE. 275 

Union breast. There are a few minutes of Titantic struggle, 
then the rebels throw themselves on the ground in sign of 
surrender, or seek to retrace their steps across the death- 
stricken plain. 

It is not necessary for us to speak of Wilcox's tardy 
and futile advance, or of the bold cavalry movement 
around the rebel right. With the failure of Pickett's charge 
the battle of Gettysburg was decided. The proud waves of 
invasion were stayed. Lee's aggressive force was destroyed. 
The doom of the Confederacy was sealed. 

Just what part had the Fifteenth taken in this supreme 
effort for the salvation of the Union? So little attention 
was paid to military formation in this repulse of Pickett that 
it is impossible to assign to each regiment its particular 
share of the glory To the Second Army Corps, especially, 
fell the duty of repelling the grand charge. The Second 
Division of this corps bore the brunt of the attack. While 
no precedence should be claimed for the work of any 
brigade of this division, we may surely say the work of 
Harrow's brigade was surpassed by none, and that the 
Fifteenth Massachusetts fought as heroically as any regi- 
ment in the brigade. General Harrow reported as com- 
mander of the Second Division, Second Corps: "I have no 
words to express the unwavering courage and daring of the 
entire command I hope it is not too much to say that 
this division contributed very largely to the success of 
the 3d inst., if indeed they did not save the day." Colonel 
Joslin simply said in his report: "About one p. m. the 
enemy opened a heavy fire of artillery upon our lines, during 
which we lost one man killed and two wounded. Soon 
after, an attack of infantry was made by the enemy on 
the right of our lines, and we moved by the right flank a 
short distance and became hotly engaged. After about an 
hour's fighting the enemy was repulsed, during which en- 
gagement the regiment sustained a heavy loss. After about 
an hour, we were ordered to our former position, and from 



276 THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

there deployed to the front as skirmishers, where we re- 
mained until relieved, about S a. m. the next day, our ammu- 
nition being expended. During the skirmish we lost two 
men wounded." 

In discussing the battle he has recently stated, in effect: 
"The only command heard in connection with Pickett's 
charge by the officers of the Fifteenth, was: 'Up, boys, they 
are coming!' This was shouted by a general's aide. There 
were practically no general orders. It was an affair of regi- 
ments, or even of individuals, all moved, however, by the 
same spontaneous impulse to meet and hurl back the foe. 
The Fifteenth was in the rear of Webb's broken line, right 
in the group of trees which was Pickett's objective point." 

The report of the adjutant-general of Massachusetts for 
1863, states: "At about three p. m. the rebel infantry moved 
to the assault. Our men sprang promptly to meet them, 
glad at a prospect of work, relieving them from their painful 
recumbent position which a broiling sun rendered the more 
intolerable. .A slight wavering of the rebel line was here 
detected. The colors of the Fifteenth were ordered to 
advance, when the remnant of the regiment rallied promptly 
around them, and the whole line, as if moved by a common 
impulse, rushed forward and carried the position." It was 
in the movement to the right that Captain Jorgensen, and a 
little after, Captain Murkland fell. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Joslin in the closing words of his 
report, speaking of the battle as a whole, said: "We went 
into action with eighteen officers and two hundred -and 
twenty-one men. During the three days, our loss in killed 
was three officers, nineteen enlisted men ; wounded, eight 
officers and eighty-five enlisted men; missing, twenty-eight 
enlisted men, supposed to be captured. The behavior of the 
officers and men under my command during the engagement 
was as good as I could wish. It would do injustice to 
particularize officers of the line, they all acted with so much 
coolness and bravery. I would mention especially Major 



LOSSES OF THE FIFTEENTH. 277 

Hooper and Lieutenant Earle, acting adjutant, they both 
being with me the whole time and showing the greatest 
bravery." 

The Second Corps had greater losses in killed and 
wounded at Gettysburg than any other corps in the army, 
the Second Division more than any other division, Harrow's 
brigade more than any other brigade. The loss per cent, of 
the Fifteenth in killed and wounded and missing was sixty- 
one and nine-tenths. This loss per cent, was exceeded only 
by that of four other regiments at Gettysburg. Only seven- 
teen other regiments in the whole war had a greater loss per 
cent, in a single battle than this. Fox gives the number of 
killed and mortally wounded as thirty-eight, or fifteen plus 
per cent, of the total number engaged. The total loss, 
though smaller numerically than at Ball's Bluff or Antietam, 
was larger in proportion to the number of men engaged. At 
Ball's Bluff and Antietam the losses caused by blunders 
seemed to man)', sacrifices without compensating results. 
But at Gettysburg the losses came in fighting which was 
effective, and told strongly toward the final victory which 
was worth all it cost. 

Just before the battle of Gettysburg, Sergeant Edward B. 
Rollins of Company A sent to his wife a card with the 
name of the eleven battles he had fought beautifully in- 
scribed upon it. He left a space for inscribing one more 
name, and wrote that after he had fought his twelfth battle 
he should come home. He was killed July 2. 

Many of the dead were buried on the battle-field. 
William J. Coulter writes: " It was during the fight (at the 
stone-wall) that my tent-mate, James P Chenery, was killed. 
He was shot through the neck, and died immediately. He 
was buried right where he fell, and a board with his name 
written on it marks the spot." The burial of Chenery was 
similar to that of many others. A few of the bodies were 
sent North. Among the commissioned officers who were 
killed or mortally wounded, were Lieutenant Elisha G. Buss, 



2j8 THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN'. 

Captain Hans P Jorgensen, Captain John Murkland, and 
Colonel George H. Ward. 

Lieutenant Elisha G. Buss was a native of Sterling, but 
had been for some years a resident of Clinton when the war 
broke out. He enlisted as a private but had been promoted 
on account of merit, so that before the battle of Gettysburg 
he had received a commission as lieutenant. He fell pierced 
by four bullets. As he seemed to be reviving after he was 
taken to the hospital, those in charge assented to his earnest 
request to be taken home. The journey was too much for 
him to bear in his exhausted condition, and about a week 
after his arrival, he died, July 23. Many of the former sol- 
diers of the Fifteenth attended his funeral on the 24th. Rev. 
C. M. Bowers conducted the services and expressed the high 
esteem in which he was held by his townsmen and comrades. 

Captain Hans Peter Jorgensen was a native of Copenha- 
gen, Denmark, and was well educated in the schools of that 
city. He served three years in the Danish army, and was 
wounded twice while fighting against the Prussians in the 
Schleswig-Holstein war. Although he worked as a mechanic 
after he came to this country, he was a man of learning and 
cultivated taste and of social attainments. As he was not a 
native of this country, he could not have been drafted. It is 
reported that he said: "Freedom is the same ever) where, 
and I cheerfully give my life in its defense. I would give 
more if I had it." We have seen him fighting and wounded 
at Ball's Bluff, as detailed for recruiting in Worcester, and as 
advancing to the command of his company by meritorious 
service. June 30, he wrote: "There is no doubt as to the re- 
sult of this battle. Give my love to all my friends, and tell 
them the old Fifteenth is still gaining laurels, and by the 
time we get home we shall be completely covered with glory." 
His remains reached Leominster Jul)- 17. The funeral oc- 
curred July 23. The State Guards performed escort duty. 
The pall-bearers were Captains Forehand, Wood, Bartlett, 
Howe and Gale, and Lieutenants Goddard, Fuller, Staples, 



CAPTAIN JOHN MURKLAND. 279 

Frazer and Dudley. Some thirty past members of the Fif- 
teenth, under command of Lieutenant Polley, were in the 
funeral procession. In a memorial sermon the Reverend Eli 
Fay of Leominster said: "Though he had been in twenty 
pitched battles, and had seven scars upon him, he had no 
other thought than to go through the conflict or to fall in it, 
and it is the testimony of all, that from first to last he was a 
most worthy, brave and competent soldier- . Jorgensen fell 
facing the foe, and nobly performing his duty " 

The following account of Captain John Murkland is 
endorsed by Colonel John W Kimball: 

"When the war broke out he was among the first to 
enlist in Company B, Fifteenth Regiment, and was im- 
mediately appointed a sergeant, which office he held until 
after the battle of Antietam. He was raised to captain from 
the rank of sergeant, on recommendation of General Gorman 
and Colonel Kimball, and we give below the letter of 
General Gorman to Governor Andrew, which will be read 
with interest: 

"Headquarters 2d Division, 2d Army Corps, 
"Bolivar, Va., Oct. 19, 1862. 

"Brig.-Gen. Schouler, Adjutant- General : 

"Sir: Since the death of the gallant captain of Com- 
pany B (Captain Simonds), there is a vacancy. I now beg 
leave to present the name of First-Sergeant John Murkland. 
He is eminently fit and qualified, and is now in command of 
his company. He has nobly won this merited promotion by 
his gallantry on the battle-field of Antietam. When Captain 
Simonds fell, Lieutenant-Colonel Kimball took the dying 
man's sword off and said, 'I want you to take this sword and 
lead this company; will you do it?' He answered gallantly, 
'I will do so, — anywhere you may order!' This nOble 
answer, made in the face of death and danger, ought to win 
for him from his country a medal, and two captains' com- 



280 THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

missions, if need be. I trust His Excellency will reward this 
especial gallantry at once. 

"I am, General, truly yours, 

"W A. Gorman, 
' ''Brig. - Gen . , Comma?iding Division. 

"The Governor immediately forwarded a commission, 
also wrote a letter to the regiment highly complimentary of 
Murkland, and giving his reasons for his departure from his 
usual custom in thus elevating him at once to a captaincy 
The appointment gave great satisfaction to the regiment, 
and to his many friends. As a man, he was genial and kind- 
hearted, and beloved by all who knew him. As a soldier, he 
was prompt and efficient, and a thorough disciplinarian, 
while none braver than he ever trod the field of battle." 

As it was impossible for horses to be used to advantage 
in such a position as that about the Codori house, Colonel 
Ward sent his to the rear, and supported by a large cane 
with a crooked handle in his left hand, and his sword in his 
right, he directed his men. Being the senior officer, he had 
command of the two regiments. He took his position be- 
tween these and a little to the rear beside a fence to the right 
of the Codori house. The Eighty-second New York had 
already broken, and Colonel Ward had just directed his 
adjutant, David M. Earle, to order the regiment to fall back, 
when he received a shot in his sound leg and fell. The adju- 
tant stayed by him a minute, but as obedience to his orders 
was imperative, hastened to withdraw the regiment. As 
Colonel Ward could not have gone to the rear without help, 
he was surely aided by some one or more of the soldiers of 
the regiment, and cared for, until he died early the next day 

In a letter which he wrote to his family six weeks before, 
he described the deaths of men in the hospitals in words 
which ma}' be applied to his own case. "They all," lie 
writes, "say they have tried to do their duty, and hope they 
have succeeded. Their only regret is that they are unable 




Qi c^ 



BREVET BRIG. -GEN. GEORGE H. WARD, 
COLONEL 15TH REG'T, MASS. VOLS. 



COLONEL GEORGE H. WARD. 28 1 

to see their families and friends. To look upon them and 
see how manfully they suffer, how nobly they die, to see 
them give up their lives so willingly with such a perfect trust 
and faith and hope in the future, it does seem that to die is 
gain." 

The body was sent from Baltimore at five-thirty, July 4, 
and brought to Worcester and there committed to its last 
resting place. The funeral was on the 8th of July from the 
Salem Street Church. The clergy of the city united in the 
service. Reverend T. E. St. John, the pastor of the Ward 
family, gave the discourse. Opposite the pulpit a wreath 
was suspended containing the name of Ward. Wreaths con- 
taining the names of Jorgensen and Murkland were on the 
side galleries. On either side of the pulpit were the old 
standards of the Fifteenth. The coffin was draped with the 
stars and stripes, and upon it lay the two swords and other 
equipments of the deceased. As the bod}' was borne to the 
cemetery, the State Guard and Highland Cadets acted as 
escort. The pall-bearers were Captains Church Howe, Amos 
Bartlett and Walter Forehand, and Lieutenants Charles 
Frazer, Andrew L. Fuller, Frank W Polley and James Taft. 
General Devens and other wounded officers who had served 
with him, followed in carriages. Fifty-seven past members 
of the Fifteenth Regiment, with Sergeant Murray in com- 
mand, sadly marched under the tattered colors beneath which 
they had fought. The ex- mayors of Worcester and the 
members of the city government of 1863, the City Guards, 
the Morning Star Masonic Lodge, together with a great 
body of citizens who honored him as a patriot and loved 
him as a friend, joined in the procession. With masonic and 
military services all that was mortal of the heroic leader of 
the Fifteenth Regiment was consigned to earth. 

The country he had so nobly served recognized his merits 
by giving him the brevet of brigadier-general, dating from 
July 2, 1863. His portrait has been placed among the most 
worthy citizens of his native city upon the walls of Mechan- 

19 



282 THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

ics Hall. The surviving soldiers of the Civil War who have 
their homes in Worcester, looking upon George H. Ward as 
the foremost of all their fellow-citizens who offered up their 
lives to preserve the Union, have given his name to (the 
city) Post io of the Grand Army of the Republic. In ac- 
cordance with a suggestion made on Memorial Day. 1895, 
and acted upon by George H. Ward Post six days later, a 
beautiful monument bearing his bust has been erected over 
his grave by that organization. This was dedicated May 30, 
1896. In closing his eulogy of Colonel Ward, Senator A. S. 
Roe said: "'Till time shall crumble all things and memorials 
shall disappear, these bronze lips, methinks, will ceaselessly 
say to all beholders, 'Be loyal, be true, be brave.' " 

The members of the Fifteenth Regiment, together with 
his comrades of the City Guards, in 1885 erected a fitting 
monument to his memory on the spot where he fell. This 
monument was dedicated June 29, 1886, in the presence of 
some fifty men who had been members of the Fifteenth and 
many others who had been his friends. General Devens 
presided at the ceremonies. General A. B. R. Sprague said 
in his memorial address: " He was a devoted husband, a lov- 
ing father, an affectionate son, a reliable friend, a worthy and 
loyal citizen, the brave defender of the government and the 
flag. His whole life illustrated the truism that 'the bravest 
are the tenderest, the loving are the daring.' . We who knew 
him and shall never meet again on this spot sacred to his 
memory, consecrated by his blood, by this granite shaft 
which bears his likeness in chiselled marble, can draw fresh 
inspiration from the lesson of his life, his faith, his resigna- 
tion, as crippled and suffering he went into the conflict and 
down the dark valley of the shadow of death to life immor- 
tal." Congressman W W Rice, who followed General 
Sprague, paid a glowing tribute to his fellow-citizen. "I sup- 
pose," he said, "that among all the brave men of our country, 
sent to the war, there was no truer soldier than he to whose 
memory you dedicate this stone to-day. I saw him in his 



COLONEL GEORGE H. WARD. 2J>3 

modest home the winter after Ball's Bluff, patient, uncom- 
plaining, unassuming, but not content. He had then given 
but one limb to his country You build to his memory this 
monument on the spot where he fell. You engrave upon it 
in enduring letters his name and his fate. In this you do 
well, but he did better. He helped to build a monument 
nobler and more enduring than this, the nation." Major 
Church Howe voiced the sentiment of all his comrades when 
he said: "We who served under him knew him best, noble, 
gallant, kind-hearted commander. We loved him for his 
fatherly care of us in camp and on the battle-field." The 
final words of dedication by General Devens were: " May it 
stand, through winter's cold and summer's heat, through 
sunshine and storm, to attest the patriotic self-devotion of a 
true soldier who died for his country." 

The list of killed and mortally wounded in this battle is 
given below The dates here given are dates of death as far 
as known. Some of those who died on the 3d received their 
wounds on the 2d: 

Colonel George H. Ward, July 3. 

Company A — Capt. Hans P Jorgensen, July 3 ; Sergt. 
Edward B. Rollins, July 2; Corp. Francis A. Lewis, July 3; 
Corp. William D. Oakley, July 3. 

Company B — George L. Boss, July 2-3; Calvin J. Eaton, 
July 4; John Marsh, July 3. 

Company C — Corp.James P Chenery, July 2-3; Albert C. 
Frost, Sept. 16; Alexander Lord, July 2-3; George F Osgood, 
Jul)- 2-3; George O. Raymond, July 22. 

Company D — Orman Stevens, July 3. 

Company E — George W Cross, July 2, (or Company G); 
Michael Flynn, July 2. 

Company F — First Sergt. Henry C. Ball, July 3; Edward 
W Prouty, July 2. 

Company G — Capt. John Murkland, July 4; First Sergt. 
George N. Wheelock, July 3; George W Cross, July 2, (or 
Co. E). 



2S4 THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN. 

Company H — First Sergt. Edward Chapin, Aug. 1; Sergt. 
Abram F Burrell, Aug. 21 ; Corp. George F Fletcher, July 
3; Thomas Horn, July 2: Charles A. Reed, Jul)' 2. 

Company I — Sergt. William Brandes, July 2; Sergt. Avery 
N. Hathaway, July 24; Corp. Albert H, Snow, Jul)' 3; Joseph 
Bardsley or Burdsley, July 2; John Grady, July 3; James S. 
Slocum, July 3; Francis Stantor, July 3. 

Company K — First-Lieut. Elisha G. Buss, Jul)' 23; First 
Sergt. (com. 2d lieut., never m.) Caleb H. Arnold, July 20; 
Patrick Coyle, July 3; Patrick Hoyt, July 3. 



CHAPTER XL 

FROM THE POTOMAC TO THE RAPIDAN.— BRISTOE 
STATION.— ROBERTSON'S TAVERN. 

July 4 — December 5, 1863. 

The work of the Fifteenth was not ended with the 
repulse of Pickett's charge. W J. Coulter writes : "After 
the fight was over, our regiment, what was left of it, had to 
go out in front on picket. The rebels kept pecking away at 
us and we at them. We had to stay out all night. I took 
five prisoners. The next morning, the Fourth of July, we 
had orders to advance our picket line. As soon as we 
moved forward the rebels began to crack away at us. We 
fired until our ammunition was all gone, and we were 
relieved. All day the skirmishers kept firing, but there was 
not much heavy fighting done. The next morning when we 
came to view their lines, we found out that the rebels had 
gone. Then we buried the dead, and moved off after the 
enemy." The acting-adjutant, D. M. Earle, says that Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Joslin was asked to send out a detail on 
picket on the night of the 3d. The number required was so 
large and the regiment so small, that Joslin said: "Let's 
take the whole regiment, colors and all," and they did so. 

General Meade has been criticized for not immediately 
following up his advantage by making a counter attack on 
Lee, but when we remember the exhausted condition of the 
Army of the Potomac, the terrible losses it had sustained, 
the number of general and field officers who had fallen and 
the strong position of the enemy, we can recognize the 
reasons for the universal agreement of the Union and rebel 



286 FROM THE POTOMAC TO THE RAPIDAN. 

generals who were on the field, that a cautious policy was 
the wisest. Although a speed)' retreat had become a 
necessity for him, General Lee was not averse to such an 
attack, and while preparing to withdraw, held his troops in 
readiness for any movement which might be made against 
him. 

On the morning of the 4th there was a severe rain-storm 
to add to the miseries of the wounded, who were as yet, in 
many cases, without shelter. These wounded were, without 
regard to the side on which they fought, tenderly cared for 
by our men. The Union troops shared their coffee and 
crackers with the rebel prisoners. The muskets abandoned 
by the enemy were collected, and the bayonets stuck in the 
ground, so that there were acres of them "standing as thick 
as trees in a nursery " On the night of the 4th, Lee silently 
and secretly withdrew by the Fairfield road toward the 
Potomac, and on the following day, Sunday, July 5, Meade 
began his pursuit. 

At two p. m. the Fifteenth started and marched six miles 
to Two Taverns. Then came a day of rest. On the 7th, it 
went five miles to Taneytown. On the 8th, Yeomans writes: 
"A hard, wet march of eighteen miles to near Frederick." 
It was on this day that the boys first heard of the capture of 
Vicksburg. Yeomans continues: "July 9. On through 
Frederick, Jefferson and Crampton's Pass (twenty miles). — 
July 10. On through Rohrersville and Keedysville; crossed 
Antietam Creek near battle-field (eight miles). Built breast- 
works of fence rails. Remained all night. — July 11. Went 
on about three miles. Formed line of battle. Sent out 
skirmishers. No engagement. About eleven at night fell in 
and went up about three miles. Remained until daylight. — 
July 12. Came back about three miles. Stayed till about 
four in the afternoon. Formed line of battle Sent out 
skirmishers. Rain. Built breastworks. — July 14. Marched 
to near Williamsport." 

General Lee s rear had reached Hagerstown on the morn- 



lee's retreat. 287 

ing of the 7th. The river was found to be so swollen that 
crossing by the ford at Williamsport was impracticable, and 
the pontoon bridge had been partially destroyed. There- 
fore, the rebels intrenched themselves in a very strong 
position, while they waited for the river to fall and the pon- 
toon bridge to be reconstructed. This position of Lee's was 
so strong that Meade's corps' commanders opposed making 
an attack upon it when he brought the matter before them 
on the 1 2th. When a reconnaissance in force was made on 
the morning of the 14th, it was found that Lee had crossed 
the stream during the night. 

Thus the Gettysburg campaign was ended. Lee had in- 
flicted great damage on the Army of the Potomac, but his 
own losses had been no less severe, and differed from those 
of the Northern army, in that, as all available men from the 
South were already in the ranks, they were irreparable. The 
victory of Gettysburg, taken in connection with those in the 
Valley of the Mississippi, gave assurance of the final success 
of Union arms and filled the soldiers with hope that the war 
would soon be over. 

Meade sent Gregg's division of cavalry across the Po- 
tomac on the 14th, but the main body of the army did not 
cross until the 17th and 18th. Yeoman's diary continues: 
"July 15. Marched to the neighborhood of Harper's Ferry 
(seventeen miles). — July 16. Went on through Sandy Hook 
into Pleasant Valley (five miles). Camped. Drew clothing." 
This clothing was sadly needed, for W J. Coulter writes: 
"Such a looking crowd of boys you never saw; dirty, ragged 
and poor." The two days of rest were highly appreciated, 
for the little remnant which was left of the regiment was 
utterly exhausted. On the 18th, Yeomans' diary states: 
"Crossed oyer to Harper's Ferry on pontoon bridge and the 
Shenandoah by new wire bridge. Went down the Loudon 
Valley about eight miles. — July 19. Went on to near Wood 
Grove (eight miles). — July 20. Went on to near Snicker's 
Gap and Bloomfield (eleven miles). Here there was another 
two days' halt." 



2SS FROM THE POTOMAC TO THE RAPIDAN. 

\V J. Coulter, writing from Bloomfield on the 22d, said: 
"We find plenty of blackberries, and the boys are living 
high. The companies in the regiment have been consoli- 
dated into four companies. (Lieutenant C. M. Batchelder 
had been assigned temporarily to Companies A, H and I. 
Second-Lieutenant Henry C. Ward to Companies B, C and 
E.) When we get filled up with conscripts we shall have 
ten companies again. I wish the conscripts were out here 
now. I want to see them. I want to put some of them 
through the drill. I want to see them live on salt pork and 
hard-bread. I want to see them carry their knapsacks. All 
men should be willing to do their share. If they are not 
willing, then I say drafting is the thing." Six days later he 
writes: "Eight men have gone home from this regiment to 
bring out the conscripts for the regiment. How odd it will 
seem to get it filled up again." 

Major Hooper had been detailed as inspector on the staff 
of the division commander, and was therefore away from the 
regiment. He was directed to stop at a house along the 
line of march to protect some ladies while the troopers were 
passing. He was so gallant that he delayed even after the 
corps had gone by, and then some of Mosby's men came 
from a piece of woods near by and captured him. He had 
just been detailed to go to the North to bring back drafted 
men, and was joyfully anticipating his return to his home. 
He was obliged to go to Richmond instead, while Lieutenant- 
Colonel Joslin was detailed to go after the drafted men. 

At two o'clock p m. on the 22d, the Fifteenth went on to 
Paris and Ashby's Gap, eleven miles. The next day was a 
hard one, for the regiment first marched to Markham Station 
on the Manassas Gap Railroad, and after a brief halt was 
ordered on with the rest of the Second Corps to Manassas 
Gap to help the Third Corps, which had become engaged 
with the enemy there. The paths were very rough, and it 
was midnight before the destination was reached. Then the 
men made coffee and bivouacked. The total distance for 



THE PURSUIT. 289 

the day was seventeen miles. As the rebels had withdrawn 
from the Gap without any very serious fighting, the regiment 
returned next day to Markham Station, which was five miles 
away On the 25th, the march was continued to White 
Plain, twenty miles, and on the 26th, to Warrenton, twenty- 
three miles. Here there was a rest until the 30th, when, at 
about dark, the regiment set out as a rear guard to the 
wagon train. The movement was so slow that at two o'clock 
of the following morning only about five miles had been 
covered. Then, after bivouacking by the road until nine the 
next morning, the regiment went on some twelve miles to 
near Morrisville. On August 1, the camp was moved up 
further into the woods, and on August 4, it was moved again 
a mile or two, and on the 18th again there was a slight 
change. All these camps were known under one designation 
as the camp near Morrisville. For about six weeks, with 
brief interruptions, the Army of the Potomac rested and re- 
cruited along the north bank of the Rappahannock. 

The well-conducted movements of Meade had cut Lee 
off from Loudon County, whither he had intended to with- 
draw, and made him fear for his railroad connections with 
Richmond. Therefore, he moved his army to Culpeper 
Court House, and later to the south bank of the Rappa- 
hannock. Before the middle of August, Longstreet's corps, 
with the exception of Pickett's division, had been sent to the 
aid of the hard-pressed troops in the West. 

The Fifteenth Regiment, resting at its camp near Morris- 
ville, was paid off August 3. The 6th was observed as a 
Thanksgiving day in the division. August 14, Captain 
Ellingwood, who commanded the regiment, as Lieutenant- 
Colonel Joslin was at the North and Major Hooper was at 
Richmond, ordered: "All enlisted men of this command 
who have not already done so, will at once construct beds 
in their tents to sleep on, raised at least one foot from the 
ground. Also, dig a trench to insure dryness." 

The monthly returns for July, 1863, give the total number 



2gO FROM THE POTOMAC TO THE RAPIDAN. 

in the regiment as five hundred and five. Of these, only 
eight commissioned officers and one hundred and thirty-nine 
enlisted men were present for duty Of the nineteen com- 
missioned officers absent, seven were on detached service 
and twelve sick (or wounded); of the enlisted men, one 
hundred and twelve were on detached service and two hun- 
dred and twenty-seven sick (or wounded). Although some 
returned in time from the hospitals, it is not probable that 
there were over two hundred men, who had belonged to the 
regiment previous to July, 1863, who were ever afterwards 
recorded on its rolls as present for duty 

The adding of two hundred "conscripts" to the regiment 
in the middle of August had a great influence upon its char- 
acter. These men were for the most part substitutes for 
men who had been drafted. While there were some good 
soldiers among them, there were others who were professional 
bounty-jumpers. It was no easy task to get the conscripts 
to the regiment. Many jumped from the boat when they 
were being conveyed thither. The guards fired at them as 
they were swimming. Some were returned from the vessels 
to which they made their way Later, as they were march- 
ing through dense woods, darkness fell before they reached 
the camp. The guard was small and the conscripts dashed 
into the woods in squads. Some of them were never retaken. 
The guarding of such men as these and the four hours' drill 
per day given to them, became an important element of 
camp-life at Morrisville. During the month of August alone 
forty-five desertions are recorded, and during September 
twenty-one more. Roll-call of conscripts was made every 
two hours between reveille and tattoo to prevent or detect 
desertion. Conscript deserters were brought in every day 
and used every device possible to escape identification. 

In all some eighty-three of these conscripts were desert- 
ers or men who have no record of honorable discharge. 
Twenty-seven more were transferred to the navy April 23, 
1864. A large proportion of the others soon found their 
way to the hospitals. Few were left for active service. 



THE CONSCRIPTS. 2C;I 

There were several executions for desertion from the divis- 
ion. Yeomans' diary, August 21, states: "Division turned 
out to witness execution of Jesse Maybury, Seventy-first 
Pennsylvania. Shot for desertion." August 23, patrols were 
ordered sent out to search for such conscripts as sought to 
become deserters or stragglers. August 28, Yeomans' diary 
says: "Division turned out to witness the execution of de- 
serters." There were several cases in the division in which 
sentence to be shot for desertion was suspended by the direc- 
tion of President Lincoln. 

October 1, a member of the Fifteenth, found guilty of 
desertion, was sentenced: "To forfeit all pay and allowance 
now due him; to have one-half of his head shaved; to be 
dishonorably discharged; to be drummed out of the service 
of the United States in the presence of his brigade and then 
to be confined to hard labor for eighteen months on public 
works." Some months later another man of the regiment 
was sentenced to hard labor on Dry Tortugas for the rest of 
the war. The Fifteenth had one man shot for desertion. He 
was John Roberts of Company H. The brigade was called 
out to witness the execution at two p. m., October 30. This 
John Roberts was a substitute for Benjamin B. Russell. He 
was born in Hedford, County Galway. Ireland. He was 
twenty-one years of age and credited to Boston. He is re- 
corded to have deserted September 3, 1863. He had been 
absent from his regiment but three days when arrested. 
The fact that Colonel Joslin, Captain D. M. Earle and others 
were detached to look after conscripts at Long Island, had 
its effect on the regiment. The two officers above mentioned 
asked to be relieved from this duty and to be allowed to re- 
turn, but as General Devens felt they could not be spared, 
their request was not granted. In the early autumn Colonel 
Joslin was allowed to return and resume command of the 
regiment. 

The rest in camp was broken at the end of August by an 
expedition with the rest of the Second Corps to Bank's 



2Q2 FROM THE POTOMAC TO THE RAPIDAN. 

Ford, near Falmouth, for the purpose of supporting cavalry 
in the destruction of two rebel gunboats. The regiment 
started by daybreak and arrived at the ford at sunset. After 
remaining there until September 3 without special incident, 
the regiment started back at about six p. M. of that day, and 
reached Morrisville at two the next morning. "A hard 
march," said Yeomans. 

As General Hancock, on account of his wound at Get- 
tysburg, was absent from the command of the Second Corps, 
Brigadier-General William Hays remained at the head of it 
until August 12, when Major-General G. K. Warren was 
assigned to this position. He was a man entirely worthy 
even to be ranked with Sumner, Couch and Hancock, the 
other commanders of the corps. He was graduated at West 
Point in 1850. He had seen service as a topographical 
engineer under the government, as a campaigner against the 
Indians and as a teacher at West Point, before the Civil War 
broke out. At the beginning of the war he enlisted as 
lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth New York, and had risen step 
by step on account of his merits, until on February 1, 1863, 
he became chief topographical engineer of the Army of the 
Potomac. We have seen how he saved Little Round Top, 
and thus the fortunes of the day at Gettysburg. 

General Gibbon was also kept by his wounds from 
returning to his command of the division, and was succeeded 
by Brigadier-General William Harrow, who served until his 
resignation, October 3. Then Brigadier-General Alexander 
S. Webb commanded the division. The First Brigade was 
commanded by Colonel D. W C. Baxter, who was later 
assigned to the Second Brigade, while Colonel D. C. Heath 
of the Nineteenth Maine commanded the First. The First 
Minnesota, the companion regiment of the Fifteenth Massa- 
chusetts, was sent on detached service to New York, August 
15, on account of the riots there, together with four other 
regiments from the corps. The First Minnesota did not 
return until September 16. 



MAJOR I. HARRIS HOOPER. 293 

George C. Joslin received a commission as colonel of the 
Fifteenth, dating from July 4, 1863. He was the only one 
of those who were captains of the Fifteenth when it left 
Massachusetts who remained in the regiment at this time. 
On account of lack of numbers in the regiment, he never 
mustered as colonel. 

I. Harris Hooper was made lieutenant-colonel of the regi- 
ment with a commission of the same date, though he was 
never mustered. His father, who was a brass manufacturer 
in Boston, on news of the attack on Sumter, telegraphed to 
his son who was then in Brooklyn: "Harris, you know your 
duty." His answer came at once: "I leave to-night." He 
served as a private in the Thirteenth Regiment, New York 
State Militia, May 14, to August 3, 1861. Soon after this 
term of service had expired he returned to his home. While 
there he was offered a commission by Governor Andrew. 
He accepted this, and entered the Fifteenth Massachusetts 
as a second-lieutenant, October 8, 1861. He was captured 
at Ball's Bluff and confined in Richmond. He was made 
first-lieutenant and adjutant of regiment, June 9, 1862. Of 
his notable service in the latter capacity, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kimball speaks in the highest terms. He was severely 
wounded at Fredericksburg, but rejoined his regiment at the 
earliest possible moment. He had followed George C. Jos- 
lin as major on the grounds of merit alone. Lyman H. Elling- 
wood received a commission as major on this same July 4, but 
he also failed to be mustered. 

General Meade having discovered that Lee had weakened 
his army by sending part of his troops to the West, de- 
termined on a forward movement. The Fifteenth left the 
camp at Morrisville, September 12, at ten in the morning, 
and marched some five miles to a point just beyond Bealton 
Station. Here it bivouacked near the railroad. At seven 
the next morning the regiment again started in a heavy 
rain. The Rappahannock was crossed at Rappahannock 
Station. The cavalry was in advance of the Second Corps. 



294 FROM THE POTOMAC TO THE RAPIDAN. 

The Fifteenth Regiment reached Culpeper Court House at 
four p m., and encamped a mile and a half west of the town. 
\s cannonading was heard toward the south along the 
Rapidan, the regiment was ordered to be read)' to move at a 
moment's notice. No advance was made, however, until the 
17th, when the regiment went to the Rapidan, where it 
arrived at noon. For the next seventeen days the Second 
Corps picketed along the river. There was considerable 
firing at the pickets by the enemy, who were in concealment 
on the south side of the river September 21, the regiment 
was paid off. October 5, the Second Corps was relieved 
from picket duty by the Fifth, and went back on the next 
day to Culpeper. The Fifteenth encamped a mile or two 
north of the town. Meade's advance had been checked for 
a time by the powers at Washington. The Eleventh and 
Twelfth Corps had been withdrawn from his army and sent 
West. 

On October 7, it was discovered that Lee was beginning 
a movement of some kind, but its character could not be 
ascertained at first. On the 10th, it appeared that he was 
attempting to turn our right. So Meade determined to fall 
back to the Rappahannock and attack him while crossing. 
On this day before the movement was determined upon, the 
Fifteenth had received orders to be ready to start, and had 
gone some four miles to the west and stood in battle line 
along some woods. Here the men bivouacked that night in 
the rear of their stacked arms. At two o'clock the next 
morning the pickets which had been sent out were recalled, 
and the army began its march by Brandy Station to Rappa- 
hannock Station. Crossing the river about noon, the regi- 
ment went on to a point one mile north of Bealton Station. 
Yeomans says: "A hard march of eighteen miles with eight 
days rations at our backs." 

On the nth, there was an engagement at Brand)- Station 
between the Union and rebel cavalry, and the fact that the 
rebel cavalry was accompanied by infantry, led Meade into 



ALONG THE RAPPAHANNOCK AND THE RAPIDAN. 295 

the error of supposing that Lee would concentrate his troops 
at Culpeper. He decided to attack him there, and on the 
12th ordered thither the Second, Fifth and Sixth Corps, to- 
gether with Buford's cavalry, for this purpose. The Fif- 
teenth Regiment started early in the afternoon, crossed the 
Rappahannock, and went as far as Brandy Station before 
sunset. Here it bivouacked. A report from Gregg's 
cavalry on the 12th, made Meade aware that Lee was moving 
toward Warrenton rather than Culpeper, and he hastily re- 
called the troops he had sent south of the Rappahannock. 
The Fifteenth set out on its return a little after midnight, 
and went by Bealton Station toward Sulphur Springs. Here 
there was a halt of five hours, from seven a. m. until noon. 
Then the regiment hurried on to Warrenton Junction. The 
following order had been issued by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Joslin, October 12th: "The position of the companies in the 
line of the command is hereby changed from right to left in 
the following order: F, I, E, D, C, K, H, G, A, B. Com- 
panies will assume their positions as assigned above, when 
the regiment shall march." 

The position of General Lee's army was supposed to be 
such that General Meade decided to mass his troops at 
Centreville. In this movement the Second Corps acted as a 
rear guard. The orders for the corps were: "General 
Warren, Second Corps, will move to the railroad, passing by 
Catlett's house; keep on the south side of the railroad. Cross 
Bull Run at Blackburn Ford, and mass in rear of Centreville, 
looking toward Warrenton." In this movement the corps 
commanders were directed to keep in constant communi- 
cation with the corps to the front and that to the rear. 
Meade had again mistaken the position of Lee's army 
through supposing that it had moved more rapidly than it 
really had. Lee was no less ignorant of the position of 
Meade's army, and was not therefore prepared to take such 
advantage of it as he might have done, by throwing his 
whole force on the Second Corps and annihilating it before 



296 BRISTOE STATION. 

the other corps could come to the rescue. As it was, with- 
out an>- design of making an attack, Hill's Corps moved 
toward Bristoe Station by way of New Baltimore, and 
Knell's, with the cavalry, by Auburn and Greenwich. 

Thus, as the Second Corps set out on its march in the 
earl)' morning of the 14th, it went at first toward, instead of 
away from the enemy. Gregg's cavalry soon became en- 
gaged, and was driven in. Carroll's brigade was sent to its 
support. Suddenly a new danger appeared, for as Caldwell's 
division, which was in advance, had halted and was making 
coffee on a hill near Auburn, a battery suddenly opened 
upon it from the front. With Ewell's corps, or half the 
rebel army on the left and rear, and an unknown force in 
front, what chance was there for the Second Corps to escape? 
It was soon found that the battery was J. E. B. Stuart's. A 
determined advance by Hays' division cleared the road, and 
the Second Corps moved on to Bristoe Station with Cald- 
well's division bringing up the rear. 

Now General Sykes with his Fifth Corps had been very 
definitely ordered to remain within supporting distance of 
the Second Corps, while French, with the Third Corps, was 
to be within supporting distance of the Fifth, so that Warren 
had every reason to suppose that at Bristoe Station three 
corps could be gathered quickly, if needed. But both the 
Third and the Fifth Corps had hurried on to Centreville, 
supposing the enemy to be in that direction, leaving the 
Second Corps alone in the toils of the whole rebel army. 
Fortunately, Lee, not knowing the condition of affairs, did 
not mass his army for the attack to the best advantage. 
Ewell, instead of pressing on to the rear of the Second 
Corps, turned off towards Greenwich. Hill's corps, mean- 
while, was advancing toward the point where the Orange and 
Alexandria Railroad crosses Broad Run. Heth s division 
of this corps mistook the rear of the withdrawing Fifth 
Corps for the rear of Meade's army, and was preparing to 
follow and attack it when General Webb with his division of 



THE DISPOSITIONS FOR BATTLE. 



^97 



the Second Corps came up. The men were all worn out 
with loss of sleep and long marches and heavy burdens, but 
they moved at double-quick toward the crossing of Broad 
Run in the face of greatly superior forces of the enemy. 
They won the race and held the crossing. General Warren, 
arriving on the battle-field, saw at once with the quick 
decision of military genius the great advantage for defense 
offered by the railroad embankment with its two cuts, one 




The first brigade of Webb's division was nearest Broad Run. To the left was the 
third brigade of that division. Then came Hays' division, 



20 



298 BR1STOE STATION. 

on each side of the stream. He made dispositions of troops 
as follows: Webb was on the right, Hays was in the center, 
and Caldwell on the left. Brown's battery was on the right 
of Webb and across the stream. The other batteries were 
on the hill and a little in the rear of the infantry. Gregg's 
cavalry was on the left near Kettle Run. 

As the rebels charged toward the railroad, they were first 
met by the fire of Webb's division. The work of our artillery 
in this engagement was most remarkable. Although the 
rebels gained some temporary foothold at two points of the 
embankment, they were soon driven off, and the advance of 
our lines resulted in the capture of several hundred prisoners 
and some guns. Yet the Second Corps with its eight thou- 
sand men was alone face to face with the whole rebel army, 
Almost certain destruction seemed to impend. It was late 
in the afternoon, still there was an hour of daylight. This 
hour passed slowly by and the rebels failed to attack through 
some fault or delay in the execution of their plans. Thus 
the corps was saved; for under cover of the night Warren 
could withdraw. The report of Colonel George C. Joslin 
gives the part taken by the Fifteenth in this engagement: 

"Hdqrs. Fifteenth Massachusetts Volunteers, 

"October 16, 1863. 

"Sir; I have the honor to submit the following report of 
the part taken by this command in the engagement with the 
enemy on the afternoon of the 14th, near Bristoe Station: 

"As we approached the above-named place the enemy 
suddenly opened fire with artillery, and I received orders to 
move to the right by the flank, and then by the left flank, 
forming a line of battle. Being on the right of the brigade 
at the time, we moved forward obliquing to the left to the 
railroad, where we halted, and the men were ordered to lie 
down under cover of the embankment of the railroad. At 
this place the Eighty-second New York Volunteers, which 
was formed on our left, moved in our rear and to the right 
of us, giving place for a battery 



COLONEL JOSLIX S REPORT. 299 

"We remained but a short time in this position, when we 
were ordered to move by the [right] flank along the line of 
the railroad and across Broad Run at double-quick. A por- 
tion of the command had crossed the run, when orders were 
given to face about and move back at double-quick along the 
line of the railroad. While thus moving the enemy opened 
with musketry upon us without effect. We soon arrived at 
a position where the railroad covered us from the enemy's 
fire. Here we halted, and, forming upon the side of the rail- 
road, immediately opened fire upon the enemy, who were 
advancing in a heavy -line of battle. We kept up a steady 
and rapid fire, and repulsed the enemy after about an hour's 
fighting, with a loss of one officer wounded, and nine enlisted 
men, two of them mortally [One more afterwards died.] 

"As soon as the firing ceased, quite a large number of 
prisoners came in and were taken by my men. I was then 
ordered to send four companies to the front of our line of 
battle as pickets. At dark we withdrew from the line of the 
railroad, taking our line of march and leaving the four com- 
panies sent out as pickets to withdraw when the column had 
passed, and to join us on the following morning, which they 
did, at Bull Run." 

Colonel Joslin makes an oral statement to the effect that 
the men lay on their left sides to fire over the rail. The 
front rank did all the firing, while the rear rank did the load- 
ing. Our men were not exposed to the rebels in front, but 
about twenty of them were daring enough to dash up on the 
right of the Fifteenth and fire on the flank of the regiment. 
It was thus that our men were wounded. 

Captain Charles H. Stevens of Company A died from 
wounds received at Bristoe Station. He had risen through 
the various grades of office from sergeant to captain. He 
had been wounded at Fair Oaks and Gettysburg. He died 
as he was being carried to the hospital in Alexandria. Post 
53, G. A. R., of Leominster, recognizing that no better citi- 
zen of the town had given his life in the country's service, 



300 BR1STOE STATU >N. 

took his name as the name of their post. The three men 
mortally wounded were Corporal Samuel J. Stearns, Com- 
pany B; George A. Davis, Company F, and Albert E. Hinck- 
ley, Company I. 

General Francis A. Walker has most graphically told the 
story of the withdrawal: "General Warren gave the most 
punctilious instructions as to the withdrawal from the rail- 
road embankment and cut. Until the troops were fairly 
across Broad Run no word of command was to be spoken 
above a whisper; each man was to keep his hand upon his 
cup and canteen that these might not rattle; and thus, in 
ghostly silence the corps was to steal away, marching by the 
flank across the enemy's front, within three hundred yards 
of their skirmishers and half-cannon range of their smooth- 
bore guns. 

"Never will the writer of these lines forget the sights, the 
sounds, and the queer sensations of those hours of the early 
evening, when, slowly riding down the railroad, he saw each 
regiment, in its turn, quietly started on the long march that 
still remained to be added to the exertions of the last sixty 
hours. The little camp-fires of the Confederate host were 
burning at a hundred points across the plain still strewn with 
the dead of Heth's charge, and up on the hill beyond, where 
new brigades were even now coming up to the expected 
battle of tomorrow, the voices of the Confederate soldiers, 
in familiar talk around those campfires, the challenge of the 
sentinels, the low groans of the wounded, were borne on 
every breeze. Within the Union lines was silence and dark- 
ness; no campfires showed their flickering light, no hum of 
voices was heard, not a cigar was lighted in the column, as 
eight thousand men stole away from the presence of the 
great army which had for hours held them at its mercy. 
The five captured guns were not forgotten, but, having with 
some difficulty been furnished by Colonel Morgan with extra 
horses, accompanied the artillery brigade. Crossing Broad 
Run, partly byj the, ford and partly by the railroad, the in- 



LEE S WITHDRAWAL. 3OI 

fantry made their way over the great plain stretching toward 
Manassas, and between three and four o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the 15th, the jaded troops who, of the sixty-nine hours 
that had elapsed since they left Bealton on the morning of 
the 12th, had been in column on the road, or in line of 
battle, or skirmishing or fighting with the enemy more than 
sixty, carrying the heaviest load I have ever known troops 
to carry in campaign, were allowed to throw themselves upon 
the ground, on the left bank of Bull Run, near Blackburn's 
Ford, and for the time rest from their labors. Well may 
General Morgan say: This campaign, short as it was, was 
more fatiguing than that of the Seven Days on the Peninsula, 
since the marches were much longer.'" Colonel Joslin's 
comments on this account: "It is all right except the im- 
plied idea in regard to the cigars. He should have said 
pipes." 

Yeomans diary, October 15, contains the following entry : 
"Moved our position several times during the day. About 
two p m. formed line of battle on the old Bull Run battle- 
field. Got shelled some, but no one hurt." The shelling 
was done by some Hotchkiss guns of Stuart's battery. The 
position of the Army of the Potomac as a whole was such 
that Lee deemed any attempt to attack it or make an ad- 
vance movement of any kind inadvisable, and therefore, after 
destroying a portion of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad 
on the 18th, he began a retrograde movement. 

While at Bull Run the First Brigade of the Second 
Division of the Second Army Corps was increased by the 
addition of the One Hundred and Fifty-second New York 
Regiment. Colonel DeWitt C. Baxter of the Seventy- 
second Pennsylvania was again in command of this brigade. 

October 19, Meade began to follow Lee southward once 
more. Starting at about seven a. m. on this day, the 
Fifteenth went by way of Manassas Junction to within a 
short distance of Bristoe Station. Here it bivouacked for 
the night. October 20, the regiment crossing Broad Run 



302 BRISTOE STATION. 

twice and Kettle Run once, marched on through Green- 
wich to a point near Auburn, not far from the camping- 
ground of the Thirteenth. After resting until the 23d, the 
regiment broke camp at seven A. m. on that day. and went 
some five miles to a camping place along the Warrenton 
Railroad. There a camp was established, and the men, 
thinking they had reached winter quarters, began to build 
log houses, and some even completed them. But Meade 
was only waiting for the repairs of the Orange and Alexan 
dria Railroad to be completed. He had wished to make a 
movement to Fredericksburg and bring his supplies over the 
Fredericksburg road, but Halleck had forbidden the change 
of base involved. 

November 7, the railroad having been put in good con- 
dition once more, the army pushed forward to the Rappa- 
hannock in two columns. The right wing, containing the 
Fifth and Sixth Corps, was under command of General 
Sedgwick. General French had the left, containing the 
First, Second and Third Corps. The former was to cross 
the river at Rappahannock Station, the latter at Kelly's Ford. 

The Fifteenth broke camp at five in the morning. The 
men had drawn eight days' rations; many had also just re- 
ceived new articles of clothing, and weighted with these in 
addition to their usual burdens, they marched some eighteen 
miles over a dusty road. They bivouacked that night half a 
mile from the river. The Third Corps crossed on the 7th, 
and successfully attacked the enemy. The crossing of the 
Second Corps was made on pontoon bridges at sunrise the 
next morning. The Sixth Corps at Rappahannock Station 
captured some fifteen hundred prisoners. From the river 
an advance of about four miles was made by the Second 
Corps. The Second Division of the Second Corps went in 
battle-line by brigade, the Fifteenth Regiment being in the 
second line. Meade expected that Lee would meet him 
here, but he withdrew across the Rapidan. A camp was 
pitched at four p. m. With a change of two and a half miles 



MINE RUN CAMPAIGN. 303 

on the 10th to a log camp deserted by the enemy, the regi- 
ment remained here until the 24th. This was known as the 
camp near Brand}' Station. The regiment was paid on the 
17th. 

As Meade discovered that Lee's line extended some 
eighteen miles from Mine Run on the right to the Barnett's 
Ford on the left, and that the lower fords of the Rapidan 
were unguarded, he resolved to make an attack on the rebel 
right under Ewell. He hoped to crush this wing before the 
other troops could be brought to its asssistance. The orders 
were, for the Fifth Corps followed by the First, constituting 
the Left Wing, to proceed to Culpeper Mine Ford and thence 
to New Hope Church; for the Second Corps, the Center, to 
cross at Germanna Ford and thence to Robertson's Tavern; 
for the Third Corps followed by the Sixth, the Right Wing, 
to cross at Jacob's Mill Ford and thence to a junction with 
the Second Corps at Robertson's Tavern. The plan gave 
every promise of success if carried out promptly according 
to orders. A start was made on the 24th. Yeomans' diary 
says on that day: "Routed at three a. m. Left at five. Went 
on a few miles. Rain}', muddy day. Order countermanded. 
Returned to old camp." 

It was not until the 26th, that the movement was begun 
again. French with his Third Corps did not reach the place 
of crossing until three hours after the appointed time. The 
pontoon bridges at both Germanna and Jacob's Mill Fords, 
on account of the rain, were one boat short, and later, there 
was difficulty in getting the artillery up the hill which rose 
from the stream. Hence there was such a delay that at dark 
of this day the Second Corps was only four miles from the 
river at Flat Run Church, and some on the Right Wing had 
not yet crossed the river. Meanwhile, Lee had been informed 
of the crossing and was gathering his forces to meet what- 
ever movement Meade might contemplate, as best he could. 
On the morning of the 27th Warren advanced with the Sec- 
ond Corps to Robertson's Tavern, which he reached at about 



JOT ROBERTSONS TAVERN. 

ten o'clock a. m. Here Hays'^division which was in advance 
met a division of the enemy Webb, ordered to form on his 
right, hurried forward at double-quick and reached and occu- 
pied the crest of the hill just before the enemy got there. 
After a little fighting, the rebels withdrew. Caldwell's divis- 
ion deployed on the left. As French failed to come up, the 
Second Corps had to withstand the divisions of Rhodes and 
Earl) - until night. Thus it was decidedly overmatched in 
numbers. There was sharp skirmishing while waiting for 
French. French had taken the wrong road, and Johnson's 
single division had been able to stand off the Third and 
Sixth Corps all day long. Thus all chances of pressing on 
before Hill's corps could be brought up were lost. 

When an advance was made on the morning of the 28th 
through "the thick swampy woods," it was found that the 
enemy had withdrawn and established themselves in a very 
strong position along Mine Run. The day was spent by the 
Union leaders in examining these lines. As a result of the 
examination Warren reported that he thought an attack 
could be made on the extreme right of the rebels with good 
chances of success. A weak spot was also found by Sedg- 
wick on the rebel left. It was arranged that an attack should 
be made under the leadership of these generals at the points 
they had respectively proposed. Warren was to command 
the Second Corps and Terry's division of the Sixth, in all 
some sixteen thousand men. He marched slowly on account 
of the rain of the previous day, by New Hope Church and 
some three miles or more beyond to the west on the Plank 
Road and an unfinished railroad which ran parallel to it. 
On the latter a detachment under Miles and later Hays' 
division encountered the outlying troops of the rebels, and 
on the former Caldwell's division was slightly engaged. As 
it was again growing dark before dispositions could be made 
for a general attack, it was delayed until the next morning. 
Warren, strengthened by two divisions of the Third Corps, 
was to open the attack at eight. Sedgwick was to advance 



CAPTAIN EAGER S REPORT. 305 

an hour later on the left. The soldiers anticipated a most 
bloody struggle and are said to have pinned their names on 
the inside of their coats so that the}' could be identified in 
case of death. The night was very cold. When the morn- 
ing came, Warren found that the rebels had been so reen- 
forced and had intrenched themselves so strongly that he 
thought the attack would be attended with such slaughter 
and so little hope of success that he asked Meade to aban- 
don it. Meade acquiesced to Warren's judgment. As he 
considered it too late in the season for an)' new offensive 
movement, the Army of the Potomac returned into winter 
quarters. During this series of manoeuvres neither army had 
gained or lost any important advantage. 

Captain Charles H. Eager's report of the part taken by 
the Fifteenth in these battles is given in full with slight 
modifications, made under his direction: 

"Near Brandy Station, Va., 

" December 3, 1863. 
"Captain: I have the honor to submit the following report: 

"The Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment, Lieutenant-Col- 
onel George C. foslin commanding, left camp November 26, 
1863, with the other regiments composing the First Brigade, 
Second Division, Second Corps, and proceeded to Germanna 
Ford, on the Rapidan River. Crossed on the pontoon bridge 
a little before sunset, moved out a distance of about two 
miles, bivouacked for the night. Moved at sunrise on the 
27th and, after a rapid march, halted near Robertson's Tav- 
ern, where a portion of the Second Brigade was already 
skirmishing with the enemy This command was immedi- 
ately ordered to deploy as skirmishers and join on the right 
of the Second Brigade, along a fence and woods. 

"After remaining very quietly in this position for some 
two or three hours, Colonel Smith of the Seventy-first Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, in charge of the line, ordered the right 
of our line to swing forward into the woods to ascertain the 
locality of a certain road, the left advancing not more than 



306 Robertson's tavkrn. 

twenty yards. In so doing the right and center of our line 
became engaged with the skirmishers of the enemy, who 
almost immediately moved up a line of battle and this regi- 
ment was forced to fall back to its original position, and 
finally to a position about one hundred yards in the rear, on 
the crest of a hill, which position we held with the help of 
the Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and drove the 
enemy back from the edge of the woods. 

"During this engagement Lieutenant-Colonel Joslin was, 
in all probability, captured by the enemy; Captain Elling- 
wood severely and Adjutant Newbury mortally wounded, 
and has since died. The enlisted men wounded and missing 
were thirteen." 

Colonel Joslin states that he had orders in a general way 
to extend the skirmish line, but received no explicit direc- 
tions. He sent three men into the woods to see what they 
could find. They came back and reported the discovery of 
a cart-path. Colonel Joslin ordered five companies to ad- 
vance as a skirmish line to this cart-path. Captain George 
W Brown had command of this skirmish line. After a 
while, as the firing ceased, Colonel Joslin went forward him- 
self to investigate the position of this line. He had gone 
only a few rods when he met a single soldier and inquired of 
him where Captain Brown was. The soldier replied that he 
did not know Captain Brown, and immediately brought his 
musket to full cock and demanded the colonel to surrender. 
Colonel Joslin, on looking about, saw a rebel battle line within 
a rod of him, and deeming that it was useless to resist was 
asked to be led to the commanding officer, and to him he 
gave up his sword. 

The report continues: "At this time the command of the 
regiment fell upon me, and I was directed by Colonel Smith 
to move the regiment to the right and rear, having been re- 
lieved from the front by the One Hundred and Sixth Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers. 

"About sunset I was directed by an aide of General Webb 



CAPTAIN EAGER S REPORT. 307 

to again deploy the regiment and join on the right of the 
Eighty-second New York Volunteers, the line to swing for- 
ward to open the road by which General French of the Third 
Corps was expected to arrive, our line of skirmishers to be 
supported by the Nineteenth Maine Volunteers in line of 
battle. After advancing some seventy-five yards, a few shots 
were fired by the enemy, with no effect upon us. We con- 
tinued to advance with one company as flankers, until the 
right of the line was nearly at a right angle with the First 
Minnesota Volunteers, who were on the extreme left of the 
brigade. At this time it had become so dark that it was im- 
possible to tell friend from foe, and fearing a collision with 
our friends we decided to swing back the right in a position 
covering the said road, where we remained until half-past 
nine p. m., when we were relieved by the Nineteenth Maine 
Volunteers. The command bivouacked in the second line of 
battle for the night. 

"At an early hour on the 28th, a line of battle, consisting 
of the Second Division, was formed near Robertson's Tavern 
(the Fifteenth Massachusetts being on the right of the First 
Brigade), and advanced through the woods in a westerly 
direction a distance of one and one-fourth miles, and re- 
mained quietly in line until the morning of the 29th, when 
the corps moved, via Robertson's Tavern, near New Verdier- 
ville. At this point, by the direction of Brigadier-General 
Webb, this command was deployed as skirmishers, and 
moved in an oblique direction from the plank road, a distance 
of six hundred paces, to guard against a surprise by the 
enemy Were relieved by the One Hundred and Fifty-sec- 
ond New York Volunteers about eight p. m., and bivouacked 
near the road. 

"November 30, were turned out at two-thirty A. M., and 
marched soon after to a position in front of the fortifications 
of the enemy, where we remained all day expecting orders 
to charge the works. Were withdrawn from the front with 
the rest of the brigade at about eight o'clock and bivouacked 
in rear of that position. 



joS Robertson's tavern. 

"About twelve o'clock on December I, the First Brigade 
was ordered into a position, the Fifteenth in the second line 
on the right of the First Minnesota Volunteers. At seven 
p m., was directed by Colonel Baxter to relieve the One 
Hundred and Fifty-second New York Volunteers at the front, 
and at eight-thirty o'clock to report with my command to 
his headquarters to move to the rear. We marched to Fly's 
Ford, on the Rapidan, and crossed on the pontoon bridge at 
nine a. m. on the 2d instant; halted at eleven a. m. and made 
coffee, and moved again at one p m.; arrived at our old camp 
near Brandy Station about eight p. m. 

"The conduct of both officers and men during the entire 
movement was unexceptionable, and all did so well it is diffi- 
cult to particularize, but I cannot refrain from mentioning 
Assistant-Surgeon T O. Cornish for his efforts in assisting 
the wounded from the field during the hottest of the engage- 
ments, regardless of his own personal danger, and of Adju- 
tant Dwight Newbury, who showed determined bravery, and 
who was mortally wounded while conveying an order from 
the right to the left of the line." 

Adjutant Dwight Newbury was one of the first lot of re- 
cruits added to the regiment. He enlisted as a private. He 
showed so little tendency to push himself forward that his 
worth remained unrecognized for over a year. At last, April 
9, 1863, he was made sergeant-major, and he received an ap- 
pointment as adjutant and a commission as first-lieutenant 
to date from July 4, during the same year. Colonel Joslin 
says of him: "He was a most faithful and efficient sergeant- 
major and I promoted him to be adjutant in recognition of 
his excellent service in that position. During the short time 
he served with me as adjutant he was an admirable officer." 

Yeomans says of this return march: " Twenty-four hours 
of hard marching. Tired, muddy and sleepy. About thirty- 
five miles' tramp. Found all our houses burnt. Went to 
work and built new ones." This house-building proved to be 
wasted labor, however, for December 5, the regiment moved 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOSLIN S PRISON LIFE. 309 

four miles to a position about a mile north of Stevensburg, 
where it finally settled for the winter. 

Charles Devens, George H. Ward, John \Y Kimball, 
George C. Joslin stand prominent in the length of their actual 
command and the strength of their influence among those 
who guided the fortunes of the Fifteenth, and now the last 
of them was gone to return no more to its leadership. The 
firm discipline which he had always maintained had become 
so habitual that it was not relaxed even in his absence, but 
certain wise plans which he had matured for the future of 
the regiment failed of execution because of his capture. 

The following account of his prison life was written under 
the direction of Colonel Joslin: " He spent the first night of 
his captivity on the field at the headquarters of General 
Early, which consisted merely of a squadron of cavalry, a 
few wagons containing headquarters supplies, and such 
officers and men as would naturally belong to a general's 
movable outfit, the general and the principal part of his staff 
being all night in the saddle, occupied in moving and arrang- 
ing his troops to meet the expected attack from the Union 
army on the following day Just before midnight, and after 
having lain down about a campfire for the night, this party 
was moved to the rear, something like a mile, where they 
remained for the balance of the night. 

"The following morning Colonel Joslin was sent under 
cavalry guard to the railroad station at Orange Court House. 
This was a long tramp on foot, through rain and mud. Being 
placed on the cars, he was conveyed to Gordonsville, reach- 
ing there late in the evening, where he was thrown into a 
filthy guard-house, used for the confinement of Confederate 
soldiers, several of whom had balls and chains on their ankles. 
There being no lights, however, it was too dark to see much 
of them or the dirt. Before daylight the next morning, he 
was taken from this place to a building near by in which had 
been placed quite a large number of Union prisoners who 
had arrived during the night. 



310 ROP.KRTSON'S TAVKRN. 

" Next day this whole party was taken by cars to Rich- 
mond. Upon arrival in Richmond, Colonel Joslin, being the 
only officer, was taken to Libby prison, the enlisted men of 
the party going to Belle Isle or elsewhere. His reception 
here by the thousand Union officers representing all parts of 
the country, eager for news from the front, knowing from 
Richmond papers that the movement of our army had taken 
place, was something remarkable. Cries of 'Put him up on 
a barrel,' 'Speech, speech,' 'News from the front,' etc., greeted 
him on every side from the howling mob. Refusal was vain, 
and he was obliged to comply. At the close of his recital of 
the army's movement, Major Hooper of his own regiment, 
who had proved to be an interested member of the audience, 
came forward and gave him a brother officer's greeting. 

" Major Hooper, who had been some three months a pris- 
oner, had been fortunate in receiving from his relatives at 
home some food supplies and necessary articles of clothing, 
and he at once took Colonel Joslin into his mess and shared 
with him these luxuries, so that in a couple of hours' time he 
had been introduced to many and made to feel as much at 
home as was possible in a rebel prison. A few weeks after 
this, Major Edmands of the Thirty-second Massachusetts 
arrived as a prisoner and was invited by Colonel Joslin and 
Major Hooper to join their mess, and each of the three from 
time to time were remembered by their friends at home with 
supplies of various kinds. Their prison days passed without 
being dependent upon rebel supplies of food, and their suffer- 
ings were mostly confined to sleeping upon a hard floor with 
scanty clothing. The time had necessarily to be occupied 
in playing games, such as chess, whist, cribbage and check- 
ers, reading such limited matter as they were able to get, and 
extending their acquaintance among the thousand or more 
other officers. During the winter many schemes for escape 
were conceived and partially carried out, but none success- 
fully, except the digging of the famous tunnel from the 
cellar of the building, some fifty-nine feet under the street to 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOSLIN'S PRISON LIFE. 3 1 I 

an opening in a vacant lot the other side, through which one 
hundred and ten of the prisoners passed out in one night. 
As this was discovered on the following day, it could not 
be again made use of. But a limited number, and those by 
luck and chance, could avail themselves of this opportunity 
to escape, Major Hooper being one of this number, but Col- 
onel Joslin being forced to remain. About half the men 
who escaped were captured and brought back during the 
next few days. 

"At the commencement of General Grant's campaign in 
Virginia, in the early spring, the prisoners in Richmond, for 
greater safety, were moved to Georgia — the officers to Ma- 
con, the' enlisted men to Andersonville. This trip was the 
hardest part of Colonel Joslin's prison experience, several 
days being consumed in transportation, in box cars, fifty-five 
men being in the car in which he was, and often side-tracked 
for hours. The change to Macon was in many respects a 
change for the better, the prison pen for the officers being a 
new one in the open ground, enclosed simply by a high board 
fence, and not previously occupied. After some six weeks 
spent here, the fifty officers highest in rank were sent to 
Charleston, South Carolina. This number included only gen- 
erals, colonels, lieutenant-colonels, and majors. Charleston 
was then being shelled by Union artillery on Morris Island, 
and it was supposed that this body of officers was taken 
there and placed in buildings within range of the shells for 
the purpose of inducing the Union general to cease shelling. 
The effect, however, was quite different. The government 
at Washington was notified of the placing of these officers in 
Charleston, and a like number of high-ranking Confederate 
prisoners were sent to Morris Island and placed in the 
rear of the Union guns. In a few weeks this action brought 
a proposition from the Confederate government to exchange 
the fifty for fifty Early in August this exchange was effected. 
The fifty Union officers, being placed on shipboard, sailed 
down the harbor to the vicinity of Fort Sumpter, where a 



312 ROBERTSONS TAVERN. 

Union boat was met having on board the fifty Confederate 
officers. Preliminaries were soon concluded, and the two 
vessels came side by side, a gang-plank was put across, and 
as the name of each Union officer was called, he walked the 
plank to the Union vessel, the Confederates doing the same 
in their turn. Sailing out of the harbor, the vessel bearing 
the Union officers passed through the line of blockading 
monitors, which fired a salute, and further on, as the admi- 
ral's vessel was reached, an invitation was signalled to come 
along-side. On the admiral's ship were Admiral Dalghren, 
commanding the fleet, General Foster, commanding the 
army, General Sickles, who was making a tour of inspection 
along the coast in a ship provided for his use, and the fifty 
officers, some of whom had been prisoners for more than a 
year, were invited to board the admiral's ship. After the in- 
troductions, all were invited below to partake of lunch. 
During their stay. General Sickles extended an invitation to 
the fifty to dine with him later in the da)' on his vessel, which 
was, of course, accepted. At the close of the day the offi- 
cers were again taken to the vessel which had conveyed 
them from Charleston, and the following morning found 
themselves docked at Port Royal, Hilton's Head, where they 
were directed to go ashore and receive two months' pay 
each. They then returned to the vessel and passage was 
made to New York city, the fifty being under command of 
the senior general, who, on arrival in New York, handed 
each a written order to proceed to his home and report to 
the war department for orders. This Colonel Joslin did, 
arriving in Worcester late at night, August 9. After waiting 
some two months, hoping for assignment to some duty which 
might enable him to remain in the service until the close of 
the war, he received orders to proceed to the nearest muster- 
ing officer and be mustered out of service, his regiment hav- 
ing already been mustered out, their three years of service 
having expired in the July previous." 

Major I. Harris Hooper has told most graphically the 



MA [OR HOOPERS ESCAPE FROM LIBBY. 



J l 



story of his escape from Libby Only a brief abstract of 
this most interesting story can be given here. 

It was in January, 1S64, that he was informed by a friend 
that a tunnel from the cellar of the prison was being dug, by 
which some of the prisoners hoped to escape. This tunnel 
as finally completed, was so small in diameter that, in order 
to pass through, it was necessary to lie flat on one's face, 
propelling with one hand and the feet, the other hand being 
thrown over the back, to diminish the breadth of the shoul- 
ders and carry with greater facility overcoat, rations etc." 
The opening to the tunnel was made by lifting out the bot- 
tom of the fireplace in the cook-room. 

It was February 9 before the tunnel was completed. On 
the evening of that da) - Major Hooper was summoned to the 
execution of the plan of escape, which he, Lieutenant Ran- 
dolph of the Fifth United States Artillery, and Colonel Til- 
den of the Nineteenth Maine, had arranged. Going to the 
cook-room they found a great crowd of prisoners, each wait- 
ing impatiently for his turn to descend. A stampede caused 
this crowd to disperse and gave to Major Hooper and his 
friends the desired opportunity. This was eagerly seized. 
They entered the cellar. Lieutenant Randolph went through 
the tunnel first, then Major Hooper, after waiting for him to 
complete his passage, followed. "In I went," says he. "So 
well did the garment of earth fit, that I doubt if there was 
much windage, for at moments my movements corresponded 
somewhat to those of a bolt forcing its way through a rifled 
gun." At last he reached the end. Then came Colonel Til- 
den. Soon they were standing in " the shadow of a low brick 
arch, outside of which a sentinel paced backward and for- 
ward, coming sometimes within two yards." By creeping 
along by the house walls when his back was turned, one after 
another, they managed to get around the corner. "By rapid 
strides they reached the vacant lots and the straggling lanes 
of the outskirts." It was half-past one A. m. Suddenly, when 
they were beginning to feel confidence, two men were seen 



3I4 KOUKKTSON S TAVEKX. 



near at hand and coming toward them. " Running was out 
of the question. Force must be met by cunning ..But 

when on the point of meeting, one of them broke for the 
woods, flying through the brambles like a madman." His 
comrade, who did not run, proved to be a Connecticut cap- 
tain, who had preceded them through the tunnel. This cap- 
tain, failing to find his companion, joined Major Hooper and 
his friends. Daylight found them in the open fields, but 
they made their way into a thicket. Here they lay in con- 
cealment until night came. Then they started again, but 
they found to their surprise a line of fortifications within a 
pistol shot of their hiding place. "Turning back was absurd ; 
to the right or left equally so, as the forts and rifle-pits were 
of interminable extent. To go on seemed madness," but 
they advanced, "trusting that fortune would be kind. No 
click of musket lock, no challenge of sentinel." They found 
the works as "deserted and silent as the grave." They 
passed on to the swamps of the Chickahominy with its weird 
sights and haunting memories. They crossed the stream on 
"a tree of mighty size." They were "miserably cold and 
more than miserably weary." The next morning they found 
■a negro, who gave them some food. They spent the day 
also in the forest, and at night hurried on theiT course in ac- 
cordance with the directions gave them by the negro. The 
next day they spent in a negro cabin. They always found 
the blacks most ready to assist them. 

The fourth night, in crossing a lane, they suddenly came 
upon two horsemen. One of them was singing a familiar 
college song. Major Hooper and his companions threw 
themselves on the ground. "No one dared to look, but each 
felt instinctively that the dreaded discovery had been made, 
and nerved himself for the moment, when the shout of a 
comrade and the rattle of read)- carbines would call courage 
to test in a life and death encounter." But the)- were un- 
noticed, and soon heard with great joy the notes of "Upidee" 
growing faint in the distance. After another dav in the loft 



MAJOR HOOPER'S ESCAPE FROM LIBBY. 315 

of a negro cabin, they were ferried across the Pamunkey. 
Here they were put in charge of a negro who promised to 
assist them after he had attended a plantation ball. They 
waited in sound of the music and dancing until he was ready, 
and then went to an old shed for the day Two white men 
searched this shed but did not find them. 

Thus the>- were passed on their way by the negroes from 
one plantation to another. One night they were taken to an 
island in the Pamunkey River where a small remnant of the 
tribe of Powhatan was living. The Indians received them 
hospitably Here they were detained two days by a severe 
snowstorm. The cold was so intense that water was "frozen 
solid" in a bottle in a haversack. 

From the island they continued their journey on an oys- 
ter boat. West Point, some thirty miles down the river, was 
the place they were seeking to reach. Through the night 
they rowed with nervous energy, but the daylight found 
them far from their destination. Then they curled up in the 
bottom of the boat, while the negroes rowed on. Luckily 
the sentinel allowed the boat to pass without even a hail. 

One day more in a negro cabin, another night in a swifter 
boat upon the river, and they were at last close upon the 
Union lines. As the) - neared a bridge across a brook they 
heard the familiar challenge, "Who comes there?" "Friends! 
Friends!" they cried, while thoughts of home and liberty 
choked their hearts. It did not take long for the sentinel or 
corporal of the guard to become satisfied that all was right. 
Then they crossed the bridge and stood a moment, "grasp- 
ing each others hands, free at last." 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 
December 5, 1863 — July 28, 1864. 

The report of the adjutant-general of Massachusetts for 
1864 says of the Fifteenth: "Of the monotony of camp-life 
(of the winter of 1863-4), but little either of value or inter- 
est may be said or written. The duties performed by the 
regiment were few and unvarying. Some miles distant from 
the camp ran the Rapidan River, its banks lined with the 
pickets of the hostile armies. In this duty of picketing, the 
regiment had its share. A force of officers and men, propor- 
tioned exactly to the number present for duty, was detailed 
every third day, and proceeded to their station on the river. 
They were relieved at the expiration of their tour of duty 
by a like number. About one-third of the regiment (pres- 
ent for duty) were thus constantly on duty during the winter. 
Owing to the severity of the weather, drills were for the most 
part suspended. The regiment was quartered in huts hur- 
riedly constructed by the men in the month of December, 
1863, after returning from the Aline Run expedition. These 
huts were certainly neither regularly built or ornamental in 
design, but were well arranged and comfortable within. The 
surgeon's reports for the winter months showed that the 
health of the command was quite as good as the average 
troops in the field." 

The monthly returns give as present: for December, fif- 
teen officers and two hundred and thirty-nine men; for Jan- 
uary, fourfe-'n officers and two hundred and sixtv-eicfht men; 



CONSOLIDATION OF REGIMENT. 317 

for February, twelve officers and two hundred and forty- 
eight men; for March, eleven officers and two hundred and 
thirty-seven men; for April, thirteen officers and two hun- 
dred and seventy-four men. In December, two hundred and 
ninety-nine men were absent, of whom one hundred and 
eighty-two were on the list of sick or wounded. The sick 
and wounded gradually recovered or were discharged for 
disability- or transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, so 
that in April there were only one hundred and five on this 
list. A large number were "absent with leave," especially 
during the months of February and March, in the former 
twenty-eight, in the latter forty-eight. From January to 
May forty-eight recruits were received. In the five months 
following December I, 1863, two hundred and one names 
were dropped from the rolls. The total number remaining 
on the rolls at the end of April, 1864, was five hundred and 
forty-three. 

December 1 1, 1863, Governor Andrew urged that the regi- 
ment should be consolidated as new companies could be 
formed more easily than old ones could be filled up. Cap- 
tain Charles H. Eagef, then commanding the regiment, 
wrote Decembvr 17, 1863, to the adjutant-general of Massa- 
chusetts: 

"In reply to your suggestions for consolidating the com- 
panies of the regiment, I would say that I regret exceedingly 
that Colonel Joslin is not present to express his views on the 
subject. Situated as I am, I did not feel like submitting my 
views alone in the matter, therefore I have consulted the 
other officers of the regiment and find them, without excep- 
tion, decidedly opposed to it. You are of course aware of 
the fact that this regiment was organized very differently 
from many of the Massachusetts regiments. While they 
were raised almost entirely through the general recruiting 
depots, this was made up of companies already organized in 
certain towns. The regiment has always been as it should 
be, the unit. At the same time each company has had a 



3 I S THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 

pride in its own organization and shown a desire to vie with 
others in drill and discipline, and judging from the interest 
those towns have ever shown in the welfare of their respec- 
tive companies it would be a matter of keen regret to them 
to learn that their organization had been annihilated. As 
the term of service of the regiment is so nearly completed, 
it is thought desirable at least to maintain each company's 
organization." 

From this time on and even before, there was a continu- 
ous pressure for consolidation brought to bear by the state 
authorities which was strenuously resisted by the officers of 
the regiment. Right here the loss of Colonel Joslin had a 
deep influence on the history of the regiment. In the ab- 
sence of field officers the Fifteenth was for four months un- 
der the command of line officers, who hesitated to assume, 
as we have seen, while acting temporarily for others, the re- 
sponsibility of initiating measures which might have been for 
its good. The questions of consolidation and reenlistment 
were especially affected. Doubtless if Colonel Joslin had not 
been captured the regimental organization would have been 
maintained to the end of the war, for before November 27th 
he had perfected plans and secured pledges having this end 
in view; but in his absence, as those in authority were not 
acquainted with these plans and pledges, and felt that it 
would be presumption for them to take upon themselves the 
responsibility of originating new plans and securing new 
pledges, the regimental organization was lost. 

During the winter the question of reenlistment was one 
of great interest. Any one who reenlisted after September 
23, 1863, who at the date of reenlistment had less than a 
year to serve, received a bounty of four hundred and two 
dollars. His new term was to begin from the date of re- 
enlistment, and he was to be granted a thirty days furlough. 
February 26, 1864, there were two hundred and thirty-five 
men entitled to reenlist under these terms, including the 
number who had reenlisted. Fifty-five did thus reenlist, and 



REENLISTMENT. 319 

Captain George \Y Brown, then commanding the regiment, 
wrote: "Of the remaining, a large proportion have signified 
their willingness to reenlist, provided the regiment be ordered 
to Massachusetts to reorganize and recruit. There can be 
no doubt but that three-fourths of the remaining number 
would reenlist, and in my opinion a much larger proportion." 
As the regiment was not allowed to return home to reorgan- 
ize there were no more reenlistments. The First Minnesota 
was more fortunate in this respect, for it was sent home 
February 5, 1S64, and having been reorganized and recruited 
in Minnesota, as the First Battalion, rejoined its old brigade 
June 1 1. 

February 6, 1S64, as a movement against Richmond was 
contemplated by General Butler, General Meade made a 
show of aggressive action that none of Lee's troops might 
be sent to oppose him. Of the part taken by the Fifteenth 
in this movement Yeomans says: "February 6. Routed out 
at four a. m. Went down to Rapidan, six miles, to Morton's 
Ford. The Third Division of our corps forded the river and 
engaged the enemy After dark our division crossed on 
bridge. Deployed as skirmishers." 'Be you Ohio?' Cold, 
rainy night.— 7th. Remained until one A. m. Recrossed and 
remained in line on the river bank all day. After dark came 
back to our old camp. Mud! Mud! Mud!" As Butler's 
movement tailed, there were no important results from this 
auxiliary feint of an advance. 

The only other notable fact in camp for the winter was 
the payment of the regiment for two months, on February 
21. The furloughs given to those who had reenlisted and to 
some extent to others, were deeply enjoyed. A large por- 
tion of these men had not been home since August, 1861. 
The greetings of families and friends, the gathering up of 
the long lost threads of their former life, the narration of 
strange experiences to spell-bound listeners, the grateful 
recognition by those at home of the heroic patriotism dis- 
played, all combined to fill those days with delight, tem- 



320 



THF. FINAL CAMPAIGN. 



pered with sadness by the changes which had occurred 
among those whom they were meeting after so long an ab- 
sence and by the losses their own ranks had sustained. 

A circular issued from the headquarters of the Army of 
the Potomac, in April, authorized the expenditure of ten 
rounds of small ammunition for practice as, "It is believed 
there are men in the army who have been in numerous 
actions without firing their muskets, and it is known that 
muskets taken on the field of battle have been found filled 
nearly to the muzzle with cartridges." 

The opening of the spring was marked by the consoli- 
dation, under the advice of General Meade, of the First 
Arm)- Corps with the Fifth, of the third division of the Third 
Corps with the Sixth Corps, and of the first and second 
divisions of the Third Corps with the Second Corps. Gen- 
eral Warren had command of the enlarged Fifth, General 
Sedgwick of the Sixth, and General Hancock, who had now 
recovered from the wound he had received at Gettysburg, of 
the Second. It is worthy of note that all of these corps 
commanders were men who had been connected with the 
Second Corps. Burnside's Ninth Corps had also been 
summoned to act with the Army of the Potomac, but 
remained as an independent organization. These four corps 
had in the aggregate about one hundred and twenty thou- 
sand men. General Sigel's army in the Valley of the Shenan- 
doah and General Butler's in the Valley of the James, co- 
operated directly with that of Meade. General Lee's army 
contained only about sixty thousand men, but it had the ad- 
vantage of acting on the defensive and along interior lines. 

The three old divisions of the Second Corps were con- 
solidated into two; those added from the Third Corps 
became the third and fourth divisions. In the Second Corps 
as thus formed, there were, March 31, 1864, forty-three 
thousand and thirty-five men, of whom thirteen thousand 
three hundred and six were absent. By the last of April the 
corps had been increased by recruiting some three thousand 



OPENING OF THE CAMPAIGN. 32 1 

more. General Gibbon still had command of the second 
division of the corps and General Webb of the first brigade 
of that division. In this brigade were the Nineteenth 
Maine, the Fifteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth Massachu- 
setts, the Forty-second, Fifty-ninth and Eighty-second New 
York and the Seventh Michigan. 

The Fifteenth with its thirteen commissioned officers and 
two hundred and seventy-four enlisted men, present for duty 
April 30, was a smaller proportionate part of the brigade, of 
the division, of the Second Army Corps and of the Army of 
the Potomac as a whole, than it had ever been before. For 
this reason it will not be necessary to enter with so much 
detail into the movements of the closing months during 
which the regiment remained in service. 

March 9, General Ulysses S. Grant received a commission 
as lieutenant-general of the armies of the United States. 
Henceforth these armies were to act as a unit for the over- 
throw of the confederacy under the leadership of one whom 
three years of warfare had shown to stand foremost among 
the Union generals in the comprehensiveness of his plans, in 
the poise of his mind and in the tenacity of his purpose. As 
General Grant made his headquarters with the Army of the 
Potomac, he exercised a more immediate supervision over 
the movements of this army than over those of the other 
armies, although, to use his own words, he "tried as far as 
possible to leave General Meade in independent command." 
April 22, there was a review of the new Second Corps by 
General Grant. General Morgan speaks of it as "the finest 
corps review" he had ever seen in this army. 

From the beginning of the campaign, General Meade was 
directed to make Lee's army his objective. This army 
was intrenched along the southern bank of the Rapidan for 
a distance of some eighteen miles. It might have been 
possible, by transporting the Army of the Potomac by water 
to the Valley of the James, to have called Lee to Richmond 
and to have met him first within the fortifications about that 



.jtj THIC FINAL ( AM I'A I ( iX. 

city General Grant, however, keeping the end of crushing 
Lee's arm>- in view, thought it better, as he says, "to fight 
him outside his stronghold than in it." 

It was possible, also, to attack his position along the 
Rapidan by moving by the right flank or by the left. It was 
decided that Lee's army could be attacked to the best ad- 
vantage by trying to turn his right flank by a rapid con- 
cealed march. It was midnight of May 3 when this march 
began. Sheridan's cavalry led the way The Fifth Corps 
crossed at Germanna Ford and went on to the Wilderness 
Tavern. The Sixth Corps crossed at the same point, but 
halted with its rear near the ford. The Second Corps, pre- 
ceded by Gregg's cavalry, crossed at Ely's Ford and went on 
to Chancellorsville. This point was reached at about ten 
a. m. on the 4th, after a march of some twenty miles. 

Lieutenant T. J. Hastings writes: "The day was hot and 
the march rapid. It was the first hard work for many 
months, and as the sun got high and the pace told on the 
men, they began to throw away the accumulations of the 
winter. Goods in great variety, but mostly clothing, with 
not a few books, were scattered on the roadside for miles. 
Extra clothing did not seem necessary with the thermometer 
up towards ninety, and books, though pleasant enough com- 
panions for a soldier in camp, are but sources of misery 
when they serve to tighten the infernal grip of knapsack 
straps on his shoulders." 

These three corps encamped in the positions named until 
the next day, waiting for Burnside's corps to come up. Of 
course Lee, early on the morning of the 4th, had become 
aware of the movement, and was rapidly concentrating his 
army to meet it. It was for Lee's advantage to fight in the 
Wilderness, whence he had driven General Hooker dis- 
comforted a year before. In these thickets it was impossible 
to handle large bodies of men to advantage, and the tactical 
ability, in which Meade's arm)' was especially strong, had no 
opportunity for exercise. Moreover, the artillery would be 



THE WILDERNESS. 32^ 

practically useless. If Warren, Sedgwick and Hancock had 
only been ordered to move on a few miles further before 
halting on the 4th, a much better ground would have been 
found for the manoeuvring of their troops. 

When the march was resumed on the morning of the 5th, 
Warren found the troops of Ewell on the turnpike within two 
miles of Wilderness Tavern. At first these troops were sup- 
posed to belong to the rear of the retreating rebel army; 
therefore the force sent against them was small. A tem- 
porary success was gained, but soon Ewell repelled Warren's 
attacking column, inflicting a severe loss. 

Hancock, whose leading division was already ten miles 
to the left, having passed beyond Todd's Tavern, had been 
ordered to halt his troops there to await the issue of War- 
ren's encounter. Two hours later, at eleven o'clock, he was 
ordered to move on the Brock road to its intersection with 
the Orange Plank Road. General Getty, with a division of the 
Sixth Corps, held with difficulty this strategic point against 
Hill's corps until three p. m., the hour of Hancock's arrival. 
When Getty advanced on the Plank Road at four p m., he 
found himself engaged with a large force well posted for 
meeting such an attack. Hancock hurled his corps forward 
"in repeated and desperate attacks" until darkness fell, but 
in vain. In this blind death grapple in the tangled thicket, 
where not even the commander of a regiment could see all 
of his men, many yielded up their lives. Up to this time 
Webb's brigade had not been seriously engaged, although 
it reached the scene of action at about five p m., and was 
under a "very annoying fire." 

Lieutenant Hastings has written: "As we approached this 
point, the storm of battle burst with fury from the woods. 
Like a strong wind it swayed our still moving column many 
feet from the road. The roll of musketry reverberating in 
the forest was like the roar of a mighty cataract. At this 
moment I saw on the rising ground, a little in rear of the 
line, a woman on horseback, facing with perfect composure 



7,24 FHE ^ INAI - CAMPAICN. 

the storm of lead. Her bearing was erect and resolute. She 
seemed to the astonished and worshiping eyes of the soldiers 
almost like a goddess to whom the din and destruction of 
war had no terrors. In a moment the column swept on, 

and the vision was but a memory " 

At five o'clock on the following morning Hancock's 
attack was renewed with redoubled vigor. The combined 
advance of Getty's division of the Sixth Corps, Wadsworth's 
division of the Fifth Corps, Mott's and Birney's divisions, 
together with Owen's and Carroll's, and later, Webb's, bri- 
gades of Gibbon's division from the Second Corps, all under 
the command of Birney, proved irresistible. Hill's lines 
were broken and driven for a mile and a half along the road 
and through the woods. On account of the disordered con- 
dition of his victorious troops, Hancock ordered a halt for 
reorganization. Meanwhile Longstreet's corps and Ander- 
son's division of Hill's was rapidly coming up to restore the 
routed rebel lines. Thus these lines were able to assume the 
aggressive once more. Gibbon had been left on an eleva- 
tion with the artillery and Barlow's division to guard against 
an expected advance of Longstreet on the left. Owing to a 
misunderstanding a great gap was opened between his troops 
and the remaining forces under Hancock. Into this gap the 
enemy penetrated, turned the left flank of Birney's column 
of attack and wrought sad havoc. Birney, though reluctant 
to do so, was obliged to withdraw to the fortifications at the 
intersection of the Brock road. A wound received by Gen- 
eral Longstreet retarded the Confederate advance. As soon, 
however, as General Lee had his troops well in hand, he sent 
them forward against Hancock's intrenched position. But 
they were unable to drive back the Union lines. It was at 
this time that the woods took fire and the intense heat was 
almost harder to endure than the bullets of the enemy, and 
the smoke added still greater uncertainty to the movements 
of that most mysterious of conflicts amid those low thick 
trees, where the men could see neither the enemy nor their 



THE WILDERNESS. 325 

own commanding officers, where the firing was guided by the 
flashes from the opposing lines. 

The confused nature of the battle is very evident from 
General Webb's report of the action of his brigade. He 
says: "At about six a. m. I received orders from General 
Gibbon to move to the right to the Plank road and report to 
Major-General Birney, which was promptly done. General 
Birney ordered my command to deploy to the right of the 
Plank road and move forward to join Brigadier-General Getty 
of the Sixth Corps. I deployed and advanced as ordered. 
I, of course, failed to find the lines of General Getty, since I 
do not know that any of our troops ever had been where I 
was ordered. We met the enemy in force and engaged him. 
From this moment to the time when my line was de- 
stroyed by the forcing in of the troops on my left, I was left 
totally unaware of any special object in disposing of my 
command." The Fifteenth was with General Webb in all 
these movements. The reported casualties of the Fifteenth 
in this engagement were four killed, sixteen wounded and 
three captured or missing. 

A letter of one who accompanied a relief expedition after 
the Wilderness, says: "Tired stragglers were constantly com- 
ing in through the night, some of them terribly wounded, 
and yet they had managed to craw! or hobble twenty or 
thirty miles. Along the road that wound up the steep hills 
and followed the ridge of them far away, came trains of 
heavy six-mule army wagons, showing white against the sky, 
loaded with wounded men. It seemed an endless procession, 
and as it moved on and on it was wonderful to see the 
patience in the pinched, suffering faces, and the gratitude 
for the poor gift of food." 

Neither of the generals felt inclined on the 7th to make 
any movement upon the intrenchments of his opponent. 
Each had lost about the same per cent, of the forces engaged 
and the troops had become thoroughly exhausted by the 
struggle. On the evening of the 7th the Union army moved 



^26 THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 

southward to seize Spottsylvania Court House, which was 
some fifteen miles distant from the Wilderness Tavern, and 
thus cut off Lee from Richmond. Warren started at nine 
p m. by the Brock road. Hancock followed by the same 
line. Sedgwick and Burnside went by Chancellorsville. 
Delavs in Warren's movement, for which that commander 
was in no way responsible, and the burning of the woods 
which caused Anderson, then in command of the wounded 
Longstreet's corps, to move along the parallel road from 
Parker's store, even earlier than he was ordered to do so, 
prevented the seizure of Spottsylvania Court House and pre- 
cipitated the fiercest conflict in which the Second Corps was 
ever engaged. As Warren found the desired position occu- 
pied when he arrived, he made an attack upon it and dis- 
covered the enemy there in force, and therefore waited for 
Sedgwick to come up. Later in the afternoon the combined 
corps advanced against the enemy, but accomplished little. 
Hancock was held at Todd's Tavern during the 8th, in 
anticipation of an attack on our rear. Gibbon's division was, 
however, sent to the support of Warren early in the after- 
noon, but was not engaged during the day. It bivouacked 
on the night of the 8th in the rear of the Fifth and Sixth 
Corps. On the gth, after several changes of position, it 
crossed the Po River, just before dark, on the day General 
Sedgwick was killed. On the morning of the ioth, Gibbon's 
division was called back to assist the Fifth Corps in an at- 
tack on the position of the enemy Webb's and Carroll's 
brigades were in the assaulting line, while Owen's was held 
in reserve. Twice they were hurled against the rebel lines 
and twice, after the most heroic efforts, they were repulsed. 
Gibbon's report says that the position held by the enemy 
"was in a dense wood, filled with dead cedar trees, whose 
hard, dry branches, projecting like so many bayonets from 
the stem, rendered the movement of a line of battle in any 
sort of order utterly impracticable." The only results of the 
two assaults was to kill and wound a large number of men, 



THE STRUGGLE AT THE "SALIENT." 327 

many of whom were burnt to death by the fierce conflagra- 
tion which raged in the burnt timber. It was here that Lieu- 
tenant George B. Simonds of Company G was killed. He 
was the brother of Captain Clark S. Simonds, who was killed 
at Antietam. George B. Simonds had enlisted as a private 
in Company B. He had been wounded at Ball's Bluff, but 
returned to his company as soon as he was able. A friend 
said of him: "His gentle and quiet deportment and almost 
boyish appearance gave little token to those who did not 
know him intimately, of the stern devotion to duty and 
manly courage which inspired him. 

Barlow s division, which was the last to withdraw from 
beyond the Po, had a notable conflict with the enemy, but 
finally succeeded in recrossing without serious loss. The 
nth was spent in making intrenchments, and no heavy fight- 
ing was done. 

On the I2th came the struggle at the "salient." Here 
Ewell's line made a sharp angle which seemed to offer a 
vulnerable point of attack. Hancock was in charge of the 
assault. As Gibbon's division was in sight of the enemy it 
was moved last. A position near the enemy's works had 
been gained during the night. At four-thirty on the morn- 
ing of the 1 2th the order to charge was given. Birney and 
Barlow were in the advance, Gibbon was in reserve. Such 
was the impetus of the attack that the rebels were swept 
from their works and driven half a mile beyond, to their sec- 
ond line. Johnson's whole division, some four thousand 
men, was captured. Just as Gibbon's division, which had 
been sent forward in support, was approaching the second 
line of works, General Webb was seriously wounded. 

Soon the rebels gathered all their available forces to drive 
back Hancock's column, which had become disorganized by 
the very completeness of its victor}- Step by step it was 
forced back to the lines of the salient first taken. There, on 
the outer side of the intrenchments, having been reenforced 
by two divisions of the Sixth Corps, it made a stand. Gen- 



32S THK FINAL CAM PAIC.X. 

eral Francis A. Walker says: "For the distance of nearly a 
mile, amid a cold, drenching rain, the combatants were liter- 
all)- struggling across the breastworks. Never before since 
discovery of gunpowder had such a mass of lead been hurled 
into a space so narrow as that which now embraced the 
scene of combat. Large standing trees were literally cut off 
and brought to the ground by infantry fire alone; their great 
limbs whipped into basket stuff, that could be woven by the 
hand of a girl. On either side a long ghastly procession of 
the wounded went limping or crawling to the rear; on either 
side fast rose the mounds of dead, intermingled with those 
who were too severely hurt to extricate themselves from 
their hideous environment. The trenches had more than 
once to be cleared of the dead, to give the living a place to 
stand." 

It was midnight before the rebels in despair gave up their 
vain attempt and withdrew to construct new lines of defense. 
The Union troops slept where they had fought. The same 
chill blanket of drizzling mist covered the living and the 
dead, and it would have been hard to tell which slept the 
more soundly 

A comprehensive description of the battle would require 
us to speak of the unsuccessful attack of General Warren, 
but as far as the Fifteenth was concerned, the battle of the 
1 2th centered about the salient and the regiment deserves 
a full share of the glory of that immortal struggle. From 
its depleted ranks fourteen are reported to have been killed 
or mortally wounded. This was in all probability fully ten 
per cent, of the number actually engaged, a percentage 
greater than was lost by the regiment in any other battle 
except Antietam and Gettysburg. 

General Webb was succeeded in command of the brigade 
by Colonel H. Boyd McKeen of the Eighty-first Pennsylvania. 
On the 16th, Tyler's division of the heavy artillery and the 
Corcoran Legion were added to the Second Corps. The 
eight thousand men of these two organizations just about 
balanced its losses. 



YEOMANS DIARY. 



329 



On the 18th an attack was made from the salient on the 
interior line of the enemy. McKeen's brigade displayed 
great gallantry and met with severe losses, as did the other 
attacking troops. Nothing was gained by this move. On 
the 19th the enemy attacked Tyler's artillery, and were re- 
pulsed. 

Yeoman's diary contains the following entries: " May 13. 
Moved down a little to the left, engaged slightly — Ma)- 14. 
Remained in line all day, not engaged. — May 15. At day- 
light moved up toward the left. Stayed a few hours and 
came back. — May 16. In the afternoon went out a few miles 
to guard ambulances bringing in our wounded. — May 17. 
Remained quiet until dark. Moved up to rebel breastworks. 
— May 18. At daylight moved on the enemy's works again. 
Hard fight. Lasted all the forenoon. At night moved up 
further toward the left about seven or eight miles. — May 19. 
At dark, fell in and went back a little way to repel attack on 
train. — May 20. Came back, remained all day till about 
twelve at night; moved on. — May 21. Marched all night on 
through Guiney's Station, Bowling Green and Milford. 
Hard, hot march. Crossed Mattapony River. Regiment 
went out on picket at night.- May 22. Remained on picket 
till night. Went back to line. — May 23. Moved on at seven 
a. m. to the North Anna River. Some skirmishing. Built 
breastworks on top of hill near the river. Remained there 
all night. — May 24. Crossed river on rude bridge without 
opposition. Built breastworks. About four p. M. went out 
supporting skirmishing line. Lively skirmish till late at 
night. Stayed out all night.— May 25. Rain at daylight. 
Moved on in line during day. Built breastworks. — May 26. 
Remained until after dark. Recrossed the river. — May 27 
Moved on down to the left. — May 28. Crossed Pamunkey 
River at Nelson's Ford near Newmarket. Regiment deployed 
as skirmishers. Got shelled. Advanced in line and remained 
out all night as pickets.- May 29. At night relieved and 
joined brigade. — May 30. Moved on a few miles. Formed 
22 



330 THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 

line. — May 31. Moved on a few miles at night. Regiment 
deployed as skirmishers. Dug rifle-pits. Remained out all 
night and next day. — June 1. Made an unsuccessful charge 
on enemy's works. After dark moved on to the left. 
Marched all night." 

Such were the movements of these twenty days as they 
appeared to one of the men under this terrible strain, of 
marching and countermarching, of building breastworks, of 
almost continuous skirmishing and picketing, of sleepless 
nights and unceasing vigilance in the presence of a watchful 
foe. The strategist sees Grant and Meade vainly striving for 
some twelve days to find a vulnerable point in Lee's line at 
Spottsylvania or turn it by a flank movement, and finally, 
having been foiled in every attempt, moving once more 
toward the South in order to draw the rebels out from their 
impregnable position by attempting to interpose between 
them and Richmond. Had Lee's army still retained its old 
aggressive force, it might have attacked the divided Army 
of the Potomac on the march with a good chance of a not- 
able victory. But the rebel force was too weak for this, and 
contented itself with so moving along the better and shorter 
roads under its control so as to present a firm defensive 
front whenever an opportunity offered. 

The first point of meeting was at the North Anna on May 
23. Warren, Wright and Hancock all crossed the river, the 
two former to the west and the latter to the east. Hancock's 
corps did valiant work in forcing the passage. On the 24th, 
Smyth's brigade, assisted by five other regiments, among 
which was the Fifteenth, made a spirited advance and 
carried a line of the enemy's works, and then stubbornly re- 
sisted a counter attack in the midst of a furious storm. Lee 
held lines which it would have been madness to assault, be- 
tween Hancock and the other corps and resting on the river. 
The position was so unpromising, that, without venturing 
any general attack, the Army of the Potomac moved south 
once more on the night of the 26th, the Second Corps cover- 
ing the rearand notjstarting until the morning of the 27th, 



COLD HARBOR. 33 I 

The rebels were next encountered intrenched behind the 
Totopotomoy Creek on the 30th. Here there was vigorous 
skirmishing as Lee's position was developed, but the next 
great struggle was at Cold Harbor. 

The loss of the Fifteenth from May 22 to June 1 was two 
killed and ten wounded. The monthly report shows that at 
the end of May there were seven commissioned officers and 
one hundred and thirty-three men present for duty. This 
indicates a loss of about one hundred and thirty for the 
month of May 

The story grows more terrible as we proceed. Every 
line is written in blood. Cold Harbor was a point of 
strategic value, as a meeting place of roads leading to Rich- 
mond on the one hand, and to White House, the base of 
supplies for the Arm} - of the Potomac, on the other. 
Sheridan had occupied it June 1. Later, the Sixth Corps 
and the Eighteenth, called from Butler's Army of the James 
had taken possession. The Second was ordered up as it 
usually was when there was any bloody work on hand. It 
had been so misled that the night of the 1st was passed on 
the march, a night made breathless by the intense heat and 
the dust. The condition of Hancock's troops was such that 
when they did arrive on the morning of the 2d they were 
unfit for an assault, and so it was postponed until the 3d. 
Then Grant's favorite order came for "an attack all along the 
line." The rebels were well intrenched in a strong position, 
with the swamps in front. Just after half-past four the corps 
of Hancock and Wright and Smyth and Warren, supported 
by Burnside, moved forward. This advance took ten 
minutes, and ten thousand men were lost. General Gibbon 
says of the attack made by his division: 

"The country was rolling, in places intersected by ravines 
and marshes, and my line was cut in two by a deep, impassable 
swamp, which widened as we advanced toward the enemy 
The troops pushed gallantly forward under a most terrific fire 
of cannon and musketry until close up to the enemy's works. 



332 THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 

General Tyler fell severely wounded early in the action, but 
his troops pushed on, followed on the right by McKeen, who, 
following his orders, struggled against the heavy fire of the 
enemy until himself and many of his gallant command lay 
dead upon the field, and his ranks were much thinned and 
scattered. The gallant Haskell succeeded to the command, 
and was almost immediately carried from the field mortally 
wounded in a second attempt to rush upon the enemy's works. 
From the 3d to the 12th the division was occupied in 
perfecting its position and pushing forward works toward the 
enemy constantly under fire, both cannon and musketry, day 
and night. • During these twelve days the labor and mil- 
itary duty of the division were of the hardest kind and per- 
formed under the most disadvantageous circumstances — con- 
fined for ten days in narrow trenches with no water to wash 
with and none to drink except that obtained at the risk of 
losing life Subjected to the heat and dust of midsum- 

mer, which soon produced sickness and vermin, the position 
was indeed a trying one, but all bore it cheerfully and con- 
tentedly, constructed covered ways down to the water and 
to the rear, and joked of the hostile bullets as they whistled 
over their heads to find perhaps a less protected target far in 
the rear of the lines. I regard this as having been the most 
trying period of this most trying campaign." 

In concluding his report he especially commends, among 
a few others, Captains Wheelock and Gale. The loss of the 
Fifteenth in killed and wounded was fourteen, between June 
1 and 15. General Byron R. Pierce was made commander 
of the brigade. 

General Grant now determined to change his base, as 
McClellan had done three years before, to the James river. 
This movement for the Fifteenth began on the night of the 
12th. On the 13th, it crossed the Chickahominy, 

Captain Thomas J. Hastings, when the last regimental 
flag was returned to the state, thus described the events 
which led up to its loss: 



THE CAPTURE OF THE REGIMENT. 333 

"On the 14th of June, 1864, the Second Corps being in 
the advance of the Army of the Potomac, crossed on trans- 
ports to the south bank of the James river, and on the next 
day took the road to Petersburg. Late in the evening of 
the day the division of the corps to which the Fifteenth was 
attached, reached the lines before the city After working 
on the intrenchments all night, officers and men waited 
expectantly through the next da}' for the order to assault. 
This order never came, but on the 17th and 18th, heavy but 
unsuccessful assaults were made on the now strongly manned 
works. These assaults, historians of the war, say, mark the 
end of a system of tactics which had made the campaign 
from the Wilderness to the lames, the bloodiest in the 
annals of the war. 

"Thenceforward direct assaults on fortified positions 
were to be rare. The strategy which nine months later was 
crowned with success, of reaching out to the left to cut the 
southern communications of the rebel army, was to begin. 
And in this movement the Second Corps, as was usual in 
important movements up to this time, took the lead. My 
diary says that on Monday, June 20, we were relieved by the 
Sixth Corps, and moved to the rear about two miles. I re- 
call that a rumor, which veteran soldiers will recognize as of 
familiar sound, spread through the ranks of the regiment 
that the corps was now to be held in reserve, to rest and re- 
cruit after its months of arduous and wasting service. Alas, 
to most of our gallant boys, rest was only to come amid the 
horrors of rebel prison pens, or in graves under the gloomy 
pines of Andersonville. 

"June 21, we moved about four miles toward the Weldon 
railroad, skirmishing by the way. At nightfall intrenching 
was begun near the Jerusalem plank road, and continued 
until two o'clock in the morning of June 22. At this hour 
we moved out to the skirmish line. It was in a swamp, 
covered with a thicket of undergrowth so dense that even in 
the light of the morning sun one could scarcely see from 



334 THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 

flank to flank of our little battalion, numbering now less than 
a hundred men. On this line a shallow rifle pit had been 
dug in the black, peaty muck. Daylight discovered a clear- 
ing in the front, and the enemy s works closely fronting us, 
on high ground, completely dominating the position. From 
these works a w.orrying fire of pickets and sharpshooters was 
constantly kept up. Lieutenant-Colonel I. Harris Hooper 
was in command of the regiment. 

"The colors were borne by Sergeant C. H. Bartlett of 
Company F, now of North Brookfield. At about two p m. 
orders came from the brigadier commanding to hold the 
position at all hazards. Our eyes were strained to the front 
for the onslaught of the foe with whom the expected strug- 
gle was to come. But suddenly, without warning, except 
the discredited reports of a few men straggling in from the 
left, a considerable force of the enemy appeared in our rear. 
General, afterwards United States Senator Mahone, one of 
the most enterprising and skillful of Lee's lieutenants, had 
seen from his vantage ground a place where the Union lines 
failed to meet. It appears like the old story of somebody's 
blunder. Through this open gate the watchful and untiring 
rebel chief pushed his men, and sent them swarming down 
from the left in our rear. With the enemy in front, flank 
and rear, surrender was inevitable. The tattered shot-rid- 
dled flag was seized by hostile hands, and the eventful his- 
tory of the Fifteenth as a regimental organization was ended." 

When the surrender of this remnant of the regiment was 
seen to be a matter of necessity, Color-bearer Bartlett hid 
the flag in a ditch, hoping to save it; and after the surrender 
he endeavored to creep back, thinking he might escape with 
it to the rear. Being detected, and asked what he was after, 
he replied that he was searching for a blanket; he was im- 
mediately hurried along with his captured comrades, the flag 
being subsequently found by the Confederates, who kept it 
nearly thirty years. 

"First Sergeant George F. Barnard of Company D was 



THOSE WHO DIED FROM DISEASE. 335 

killed here. A man of massive build and indomitable cour- 
age, the service that he rendered to his regiment and his 
country from Ball's Bluff to Petersburg can scarcely be over- 
estimated. He passed through all the previous battles of 
the regiment without serious harm and he fell, literally, with 
his face to the foe, on the fatal day when the colors of the 
regiment he served so well went down in disaster." Four 
officers and some sixty-five men were captured; six, who 
were on the right of the regiment escaped, among them 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hooper, but he was wounded shortly 
after. 

Although the history of the regiment as an active organi- 
zation in the field ended on the 22d of June, we must follow 
briefly the story of the various groups into which the members 
were divided until they were finally mustered out. First, 
however, we must give the names of those who had sacrificed 
their lives. 

Xo list of those who had died from disease since the be- 
ginning of the \ntietam campaign has yet been given, but 
one after another, often without the knowledge of their com- 
rades, they had passed silently away The following is the 
list as far as it can be perfected: 

Company A — Francis L. Lander, Jan. 15, '63; John G. 
Snow. Dec. 12, '62; David Welsh, July 9, '64; William L. 
Whitney, Nov 14, '62. 

Company B — Sylvanus Doane, Dec. 24, '62; Thomas 
Scolly, March 19, '64; George J. Spooner, Dec. 27. '62, 

Company C — William Eccles, Jan. 4, '63; John Smith, 
date unknown; Egbert M. Stevens, Feb. S, '63. 

Company D — William Finch, March 24, '64; Joseph Free- 
man, Nov. 22, '63; Edson T. Leland, Sept. 12/62; Charles 
H. Nichols, July 2, '64. 

Company E — Owen Tonar, Feb. 26, '64. 

Company F— John A. Hughes, May 16, '63; Albert W 
Livermore, Jan. 18, '63. 

Company G — Corp. Gilbert E. Balcolm, Dec. 12, '62; 
Henry S. Ball, Dec. 7, '62; William Robins, Sept. 8, '63. 



$$6 THE FINAL CAMl'AICN. 

Company H— John T. Bixby Sept. 12, '63; Dexter Brown, 
Dec. 16/62; William J Cole, May 10, '64; James F Dunn, 
Feb. 7/63; Timothy Kenned}', Nov. 4/62; Nathaniel Put- 
nam, Oct. 10, '62. 

Company I— Corp. Thomas Blasland, Dec. 25, '63; Corp. 
Joseph Holland, Nov. 21, '62; Alpheus Remick, Feb. 27/64; 
James Smith, July 14, '64. 

Company K — Sergt. \Y Henry Freeman, April 8, '63; 
James Burns, Sept. 9, '63; John F Tozier, April 2", '64. 

Unassigned — Lysander Martin, June 19, '63, Jeremiah 
Sullivan, Dec. 19, '63. 

During the seven weeks in which the Fifteenth partici- 
pated as an organization in the campaign of May and June, 
1864, thirty-seven of its members were killed or mortally 
wounded. This loss must have been fully twenty-five per 
cent, of the average number present for duty. This remark- 
able per cent, of loss, so far excelling that of all other 
campaigns in which the Fifteenth had taken part, gives evi- 
dence of the terrible nature of the struggle and the grand 
heroism with which the regiment performed every duty- 
allotted to it. 

Soldiers of the Fifteenth killed or mortally wounded May 
and June, 1864: 

Comoany A — Sergt. George E. Wilder, May 16/64; Corp. 
Nelson T. Batherie, June 30, '64; Corp. Joseph M. Howe, 
May 12/64; Corp. William Kelley, June 19/64: Charles Ack- 
erman, Nov. n/64; John Morrissey, Feb. 16/64. 

Company B — Corp. Horace T Pope, May 15/64; Thomas 
J. Peckham, June 3, '64; Edward M. Stone, June 3, '64. 

Company C — Sergt. Lafayette Worden, June 15, '64, 
James A. Bonney. May 31, '64; John H. Cowan, May 25, '64; 
Sumner R. Kilburn, June 16, '64. 

Company D — First Sergt. George E. Barnard, June 22, '64; 
Coru. William H. Bergen, July 11/64; Albert Megan, July 
28, '64. 

Company E — Corp. George S. Williams, Ma}' 13, '64; 



THE KILLED AND MORTALLY WOUNDED. 337 

George P Davis, Ma)- 8, '64; Henry Konch, May 31/64; 
Bernard Schmidt, May S, '64; Felix Sherbino, May 8, '64; 
George Shortsleeve, June 5, '64. 

Company F — Corp. William A. Mullett, May 23, '64; Corp. 
Elliot H. Robbins, July 15, '64. 

Company G — Sergt. Abner H. Rice, May 5, '64; Curtis 
Cady. June 3, '64; Joseph Bonner, May 6, '64; James Perry. 
Ma)- 6/64; C. A. Rockwood, May 31/64. 

Company H- -Sergt. Edward R. Harrington, July 30, '64; 
Corp. John F Butters, May 12, '64. 

Company I — Sergt. William H. Palmer, May 6, '64; Mer- 
rick L. Clark, May 12, '64; John Smith, July 14/64. 

Company K— Lieut. George B. Simonds, May 10, '64; 
Alonzo M. Jones, June 5, '64. 

On the 22d of June, 1864, from eighty to one hundred 
members of the Fifteenth were in hands of the rebels. This 
number included not only those who had just been captured, 
but others who were taken at Robertson's Tavern in the 
Wilderness and elsewhere. 

Lieutenant Thomas J. Hastings thus relates his own ex- 
perience and that of the three other commissioned officers 
captured, Captain James May, Lieutenants William J. Coul- 
ter and George O. Wilder: 

" We bivouacked two nights near Petersburg. Friday, 
the 24th, the captured officers were taken by rail to Libby 
prison. Here our money was taken from us. I turned over 
to the prison authorities the fund of two hundred dollars and 
fifty-two cents, which I held as regimental treasurer. After 
the fall of Richmond I received this, and in the summer of 
1865 had the satisfaction of handing it to Captain Leonard 
Wood, the then treasurer of the regimental association. We 
stayed at Libby till the 29th, when all the captured of the 
22d inst., were taken by rail to Lynchburg. From this place 
we marched by easy stages to Danville, Virginia, reaching 
there July 4. Captain Adams, now sergeant-at-arms at the 
Massachusetts legislature, then a youthful officer of the 



33^ THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 

Nineteenth .Massachusetts, was with us, and his exuberant 
spirits seemed proof against the worst that misfortune and 
hardship could do. On this march some of the prisoners 
escaped, notably that tried and trust}- soldier, Sergeant A. 
B. Yeomans of Company E. From Danville we were taken 
in box cars to Macon, Georgia, arriving there July 10. We 
were turned into a stockade already crowded with over fifteen 
hundred Union officers, a sorry looking set. Many of them 
were officers of the First Corps, captured at Gettysburg a 
year before. We could get no shelter from sun or rain. 
Jul}- 22, Kilpatrick's raiders, for some time held in close con- 
finement, came in from Richmond. July 30, there was much 
excitement in the stockade and discussion of plans for a 
break for liberty caused by Stoneman's raid, which reached 
a point one and one-half miles from the city, where most 
of the command were captured. August I, General Stone- 
man and forty of his officers were brought in. August 13, 
the last of the Macon prisoners left for Charleston, ostensibly 
to be put under the fire of our guns, which were then shelling 
the city. At Charleston we were quartered in the work-house 
and the jail-yard adjoining. The rations here were mostly 
of rice, very inferior in quality but ample in quantity. I find 
noted in my diary that on September 27 a piece of shell 
struck the prison. This was the only tangible reminder we 
had of being under fire. In the autumn yellow fever broke 
out in the prisons. Immediate removal being then necessary 
we were taken, October 6, to the famous Camp Sorghum, 
near Columbia, South Carolina. Here we were turned into 
an open, desolate pasture, with no provision whatever for 
shelter. For a few hours each day the lines were extended 
so that the men could go to an adjoining woodland for fuel, 
boughs and logs. Thus the strong and efficient were soon 
able to build huts or booths in some degree comfortable. 
The sick and the weak had to suffer and endure as they 
could. The climate of the highlands of South Carolina is 
cool, and as winter approached there was much suffering in 



THE PRISONERS. 339 

camp. As early as October 23 it was cold enough to freeze 
water. Escape was easy, but most of us were too ragged or 
shoeless or weak from illness to try it. Nearly all who did 
go were, sooner or later, brought back. 

"On December 12, the prisoners were moved up to the 
city to quarters on the asylum grounds, where barracks were 
soon provided. Here we stayed till February 14, when the 
approach of Sherman's army caused another move, this time 
towards the North, and, as it proved, for exchange. We 
passed into our lines free men at Fisher's Bridge, eight miles 
from Wilmington, North Carolina, at nine A. m. on Wednes- 
day, March I, 1865." 

The story of the enlisted men coincides with that of the 
commissioned officers until they reached Danville, except 
in that they spent July 26-29 at Belle Isle, instead of Libby 
Andrew B. Veomans made his escape July 1, just after leav- 
ing Lynchburg. The following day, Alvan A. Simonds and 
Roland E. Bowen got away from the guards. After suffer- 
ing many hardships and passing through many thrilling ad- 
ventures all these reached the Union lines. 

From Danville, the main body of the prisoners was 
marched on to Andersonville, where they met several mem- 
bers of the regiment who had already been suffering there 
for months. The diary of Sergeant S. W Armington of 
Company D, contains the record in the closing days of 
August. "All the members of the Fifteenth are here with 
us now " It is not our purpose to tell of the horrors these 
men endured; the exposure, without protection, to drenching 
rains and burning suns; the guards watching so sharply for 
the first victim who should approach the death line; the 
garments tattered, sometimes wholly lost or discarded; the 
emaciated bodies, covered with filth and vermin, because the 
men were too weak to take care of themselves; the foul 
water, each draught of which meant hastened death; the 
vile food, rotten and full of worms; the men sometimes los- 
ing all human semblance, and becoming drivelling idiots or 



3_} (J T1IH FINAL CAMPAIGN. 

ravenous wild beasts in the fierceness of their hunger tear- 
ing the food from the lips of starving comrades. When we 
see how man)' of these men died and how man)', who 
were released have since been carried to early graves by the 
diseases they incurred, we can faintly realize something of 
their sufferings. 

Soldiers from the Fifteenth who died in prison: 

Company B — Peter Christenson, Andersonville, Jul)' 15, 
'64; Anson P Peckham, Andersonville, Aug. 22/64; Robert 
O'Brien, Charleston, S. C, '64. 

Company C — Corp. Charles L. Shaw, Andersonville, Dec. 
19, '64; Corp. David O. Wallace, prison at Florence, S. C, 
Feb. 4, '65; Joseph Clegg, Richmond, Va., Feb. 28, '64; James 
Coates, Andersonville, Oct. 11, '64. 

Company D — First Sergt. Benjamin Taft, Salisbury, N C, 
Jan. 15,' 65; Warren H. Alger, Andersonville, Aug. 14, '64; 
Joseph Copeland, Andersonville, Dec. 21, '64; Francis W 
Eaton, Andersonville, Sept. 29, '64; John Givan, Anderson- 
ville, Oct. 6, '64; Charles A. Gleason, Milan, Ga., Nov. 8, 
'64; Alfred M. Goodwin, Salisbury, N. C, Sept. 1/64; George 
B. Newcomb, Andersonville, Aug. 27, '64. 

Company E — Corp. Joseph E. Fellows, Andersonville, 
March 29, '65; Herbert N. Fuller, Andersonville, Feb. 20, '65; 
William Gannett, Andersonville, Oct. 6, '64; John Grob, An- 
dersonville, Sept. 9, '64. 

Company F — Harrison Moulton, Jan. 25, '65. 

Company G — Donald A. Campbell, Andersonville, Feb. 
16/65; Michael Dugan, Andersonville; Henry A. Frissle, 
Richmond, Va., March 7, '64; William Hart, Andersonville, 
Sept. 6, '64; Walter H. Stetson, Andersonville, Aug. 22, '64. 

Company H — Corp. Andrew W Garside, in prison at 
Milan, Nov 15/64; John J. O'Connell, Andersonville, Nov. 
27/64; Frederick Pontius, Andersonville, Oct. 17/64; James 
Quinn, Andersonville, July 29, '64. 

Company I — William F Converse, date and place un- 
known; Daniel Guilfoyle, Salisbury. N. C, Dec. 15, '65; 



HOME ONCE MORE. 34I 

Patrick Mulvany, Andersonville, Dec. 10, '64; William 
Sigil, Richmond, Va., Feb. 17, '64; Antoine Phillips, Ander- 
sonville; William Streidell, Richmond, Va., Feb. 17, '64; 
Patrick Sullivan, Andersonville, Aug. 1 1, '64, William M. 
Trescott, Andersonville, Sept. 6, '64. 

Company K — Charles Clark, Salisbury, N. C, Dec. 21, 
'64; Thomas Waif, Andersonville, Aug. 2/64; Joseph White, 
Andersonville, Aug. 2, '64. 

Those on duty who escaped capture June 22, and the few 
who returned from the hospitals, or from detached service, 
were assigned temporarily to another command. The mem- 
bers of Company I as a whole, since their term of service did 
not expire until August 5, and all those who had enlisted 
later than Jul)- 12, 1861, except under General Order 28, and 
those who had reenlisted were for some two weeks following 
July 12, 1864, set apart as the Fifteenth Battallion, and as 
soon as arrangements could be perfected, transferred to the 
Twentieth. The story of their service in that regiment is 
briefly told after the Individual Record. 

From the various hospitals, from different points of de- 
tached service and to some slight extent from the field, all 
those who remained members of the Fifteenth on the 12th 
of July, 1864, and were not kept back by captivity or physi- 
cal inability, joyfully prepared to return to their homes. 
Some eighty-five men were all that could be gathered at 
this time. This was only about five per cent, of the total 
number who had belonged to the regiment. Perhaps as 
many more were mustered out during the following year, 
individually or in squads, as their condition enabled them 
to leave the hospitals, as they were released from prison 
or as their term of service in the Twentieth and other or- 
ganizations to which they had been transferred, expired. 

The little remnant of the regiment, composed in a con- 
siderable measure of men who were still weak from disease 
or wounds, reached Worcester on the 21st of July. On 
the following day a reception was tendered to the regiment 



342 THE LAST CAMPAIGN. 

by the city, in which every citizen did his utmost to honor 
the returning heroes. 

Premising that the regiment was mustered out with little 
formality, one week later, on the 28th of July, let us close 
with the words in which Governor John A. Andrew, at this 
reception, expressed the gratitude of the state to her sons, 
who had so nobly served in her behalf. 

"Mr, Comtnander and Soldiers of the Fifteenth. 

"The heart of the Commonwealth speaks the affection 
and gratitude of her people as no words can speak, or head 
can think. For three years of war, stretching from the 
upper waters of the Potomac, your long and wearied march 
down athwart the fields laid waste by the havoc of battle to 
the James; returning thence, marching and countermarching 
ever — now tasting the rebuffs of war, now charging with un- 
diminished valor, though with decimated ranks, wherever 
commands pointed the soldiers' way or foeman invited their 
coming; with victory perching on your banners and death 
leaping from your bayonets, the Fifteenth at last returns, 
their term of service ended, leaving the proud, victorious 
eastern army of the republic lying only in rest a moment, 
that it ma)' march to still higher triumphs and strike from 
the heart of Massachusetts to the heart of the rebellion. 

"The people have spoken for themselves. These crowded 
thoroughfares, these house-tops lined with mothers, sisters 
and daughters of your people, waving welcome to the return- 
ing soldier boy. these crowded fields, where beneath the 
monumental record of the fame of the old Fifteenth they 
come to grasp you by the hand, speak ten thousand times 
more eloquent words of greeting than human speech can 
utter, for the old Commonwealth. Soldiers of the Fifteenth, 
with inexpressible emotion of pride and gratitude, in her be- 
half and as her representative, I greet your coming, I give 
praise to your valor, I laud your patriotism, I record the 
virtues of the citizen and the soldier, which in the history of 



GRATITUDE OF THE STATE. 343 

your regiment is graven impenetrably on the recollection of 
mankind. 

"There has been no nobler name, there has been no 
brighter fame than this, and I know not now whether to 
envy most the throbbing hearts of the fathers, brothers and 
sons returning once more to the fond embrace of those at 
home, or the beatified joy of the spirits of those who, 
ascending from the din of the fight, have borne up upon the 
wings of their patriotism their love and devotion to their 
holy duty to hallowed spheres on high. 

"To you we give the fond grasp of affectionate embrace; 
to you, the survivors of the Fifteenth, we extend the escort, 
the salute, the pledge of gratitude. Over the unmarked 
graves of those fallen, but forever risen heroes, we shed the 
faithful tear of memory; we bear to them forever in our 
hearts all honor and fame. For them the strife is over, 
the storm has ceased, the struggle ended, but soldiers, both 
your names and theirs, borne upon the rolls of the glorious 
Fifteenth Regiment, will be read in after times with equal 
honor and with equal gratitude. The death they tasted you 
have dared, the victory for which they have shed their blood 
your valor has helped to win." 



INDIVIDUAL RECORD 



In order that as many facts as possible may be stated within certain 
fixed limits, the utmost condensation and abbreviation has been at- 
tempted. All the enlisted men of the regiment were mustered July 12 
and the officers August i, 1861, unless otherwise stated. The line officers 
in general were taken into the service of the United States July 12, i861, 
although their muster into office was delayed. July 27, 1864, was the 
date of the transfer to the Twentieth of those whose terms of service had 
not expired and of those who had reenlisted. July 28, 1864, was the date 
of the expiration of service of the original members of the Fifteenth 
who did not reenlist; July 16, 1865, the date on which the members of 
the Twentieth coming from the Fifteenth were mustered out. These 
dates will not be repeated. 

B. B., signifies Battle of Ball's Bluff, October 21, 1861; F O., Battle 
of Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862; Ant., Battle of Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862; 
Gett., Battle of Gettysburg, July 2-3, 1863; Dec. 13-16, First Battle of 
Fredericksburg; May 3, 1863, Second Battle of Fredericksburg; Oct. 14, 
1863, Battle of Bristoe Station; Nov. 27, 1863, Battle of Robertson's Tav- 
ern; May 6, Battle of the Wilderness; May 10 and 12, Battle of Spottsyl- 
vania; June 3, Battle of Cold Harbor; June 22, 1864, signifies the Battle 
of Petersburg or Weldon Railroad. 

In addition to the usual abbreviations for special words the following 
are employed: p., private; b., birthplace; res., residence; cr. credited 
to; s., single; m., married; m. i., mustered in; m. o., mustered out; re., 
resigned and honorably discharged; dis., discharged for disability; des., 
deserted; reen., reenlisted; tr., transferred; V.R.C., V'eteran Reserve 
Corps; U.S.C.T., United States Colored Troops; sub., substitute for a 
drafted man; d., died; k., killed; wd., wounded. A number standing 
alone refers to age at date of mustering in. G. O. 28, was the General 
Order by which men enlisted for the remainder of the term of service of 
the original members of the regiment. 

For Field and Staff Officers, see pages 7-8. 



COMPANY A. 345 

COMPANY A. 
The members of this company were natives : and citizens of Leom- 
inster, and were credited to that town unless it is otherwise stated in each 
particular. For the history of the company before the date of muster 
see pages 15-20. 

George W Rockwood, capt. Co. A to Jan. 25, '63; b. Charlton; 38; m.; 

painter; pris. B. B.; ex. Jan. io, '63; com. 15th Reg't in Jan., '63; re. 

Jan. 25, '63; served as 1st sergt., 4th H. A., Aug. 20, '64-m. o. June 

17, '65. 
Hans P Jorgensen (Jorgensen), 1st sergt.: b. Copenhagen, Denmark; 30; 

s.; piano-maker: 2d lieut. Oct. 22, '61 [see Cos.;D and K]; 1st lieut. 

July 19,' 62; capt. Oct. 28, '62; recruiting officer, Worcester; com. Co. 

A June 13-Dec. 29, '62 and as capt. March 22, '63-July 2, '63; wd. B. 

B.; k. Gett. 
David M. Earle. See Co. F Capt. Co. A Dec. 23, '63-June 4, '64, on det. 

serv. 
Henry T. Dudley. See Co. G. Com. Co. A April 17, 26, June 18, '63, tem- 
porarily, and Sept. 1, '63-June 27, '64; capt. Co. A June 4,' 64. 



Joseph M. Goddard. See Co. B. Com. Co. A Jan. 21-June 12, '62. 
Charles H. Stevens, sergt.; b. Bellerica; 26; m.; cabinet-maker; 1st sergt. 

Jan. 1, '62; 2d lieut. July 19, '62: 1st lieut. Nov. 21, '62; capt. July 4, 

'63; com. Co. A Dec. 30, '62-Mar. 21, '63 [see Co. ij; wd. F. O., Gett., 

B. S.; d. Oct. 15, '63, wds. B. S. 
George O. Wilder. See Co. C. 1st lieut.; ass. Co. A June 4, '64. 
Leonard Wood, 1st lieut.; 30: m.; butcher; com. Co. A Oct. 22-Dec. 4, 

'61; capt. Oct. 22, '61; m. Dec. 19, '62; det. Gen. Sedgwick's staff; see 

Co. K; dis. Jan. 16, '63. 

George W. Brown, p; 21; s; farmer; sergt. Jan. 1, '62; 1st sergt. July 19, 
'62; 2d lieut. Nov. 21, '62; m. March 1, '63; tr. Co. E April 10, '63; 
1st lieut. March 19, '63; capt. July 30, '63; com. Co. A April 4-7, 8, 
'63, in absence of Capt. Jorgensen. (See Cos. E and K.) Com. 15th 
Regt. Feb. n-March 28, '64; m. o. 

Frank W Polley, 2d lieut.; 20; s.; shoemaker; com. Co. A Dec. 5, '61- 
Jan. 20, '62; re. Jan. 16, '62; served .as sergt. 4th H. A. Aug. 20/64- 
June 17, '65. 

Fordyce May, p.; b. unknown, res. cr. Sterling; 23; s.; farmer; Corp. Oct. 

29, '62; sergt. June 1, '63; 1st sergt. Oct. 1, '63; pris. B. B.; wd. May 11, 

'64; m. o. 
John M. Robbins, Corp.; 24; s.; carpenter: sergt. July 19, '62; 1st sergt. 

Mar. 21, '63; pris. B. B.: tr. V.R.C. Sept. 15/63; reen. July 1, '64: m. 

0. Oct. 24, '66. 

A. Everett Brown, sergt.; 26; m.; comb-maker; dis. June 26, '62. 

Frederick L. Hildreth, corp.; b. Westford; res., cr. Groton; 20; s.; bag- 
gage-master; sergt. Aug. 1, '61; dis. May 18, '62. 

Reuben M. Holman, sergt.; b. Lunenburg; 41; m.; carpenter; dis. Oct. 
29, '62. 

Edward B. Rollins, p.; b. Montpelier, Vt.; 33; m.; carpenter; corp, Jan. 

1, '62: sergt. July 1, '62; k. Gett. 

33 



346 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Thomas B. Ross, p.; b. Providence, R. I.; 23; m.; sailor; corp. June i, 
'62; sergt. Nov. 1/62; pris. B. B.; wd. head Ant.; wd. Gett.; dis. 
Feb. 27, '64. 

William H. Savage, p.; b. Weston; res., cr. Harvard; m. i. Aug. i,'6i; 
29; m.; farmer; corp. June i, '62; sergt. Nov. 21, '62; wd. Gett., back; 
dis. May 13, '64; enl. Feb. 27, '65, 1st U. S. Art. 

Herbert D. Taylor, p.; b. West Troy, N.Y., res., cr. Sterling; 19; s.; shoe- 
maker; corp. June 6, '63; sergt. Sept. 1/63; wd. Gett.; pris. June 22, 
'64; ex. Mar. 1, '65; m. o. May 29. '65. 

John Tripp, p.; b. Lowell; 18; s.; farmer; corp. Nov. 21, '62; sergt. Sept. 
1, '63; wd. head, Gett.; pris. May 11, '64; d. March 19, '65. 

William C. Wheelock, sergt.; b. Clinton; 22; m.; comb-maker; dis. Aug. 
25, '61. 

George E. Wilder, p.; 19; s.; clerk; corp. Oct. 21, '62; sergt. Feb. 26, '64; 
wd. Dec. 14, '62; wd. side May 11, '64; d. wds. May t6, '64. 



Nelson T. Batherie, p.; b. Lunenburg, res. cr. Ashby; m. i. Mar. 18, '62; 

32: s.; mechanic; corp. Mar. 26, '64; reen. Mar. 26, '64; wd. June 9, 

'64; d. wds. June 30, '64. 
Lucien A. Cook, p.; 22; s.; comb-maker; corp. June 1, '62; pris. Ant.; 

dis. Dec. 30, '62; served 1st brig, band 81st U. S. C. T.; dis. July 20, 

•65. 
Andrew W. Cowdrey, corp.; 27; m.: carpenter; d. Nov. 4, '61, wds. B. B. 
William Curtis, p.; b. Worcester, res. cr. Holliston; m.i. Aug. 12, '62; 16; 

s.; shoemaker; corp. Nov. 1, '62; m. o. 
Franklin Gardner, p.; b. Sterling; 19; s.; painter; corp. Aug. 1, '61; wd. 

both thighs Ant.; d. wds. Oct. 6, '62. 
Joseph M. Howe, p.; b. res. cr. Princeton; 19; s.; farmer; corp. Oct. 1/63; 

wd. May 11,64; d. wds. May 12, '64. 
Richard L. Jewell, p.; b. Webster, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 7, '62; 

18; s.; farmer; corp. Jan. 1, '64; wd. May '64; m. o. July 28, '64; O. 28. 
Henry Joy, corp.; 23; s.; painter: tr. Western Flotilla Feb. 17, '62; dis. 

Oct. 28, '63. 
William Kelley, p.: b. Ireland, res. cr. Webster; 18; s.: operative; corp. 

Jan. 1, '64; m. a. Gett.; d. wds. June. 19, '64. 
Charles A. Lamb, corp.; 23; s.; cabinet-maker; pris. B. B.; d. Dec, '61. 
Francis A. Lewis, p; b. res. cr. Sterling; 21; s.; farmer; corp. June 1/63 

k. Gett. 
William D. Oakley, p.: b. Sturbridge, res. cr. Worcester; m.i. Aug. 3,61 

20; s.; teamster; corp. June 6. '63; k. Gett. 
George H. Stevens, p.; Aug. 6, 61; 18; s.; butcher; b., res., cr. Oxford 

corp. Nov. 21, '62; pris. Gett.; wd. May '64; m. o. 
Edwin L. Wilder, p.; 20; s.; comb-maker: corp. date unknown; voluntarily 

gave up warrant; m. o. July 28, '64. 
Horatio Willard, corp.; b. Ashburnham; m. i. July 24, '61; 25; m.; cabinet- 
maker; des. April io, '62. 
Frank E. Colburn, wagoner; 29; m.; comb-maker; m. o. 
Andrew W Ellis, musician; b. Ware, res. cr. Marlboro; 13; s.; student; 

des. Jan. 22, '64. 
John D. Kane, musician; b. East Troy, N. Y., res. cr. Worcester; m. i. 

July 9, '62; tr. Co. D; tr. 20th; m. o. June 8, '64; o. w. d. 
Gilman F Moore, musician; 26: m.; b. Marlboro; dis. April 25, '62, 



company a. 347 

Privates. 

Charles Ackermann; b. Germany, cr. Harwich, res. unknown; sub.; m. i. 

July 30, '63; 40; s.; carpenter; wd. back May 11, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, 

as ab. wd.; d. wds. Nov. 11, '64. 
Andrew Adams, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Barre; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 21; s.; drayman; des. Aug. 21, '63. 
John Adams, b. England, res. Beverly, cr. Wenham; sub.; m. i. Aug. 1, 

'63; 29; m.; machinist; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. 
Edward Alexander, b. Nova Scotia, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. 

July 18, '63; 25; machinist; des. Aug. 21, '63. 
John Alfred, b. Norway, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 5, '63; 36; m.; 

tr. navy May io, '64. 
Ethan Allen, b. res. cr. Millbury; 19; s.; groom; m. i. July 27, '61; reen. 

Jan. 30, '64; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. 
Thomas Anderson, b. New Brunswick, res. Chicago, cr. Boston; 20; s.; 

sailor; sub.; m. i. July 22, '63; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
Thomas Andrews, b. Ireland, res. Canada, cr. Ashburnham; sub.; 23; 

s.; sailor; m. i. July 30, '63; des. Aug. 21, '63. 
Charles H. Arnold, b. Cnarlestown, res., cr. Melrose; m. i. May 14. '64; 

32; m.; painter; pris. June 22, '64; enl. C.S.A.; captured and enl. U. S. 

Vol. Apr. 14, '65; tr. Co. E. 20th, m. o. as pris. 
Paul Anstie, b. England, res. Canada West, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 

5. '63; 39; m.; clerk; tr. V.R.C. Mar. 2, '64; d. Feb. 13, '65. 
Francis E. Bacon, b. Oxford, res., cr. Worcester; m. i. Mar. 4, '62; 20; s.; 

student; dis. Apr. 2, '63, to accept promotion; 2d lieut. I02d N.Y.V 
Louis Bandin, b. France, res. New York City, cr. Beverly; sub,; m. i. 

Aug. 5, '63; 30; m.; shoemaker: des. Apr. 16, '64. 
Peter Bard, b. Canada, res. Shelburne, cr. Buckland; sub.; 28; m.; me- 
chanic; m. i. July 28, '63; pris. June 22, '64; tr. 20th as ab.; m. o. 
Edward Bartlett, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Amherst; sub.; 29; s.; 

farmer; m. i. July 28, '63; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. det. serv. 
James F Bartlett, b. Nelson, N. H.; 22; s.; farmer; dis. date unknown; 

served as 1st sergt. Co. F, 57th regt. Feb. 18, '64-July 30, '65. 
Charles H. Barton, b. Millbury, res., cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 4, '61 ; 26; 

s.; shoemaker; wd. May 3, '63; tr. 20th, det. serv; m. o. July 31, '64. 
Eugene A. Bennett, 18; s.; comb-maker; dis. Feb. 3, '63; reen. 4th Cav. 

March 23, '64; m. o. June 9, '65. 
Stephen S. Bennett, b., res., cr. Fitchburg; m. i. Apr. 2, '62; 30; m.; painter; 

wd. thigh Ant.; tr. 20th. 
John Benson, b. Sweden, res. Liverpool, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 31,63; 

•28; s.: sailor; tr. navy Apr. 23, '64. 
Frank C. Benton, b. West Newbury; 22; s.; tanner; wd. wrist B. B.; dis. 

Aug. 4, '62. 
Edward S. Betterley, b. Jaffrey, N. H., res., cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 6, 

'61; 29; m.: pedler; tr. 20th, det. serv.; m. o. Aug. 5. '64. 
John Bock. See Rock. 
Calvin Bond, b. Belchertown, res., cr. Charlton; m. i. Mar. 20, '62; 34; m.; 

shoemaker; wd. Gett; tr. V.R.C. Dec. 25, '63; dis. Apr. 15/64. 
James H. Bond, b. Southbridge, res., cr. Charlton; m, i. Aug. 14, '62; 27; 

farmer; wd. shoulder Gett.; dis. Aug. 20, '64. 
Stephen P. Bond, b. Southbridge, res., cr. Charlton; m. i. Mar. 20, '62; 24; 

m.; shoemaker; dis. Dec. 25/62. 
Sandforth Botham, b. Windsor, Ct., res., cr. Hardwick; m. i. July 31, '61; 

18; s.; farmer; wd. wrist Ant.; dis. Dec. 17/62. 



348 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

William Brewster, b. Canada, res. Salem, cr. Lynn: sub.; m. i. Aug. n, 

'63; 22; s.; bar-tender; pris. June 22, '64; tr., m. o. 20th as ab. sick. 
Edward N. Brierly, b., res. unknown, cr. Wenham; sub.; m. i. July 30,'63; 

24; s.; carpenter; des. Aug. 21, '63. 
Charles T. Brown, b. Lynn; 36; m., shoemaker; dis. Nov. 4, '62. 
George Brown, b. Nova Scotia, res. unknown, cr. Yarmouth: sub.; m. i. 

July 30, '63; 26; s.; sailor; tr. navy Apr. 23, '64. 
James S. Brown, b. New Hampshire; 18; s.; spinner; dis. Jan. 17, '63. 
Robert Brown, b.Hookset, N.H.; 34; m., blacksmith; dis. Mar. 26, '63. 
John Bruce, b. Rockland, Me., res. Oldtown, Me., cr. Dorchester; sub.; 

m.i. July 30, '63; 23; s.; farmer; des. Aug. 21, '63. 
William Bruce, b. Scotland, res, unknown, cr. Provincetown; sub.; m.i. 

July 29, '63; 34; s.; laborer; dis. Jan. 12, '64. 
Henry L. Burnell.b.Townsend, res.cr. Shirley; 19; s.; blacksmith; tr. Batt. 

I, 1st U. S. L. Art., Nov. 18, '62; m. o. June 25, '64. 
William R. Bryne, b. New York City, res. Kingston, cr. Sandwich; sub.; 

m. i. July 30, '63; 30; m.; sailor; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
Osgood J. Bugbee, b. Worcester; 26; s.; boot-treer; dis. Mar. 1, '62. 
William Burns, b. res. Canada, cr. Amherst; sub.; m.i. July 30, '63; 21 ; s.; 

trunk-maker; tr. navy, April 23, '64. 
David Burt, b. Philadelphia, res. Westfield, cr. Athol; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 27; s.; tanner; tr., m. o. Co. E, 20th, as absent sick. 
John S. Carlton, b. Sedgwick, Me., res. cr. Sterling; 23; s.; shoemaker: 

dis. April 25, '62. 
Eugene H. Carpenter, b. res. cr. Brookfield; m. i. April 1, '62; 21 ; s.; shoe- 
maker; dis. Sept. 29, '62. 
Frederick W Chaffin, b. Walpole, res. cr. Holden: 29; s.; teamster; 

dis. Dec. 15, '61. 
Charles A. Colburn, m. i. Nov. 20, '61; 24; m.; hostler; tr. V R. C. Mar. 

15/64; m. o. Nov. 19, '64. 
Franklin C. Colburn, b. Dracut, res. cr. Grafton; m. i. Aug. 23, '62; 28; 

shoemaker; reen. March 21, '64; des. May 12, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th. 
Harvey Conant, tr. from Co. D (see Co. D.); dis. Jan. 7, '63. 
George M. Cook, b. Belchertown, res. cr. Worcester; m.i. July 23, '61 ; 20, 

s.; maker musical instruments; tr. V.R.C. Feb. 20/64; rn. o. July 21; 

'64. 
Charles M.Coolidge, b. res. cr. Westminster; 26; lawyer; dis. Dec. 15, '61. 
Alexander S. Cooper, b. England, res. cr. Warwick; m.i. July 15, '61; 36; 

m.; currier; dis. May 1/62. 
John H. Crain, b. Westminster; 24; m.; machinist; dis. Dec. 15, '63. 
George D. Critchett, b. Boston, res. cr. Andover; 20; s.; brakeman; -wd. 

Dec. 15,' 62; dis. April 21, '63. 
Charles G. Crosby, b. Boston; m. i. Aug. 14, '62; 30; m.; mechanic; dis. 

Feb. 13, '63. 
Michael Curdy (Cuddy), b. Ireland, res. cr. Sterling; m. i. Aug. 12, '62; 30; 

farmer; tr. V.R.C. Nov. 24/62; dis. April 10/63. 
George B. Damon, 18; s.; farmer; dis. April 25, '62. 
Thomas H. Davidson, b. Stow, res. cr. Lancaster; 25; s.; miller; dis. 

May i, '62. 
Walden W. Davis, b. South Danvers; 22; s.; cabinet-maker; dis.Mar. 1/62. 
Alden Derby, m. i. Aug. 9, '62; 23; m.; farmer; des. Jan. 31, '63. 
Wallace W. Derby, 18; s.; comb-maker; pris. Gett.; m. o. 
Daniel H. Dickinson, b. res. cr. Harvard, 23; s.; farmer; dis. Dec. 23/62. 
J. W Dickinson, b. res. cr. Harvard; 24; s.; farmer; dis. Feb. 14, '63. 



COMPANY A. 349 

Daniel Dunn, b. Xew Brunswick; 39; m.; piano-maker; dis. Dec. 4/62. 
Arad Fairbanks, b. res. cr. Sterling; m. i. Dec. 14, '61; 45; m.; farmer; 

dis. May i,'62. 
John W. Ferren, b. Cambridge, res. cr. Shirley; 19; s.; paper-maker; m.o. 
Charles H. Fletcher, b. Fitchburg; m. i. July 17, '61; 24; s.; butcher; 

dis. Dec. 31, '61, for loss of right eye. 
Sumner M. Frost, b. South Orange; 20; s.; carriage-maker; pris. B.'B.; 

dis. Oct. 11, '62; served Co. H, 4th H. A. Aug. 22, '64-June 17, '65. 
George H. Gallup, m. i. Aug. 7, '61 ; 18; s.; comb-maker; pris. June 29/62; 

released; d. Aug. 6, '62. 
Edward G. Gee, b. Ware, res. cr. Oxford; m. i. Aug. 14, '62; 18; operative; 

pris. June 22, '64; reen. March 26, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. 

June 7, '65. 
Albert H. Gleason, b. res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 7, '61; 35; m.; painter; 

hospital steward, April, '63; m. o. 
William S. Hall, m. i. Aug. 9, '62; 44: m.; farmer; m. o.; G. O. 28. 
Joseph H. Hapgood, b. res. cr. Sterling; m. i. July 24, '61; 22: s.; farmer; 

wd. B. B. and Gett.; tr. V.R.C. Oct. 19, '63; m. o. July 19, '64. 
Luther M. Hapgood, b. Marlboro; m. i. Dec. 14, '61; 42; m.; farmer; dis. 

Nov, 10, '62. 
Luther S. Hapgood, b. res. cr. Sterling; 25; s.: farmer; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Oct. 30, '62; served Co. K, 4th H. A., Aug. 18, '64-m. o. June 17, '65. 
Frank E. Hatch, b. res. cr. Keene, N. H.; m. i. July 30, '61; 18; s.; sailor; 

pris. B. B.; wd. Gett.; tr. V.R.C. Feb. 15, '64. 
Abram Hodge, b. unknown, res. Canada, cr. Athol; m. i. April 30, '64; 19; 

s.; farmer; pris. June 22 '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, m. o. as pris. 
Fordyce Horan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Lancaster; m. i. Dec. 20, '61; 20; s.; 

farmer; tr. Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. Art., Nov. 18, '62. 
Charles Hubbard, b. Canada, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 12, '62; 28; 

shoemaker; wd. thigh Ant.; dis. Jan 23, '63. 
Augustus Johnson, 18; s.; painter; pris. B. B.; dis. Nov. 22, '62. 
Thomas A. Joshn. 42; m.: farmer; dis. May i,'62. 
Charles Joy, 20; s.; wood-turner; dis. Jan. 27/63. 
Justin J. Kendall, b. West Boylston, res. cr. Groton; 20; s.; chair-maker; 

dis. Mar. 12, '63. 
Robert N. Kendall, b. Boylston, res. cr. Groton; 24; s.; operative; dis. 

Oct. 29, '62. 
Joseph W. Kingsbury, b. Amesbury, res. cr. Lancaster; m. i. Aug. 1, '61; 

18; s.; machinist; pris. B. B.; dis. Nov. 27, '62. 
Hiram Lafflin. See Co. C. 
John H. Lalor, b. New York, res. unknown, cr. Worcester; m. i. July 30, 

'61; 18; baker; dis. Aug. 6, '61, minor. 
Francis L. Lander, b. res. cr. Cambridge; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 18; s.; farmer; 

d. Jan. 15, '63. 
Walter Lawrence, b. res. Canada, cr. Chelsea; m. i. Mar. 28, '64; 21; s.; 

farmer; wd. May 11, '64; tr. 20th as ab. wd.; m. o. V.R.C. July 22, '65. 
Edward Lord, b. Lowell, res. cr. Millbury; m. i. July 28/61; wd. hand 

B. B.; m. o. 
Peter Luck, b. Germany; 38: soldier; m. i. Jan. 6, 62; wd. Gett.; tr. V.R.C. 

Feb. 15/64. 
Frank E. Marble, b. Charlestown, res. cr. Northbridge; 18; s.; machin- 
ist; dis. Dec. 10, '62. 
Charles McFarland. See Co. E. 



350 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Charles F May, ig; s.; farmer; m. i. July i6, '61: wd. June 9, '64; reen. 

Dec. 22, '63; tr. Co. G, 20th, ab. wd.; m. o. July 13, '65. 
Sylvander F. Maynard, 19; s.; basket-maker; wd. thigh; pris. June 29, 

'62; tr. V.R.C. Sept. 1, '63; m. o. July 15, '64. 
William Maynard, 35; s.; basket-maker; dis. Jan. 22, '62. 
Peter McGee, b. Scotland, res. cr. Leicester; m. i. July 13, '61; 24; s.; 

spinner; dis. Jan. 22, '62. 
Curtis G. Morse, b. Lancaster; 24; s.; farmer; pris. B. B.; m. o. 
Harrison A. Morse, 19; tr. 21st Regt. as com. sergt. July 28, '61. 
John Morrissey, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Worcester; m. i. July 24, '62; 

31; blacksmith; reported d. Feb. 16, '64; tr. to Co. A, 20th, as ab. 
Dwight Newbury. See Field and Staff officers. 
George F Newton, b. res. cr. Auburn; 19; s.; farmer; pris. B. B; d. June 

10, '62. 
Charles C. Nichols, 20; s.; painter; tr. signal corps Oct. 28, '63; dis. 

Feb. 20, '64. 
John W. Nourse, 20; s.; comb-maker; dis. Aug. 1, '62. 
Moses L. Nutting, b. Mason. N. H.; 43; m.; comb-maker; pris. B. B.; 

dis. Sept. 21, '62. 
Robert O'Brien, b. unknown, res. Nova Scotia, cr. Athol; m. i. April 30, 

'64; 20; s.; sailor; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, m. o. as ab. pris. 
John A. Parmenter, b. Hardwick, res. cr. Worcester; 18; farmer; dis. 

Aug. 6, '61. 
Albert A. Pelton, b. Sterling; 24; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; dis. Nov. 

22, '62. 
Samuel E. Pratt, b- Phillips, Me., res. cr. unknown; m. i. Feb. 11, '62; 21; 

bootmaker. 
John O. Regan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 4, '62; 46.; 

painter; tr. V.R.C. Aug. 7, '63; dis. Oct, 2, '63. 
Asaph W. Rice, b. res. cr. Westminster; 39; s.; teamster; tr. V.R.C. 

April '63; dis. July 12/64. 
Francis Rice, b. Stow, res. cr. Charlton; m. i. Aug. 14, '62; wd. Gett; m. 

o.; G. O. 28. 
John Rock, b. unknown, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 29, '63; 23; s.; 

sailor; des. Oct. 26, '63. 
Andrew J. Rugg, 23; s.; cabinet-maker; pris. B. B.; dis. Sept 22, '62. 
Jacob Rugg, res. cr. Sterling; 28; m.; farmer; pris. B. B.; dis. Oct. 22/62; 

served Co. H, 4th H. A. Aug. 20, '64; m. o. June 17, '65. 
James E. Sheppard, b. England, res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Mar. 31, '62; 19; 

s.; operative; wd. Gett.; wd. Nov. 27, '63, May 6, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th; 

m. o. '65. 
John R. Smith, b. New London, Ct, res. cr. Grafton; m. i. Aug. 23, '62; 

34; shoemaker; wd. Dec. 13, '62, May 3, '63; m. o. as ab. 
John G. Snow, b. Wellfleet; 21; s.; farmer; d. Dec. 12/62. 
Alexander Spicer, b. res. Canada East, cr. Hanover; m. i. May 5, '64; 19; 

s.; farmer; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. o. June 21/65. 
George W. Stanley, b. Natick, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 11/62; 26; 

shoemaker; wd. thigh Gett.; m. o. as ab., G. O. 28. 
Sabura S. Stocking, b. Manchester, Ct.; 31; m.; furniture dealer; Q. M. 

S. May 11/62; dis. 
Joseph Sullivan, b. res. cr. Deerfield; m. i. Aug. 2/61; 20; s.; farmer; 

pris. B. B.; des. Jan. 31/63. 
Charles H. Taylor, b. Bolton; m. i. Aug. 9, '62; 30; m.; teamster; dis. 

Mar. 5, '63. 



COMPANY B. 351 

Henry T. Taylor, b. Lancaster; 26; m.; comb-maker; dis. April 25, '62. 

George H. Watson, b. res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 31, '61; 19; s.; ma- 
chinist; pris. B. B.; tr. V.R.C. Alar. 15, '64; m. o. Aug. 3, '64. 

David Welsh, b. Ireland; res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 31, '61; 38; shoe- 
maker; wd. head Gett.; tr. V.R.C. May 16, '64; d. July 9, '64. 

J. Wilder Welsh, b. unknown; 21: dis. Aug. 1, '61. 

Benjamin C. Wheelock. See Co. F 

Charles A. Wheelock, b. Lancaster; 26; s.; shoemaker; m. o. ab. sick. 

Joseph H. White, b. Canada, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 6, '62; 32: m.; 
farmer; tr. V.R.C. Oct. 28, '63. 

William B. Whitney: b. Westminster; 19; s.; carriage-maker; pris. B. 
B.; pris. June 29, '62; dis. Sept. 6, '62; served Co. H, 4th H. A., Aug. 
22, '64-June 17, '65. 

William L. Whitney, b. res. cr. Princeton; m. i. Aug. 9, '62; 27; s.; farmer; 
d. Nov. 14, '62. 

Charles H. Wilder, 19; s.; operative; pris. B. B.; m. o. 

Cornelius E. Wilder, 23; s.; cabinet-maker; pris. June 22/64; rn. o. 

Ezra K. Wilder, 19; s.; dis. Aug. i,'6i. 

Joseph Willard, b. Ashburnham; 28; s.; cabinet-maker; wd. Gett.; m. o. 

Origen B. Williams, b. East Douglas, res. cr. Marlboro; m. i. July 28/61; 
20; s.; machinist; dis. Aug. 18/62. 

Edward Wilson, b. Chichester, N. H.; 33; m.; shoemaker; dis. Dec. 13/61. 

Charles B. Woods, 19; s.; farmer; d. Mar. 22, '62, drowning while in dis- 
charge of duty at Sandy Hook. 

George Wood, b. Sutton, res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Aug. 2, '61; 35; m.; 
farmer; pris. B. B.; dis. Nov. 22/62. 



COMPANY B. 

The members of this company were natives and citizens of Fitchburg 
and were credited on the quota of that city unless it is otherwise stated in 
each particular. For the history of this company before the date of 
muster, see pages 14-18 and 20-21. 

John W. Kimball, capt. Co. B under militia commission to Aug. 1, '61. 

See Field Officers. 
Clark S. Simonds, capt. Co. B, Aug. 1, '61-Sept. 17, '62; b. Groton; 30; 

m.; scythe-maker; pris. B. B.; k. Ant. 
Charles H. Eager, 2d lieut., 31; m.; hardware dealer; 1st lieut.R. Q. M. 

May n/62; capt. Co. B, Nov. 27, '62-Feb. 4/64; com. 15th Reg't, 

Nov. 27, '63-Jan., '64; re. Feb. 4, '64. 

William J. Coulter. See Co. C. 1st lieut. com. Co. B, Dec. 10,'63-June 

22, '64. 
Joseph M. Goddard, 1st lieut.; 24; m.; machinist; (see Co. A); re. Oct. 

26, '62. 
William R. Steele. See Staff Officers. 2d lieut. Co. B, May 11/62; 1st 

lieut. Co. B, May 1/63. 
William G. Waters. See Staff Officers. 1st lieut. Co. B, Nov. 26, '62. 

Nelson V. Stanton, p.; res. cr. Northbridge; 19; s.; painter; corp. Aug. 9, 
'61; (see Co. H); 2d. lieut. Co. B, Jan. 22/63; 1st lieut. July 4, '63; 
(see Staff Officers and Co. D); capt. Feb. 6/64, never mustered. 



352 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Frank A. Brown, p.; b. Winchester, N. H.; ig; s.; farmer; corp. Nov. 14, 
'62; sergt. April g, '63; 1st sergt. Oct. 30, '63; 1st lieut. Feb. 6, 64, never 
mustered; wd. breast May/64; m. o. 

Andrew Fisher, corp. b. Fitzwilliams, N. H.; res. cr. Winchendon; 22; 
m.; pail-maker; acting 1st sergt. Dec. ig, '62; capt. July 14, '64, never 
mustered; wd. hand Ant.; m. o. 

James May, sergt.; b. Roxbur>; 32; m.; wood-turner; 1st sergt. Sept. 18, 
'62; 2d lieut. Oct. 28, '62; m. April g, '63, and ass. Co. H, April 14, 
'63; ass. Cos. H, E; 1st lieut. March 30/63, ass. Co. E; capt. Nov. 22, 
'63, ass. Co. I; pris. June 22, '64; tr. 20th, Co. E; m. o. March 12, '65. 

John Murkland, sergt.; b. Scotland; 26; m.; machinist; 1st sergt. May 2g, 
'62; capt. Sept. 18, '62; m. and ass. Co. G, Nov. 27, '62; k. Gett. 

Henry A. Spooner, sergt.; b. Athol; 31; m.; hat-finisher; 1st sergt.; dis. 
May 2g, '62. 

Amable Beaudry, p.; b. Canada East, res. cr. Winchendon; 24; m.; moul- 
der; corp. Jan. 1, '62; sergt. Sept. 18, '62; 1st lieut. Co. H., July 4, '63; 

wd. face Ant.; pris. Gett., escaped, rej. co. July 5; wd. May 12/64; 

m. o. 
Frederick A. Britton, p.; b. Athol; 21; s.; chair-maker; corp. Jan. 1/62; 

sergt. Dec. 28/62; dis. May 21/63. 
Cyrus Brown, corp.; b. Vienna, Me.; 24; s.; scythe-maker; sergt. June 

1/62; dis. Dec. 18/62. 
Walter A. Eames, p.; b. West Cambridge; ig; m.; stone-cutter; corp. 

Jan. 1/62; sergt. Sept. 18/62; wd. breast Dec. 15/62; dis. Dec. 27/62. 
Marcus R.Johnson, p.; res. cr. Bedford; 22; s.; shoe-maker; corp. Dec. 

28/62; sergt. Oct. 16/63; w d- shoulder B. B. and Ant; m. o. 
Flavel Leach, jr., p.; b. unknown, res. cr. Boylston; 3g; m.; manufacturer; 

corp. Sept. 18/62; sergt. Sept. 1, '63; wd. thighs May/64; m - o. 
George B. Simonds, p.; res. cr. Leominster; ig; s.; carpenter; corp. 

Aug. 1/62; sergt. Aprilg, '63; 1st lieut. July 30, '63; m. and ass. Co. 

F, Oct. 16/63; wd - thigh, B. B.; k. May 10/64. 
Frederick H. Sibley, Corp.; b. Troy, N. Y.; 23; s.; tool-maker; sergt. 

June 12, '62; tr. 36th Sept. 4, '62; 2d lieut. Aug. 22, '62; 1st lieut. Aug. 

2/63; d. Aug. 17/63. 
George C. Taylor, Corp.; 20; s.; machinist; sergt. July '62; k. B. B. 

Alfred B. Church, p.; b. Cranston, R. I.; res. cr. Woonsocket, R. I.; 28; 
s.; scythe-maker; corp. Jan. 1/62; dis. Jan. 7/63. 

George T. Daniels, p.; b. Worcester; 26; s.; chair-maker; corp. July '62; 
wd. arm B. B.; dis. Oct. 24, '62. 

Stillman W. Edgell, p.; b. Westminster; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 30; s.; chair- 
maker; corp. Sept. 1, '63; wd. lost arm June 3, '64; m. o. Jan. 11. '65. 

John R. Farnum, p.; b. Smithfield, R. I.; 22; s.; scythe-maker; corp. 
Dec. ig/62; pris. Gett., escaped, rej. Co. July 5; m. o. July 11, '64. 

William Gibson, p.; 23; m.; stone-worker; corp. Oct. 24, '62; dis. March 
16, '63. 

Kilburn Harwood, p.; b. Ashburnham; 22; s.; butcher; corp. date un- 
known; wd. arm June 30, '62; tr, V.R.C., Jan. 15, ,64; m. o. Aug. '64. 

Frank A. Hildreth, Corp.; b. Lunenburg; 20; s.; harness-maker; d. Oct. 
4/61. 

Harrison M. Hunkings, corp.; b. Dedham; 25; m.; carpenter; wd. ankle 
Ant.; dis. Nov. 28, '62. 

Henry L. Joslin, p.; 18; s.; carpenter; corp. Sept. 18, '62; reen. Batt. I, 1st 
U. S. L. Art., Nov 13, '62; d. April 21, '63. 



COMPANY B. 353 

Charles D. Monroe, corp.; b. Charlestown; 28; s.; provision-dealer; k. B.B. 
Horace T. Pope, Corp.; b. Hull, res. cr. Boston; 23; s.; machinist; wd. 

May 10, '64; d. May 15/64. 
Andrew Riley, p.; res. cr. Winchendon; 22; s.; pail-maker; corp. Nov. 

29/62; wd. Gett.; tr. V.R.C. March 15/64; m. o. 
Henry L. Sheldon, p.; 25; s.; machinist; corp. April 9, '63; wd. head 

May, '64; m. o. 
Alvan A. Simonds, p.; 20; s.; scythe-maker; corp. Jan. 8, '62; wd. leg 

Gett; pris. June 22, '64, escaped and entered Union lines about July 

20; m. o. Aug. 12, '64. 
Samuel W. Stearns, p.; b. Bedford; m. i. Jan. 21/62; 20; s.; machinist; 

corp. Aug. 27, '63; k. Oct. 14, '63. 
George A. Harwood, musician; b. Ashburnham; 21; s.; ornamenter; tr. 

non. com. staff Dec. 30, '63; prin. musician June 16, '64; m. o. 
Daniel R. Pierce, musician; b. Pawlet, Vt.; 26; s.; rattan worker; tr. 

non. com. staff Nov. 1, '63; prin. musician June 16, '94; m. o. 
Abraham Scott, wagoner; b. res. cr. Winchendon; m. i. July 30, '61; 26; 

m.; teamster; dis. Feb. 17/63. 

Privates. 

George Adams, b. Winchendon; 19; s.; porter; wd. arm, breast, Ant.; 

d. Oct. 7, '62. 
James H. Adams, b. unknown, res. Canada, cr. New Marlborough; m. i. 

April 12/64; 27; s.; farmer; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. 
William E. Bailey, b. Canada East, res. cr. Winchendon; 22; s.; carpen- 
ter; dis. Dec. 8. '62. 
Thomas Barclay, b. Scotland, res. Canada, cr. Chesterfield; sub.; m. i. 

July 31/63; 21; s; stone-cutter; tr. 20th. 
William H. Bears, b. Yarmouth, Me.; res. N.Y. city, cr. Buckland; sub.; 

m. i. July 30, '63; 22; m.; farmer; des. Nov. 4, '63. 
George F Benjamin, b. res. cr. Westminster; 21; s.; farmer; k. B. B. 
David Bliss, b. unknown; res. cr. New Salem; m. i. Dec. 24, '61; 44; m.; 

farmer; d. Sept. 13/62. 
Henry M. Bliss, b. unknown; res. cr. Dana; m. i. Jan. 2, '64; 18; laborer; 

m. o. Jan. 7, '64. 
Daniel Bonney, b. unknown, res. cr. Sterling; 26; s,: painter; reen. Batt. 

I, 1st U. S. L. Art. Oct. 23, '62. 
George L. Boss, 19; s.; building mover; k. Gett. 

Roland E. Bowen, b. res. cr. Millbury; m. i. July 30/61; 24; s.; wood- 
turner; pris. June 22, '64, escaped and entered Union lines about July 

20; m. o. Aug. 3, '64. 
James Boyd, b. res. England, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 1/63; 22; s.; 

sailor; tr. navy, April 23, '64. 
Augustus Braight, b. Prussia, res. Germany, cr. Attleborough; sub.; m. 

i. July 31, '63; 27; s.; farmer; des. Aug. 20, '63. 
Henry Branner (Brennan), b. Germany, res. Boston, cr. Stow; m. i. April 

8, '64; 28; s.; clerk; pris. May 5, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. 

as pris. 
Joseph Brenner, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 

29/63; 30; s.; laborer; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick. 
Jacob Brown, b. unknown, res. Germany, cr. Canton; sub.; m. i. July 31, 

'63; 24; s.; painter; des. Aug. 20, '63. 
Thomas J. Brown, b. res. Scotland, cr. Stoughton; sub.; m. i. Aug. 5, '63; 

24; s.; laborer. Never joined Company. 



354 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

William Brown, b. Ireland, res. Boston, cr. Conway; sub.; m. i. Aug. 

4, '63; 23; s.; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. 
Abel Bruce, jr., 32; m.; carpenter; pris. B. B.; dis. Dec. 15, 't>2. 
Napoleon B. Bruce, b. unknown, res. cr. Winchendon; m. i. Dec. 2, '61; 

21; s.; mechanic; wd. left arm, Ant.; m. o. G. O. 28. 
Robert Bruce, b. Albany, N.Y.; res. cr. Winchendon; 23; s.; pail-maker; 

dis. March 17, '62. 
Nathaniel Burbank, b. res. Parsonsfield, Me.; cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 

9, '63; 25; s.; printer; tr. Co, E, 20th; dis. Sept. 15, '64, to accept pro.; 

1st lieut. 7th U. S. Col'd H. A. May '64; acting regt. adj. to Sept. '64; 

2d lieut. 10th U. S. Col'd H. A. Sept. 17, '64; 1st lieut. Sept. 27, '64; 

brevet capt. U. S. V March 13, '65; m. o. Feb. 22, '67. 
John Campbell, 20; m.; shoemaker; k. Ant. 
Daniel Carpenter, 30; s.; shoemaker; k. Ant. 
George Carpenter, b. England, res. cr. Cambridge; 25; s.; cabinet-maker; 

wd. head B. B.; pris. Ant.; dis. Jan. 6, '63. 
Henry M. Carpenter, b. res. cr. Southbridge ; m. i. Aug. 6, '61; 22; s.; 

harness-maker; wd. arm B. B.; wd. leg Gett; tr. V.R.C. Jan. 21, '64; 

m. o. Aug. 4, '64. 
John Carpenter, b. res. unknown, cr. Somerville; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 

25; s.; seaman; des. Sept. 22, '63. 
George Cassidy, b. N.Y. city, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 31, '63; s.; 

boiler-maker; tr. Co. K, 20th; m. o. July 26, '65. 
Edwin Chase, b. res. cr. Winchendon; 20; s.; box-maker; pris. Ant.; 

pris. June 22, '64; paroled June 24, '64; m. o. 
Ferdinand Chausen, b. Denmark, res. unknown, cr. Buckland; 29; s.; 

blacksmith; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 

as ab. wd. 
Peter Christenson, b. Denmark, res. cr. Weymouth; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 37; s.; blacksmith; d. pris. July 15/64; tr. Co. E, 20th; as ab. 
Benjamin F\ Clark, b. Cambridgeport; 18; s.; machinist; wd". head Ant.; 

dis. Nov. 28, '62. 
George Classon, b. Canada, res. cr. Barre; sub.; m. i. Aug. 3, '63; 20; s.; 

farmer; des. Aug. 20, '63. 
Franklin E. Cobleigh, b. St. Johnsbury, Vt.; res. Derby, Vt; cr. Marsh- 
field; m. i. April 4, '64; 18; s.; farmer; wd. face May 6, '64; tr. Co. E, 

20th, as ab. wd. 
Thomas Collins, b. res. Canada, cr. Belchertown; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 

20; s.; laborer; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 
Henry Contz, b. Germany, res. unknown, cr. Eastham; sub.; m. i. July 

30/63; 24; s.; machinist; des. Aug. 20/63. 
Owen Connelly, b. unknown, res. cr. Fall River; sub.; m. i. July 28, '63; 

38; m.; laborer; des. Sept. 22, '63. 
Barney Connelly, b. Scotland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 

31/63; 21; s.; seaman; dis. Dec. 8/63. 
Joseph Coyne, b. res. Ireland, cr. Barre; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 30; m.; 

laborer; des. Oct. 14, '63. 
Wallace Crawford, b. res. N.Y city, cr. Salem; sub.; m. i. Aug. 5, '63; 21; 

farmer; wd. thigh May '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; pris. Feb. 5, 

'65; m. o. June 5, '65. 
George H. Cunningham, b. Cambridge; 24; s.; palmleaf worker; m. o. 
William C. Cushman, b. unknown, res. cr. Princeton; m. i. Sept. 1, '62; 

25; s.; farmer; wd. shoulder Dec. 13, '62; des. Feb. 19, '63. 
Sampson Davis, b. unknown, res. cr. Ashby; m. i. Dec. 5, '61; 44; m.; 

farmer; dis. April 12, '62. 



COMPANY B. 



355 



Sylvanus H. Doane, b. unknown, res. cr. Dana; m. i. Aug. 13, '62; 22; 

mechanic; d. Dec. 24. '62. 
Calvin J. Eaton, b. res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 30, '61; 22; s.; carpen- 
ter; pris. B. B.; wd. head Gett.; d. Oct. 25, '63. 
Robert J. Elliott, b. Scotland, res. cr. Ashburnham; 24; m.; tub-turner; 

reen. Batt. I, U. S. L. Art. Oct. 22, '62. 
Charles H. Farmer. 18; s.; machinist; dis. Feb. 2, '63. 
Seth R. Fisher, b. unknown, res. cr. Winchendon; m. i. Dec. 2, '61; 33; 

m.; mechanic; dis. Jan. 13, '63. 
Augustus Flagg, b. unknown, res. cr. Boylston; m. i. Dec. 14, '61; 35; m.; 

manufacturer; dis. Nov. 10, '62. 
Philander H. Fletcher, b. Berkshire, Vt.; 37; m.; patent roofer; wd. 

thigh and hand Ant.; dis. Feb. 2, '63. 
Artemas A. Gibson, m. i. July 30/61 ; 22;s.; scythe-maker; dis. April 2g,'63. 
Lemuel W Gibson, m. i. Dec. 5, '61 ; 18; s.; farmer; wd. leg and arm Ant.; 

dis. Jan. 24, '63. 
George S. Gilchrist, b. Townsend; m. i. Aug. 6, '61; 33; m.; brick mason; 

pris. B. B.; dis. Nov. 22, '62. 
Charles E. Griswold, 23; s.; hat-finisher; dis. Feb. 28, '63. 
William T. Griswold, 25; s.; hat-finisher; m. o. 

Rollins E. Hartwell, b. Eden, Yt.; res. cr. Winchendon; 20; s.; marble- 
worker; reen. Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. Art. Oct. 25, '62; k. May 3/63. 
William W. Holman, b. res. cr. Winchendon; 28; m.; pail-maker; pris. 

B. B.; dis. April 29, '63. 
Granville Hosmer, b. Rindge, N. H.; 23; m.; tool-maker; pris. B. B.; 

dis. March 17, '63. 
Henry J. Hosmer, b. Dexter, Me.; 24; s.; chair-maker; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Jan. 1, '63. 
Joel K. Hosmer, b. Acton; m. i. July 30, '61; 19; s.; clerk; wd. arm June 

27, '62; m. o. 
Joseph R. Houghton, b. Stow, res. cr. Westminster; 18; s.; clerk; reen. 

Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. Art. Nov. 13, '62. 
N. Porter Howard, b. res. cr. Westminster; 28; s.; lumberman; pris. B. 

B.; m. o. 
Charles W Kendall, b. West Boylston, res. cr. Winchendon; 29; m.; 

farmer; m. o. 
Edward S. Kendall, b. Royalston, res. cr. Westminster; 19; s.; painter; 

dis. Nov. 5, '62. 
Oscar A. Kendall, b. res. cr. Winchendon; 21; s.; painter; reen. Batt. I, 

1st U. S. L. Art. Oct. 24, '62. 
Amos W. Lawrence, b. Leominster; 31; m.; carpenter; d. Oct. 13, '62. 
Albert Litchfield, b. Carlisle; 19; s.; scythe-maker; pris. and wd. B. B.; 

dis. Oct. 12, '62. 
Francis H. Loud, b. res. cr. Winchendon; 27; s.; wood-turner; des. Nov. 

10, '62. 
Henry C. Lowell, b. Washington, N. H.; res. cr. Winchendon; 21; s.; 

farmer; dis. April 29, '63. 
Thomas Lynaugh, b. Canada; m. i. March 7, '62; 34; s.; farmer; des. 

Nov. 4, '62. 
John Marsh, b. Sandwich; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 26; s.; palmleaf-worker; 

wd. leg Ant.; k. Gett. 
Frank S. Marshall, m. i. July 30, '61; 21; s.; farmer; dis. Sept. 10, '62. 
Joseph A. Marshall, 21; s.; wd. Dec. 15, '62; pro. 2d lieut. 36th Regt. Jan. 

22/62; 1 st lieut. Sept. 1/63; capt. April 23, '64; m. o. June 8, '65. 



356 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Joseph B. Matthews, b. Sidney. Me.; res. cr. Winchendon; 41; s.; pail- 
maker; wd. both legs Gett.; dis. April 16, '64. 
Winthrop Maynard, b. Wendall; res. cr. Winchendon; m. i. Aug. 6, '61; 

18; s.; teamster; pris. B. B.; tr. 20th. 
Herbert D. Mclntire, m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 20; s.; clerk; m. o. G. O. 28. 
William C. Mitchell, b. Canada; m. i. Feb. 8, '62; 29; m.; farmer; dis. 

May 23, '62. 
Joseph L. Moodv, b. Lincolnsville, Me.; 34; s.; carpenter; pris. B. B.; tr. 

V.R.C. March 15, '64; m. o. July 11, '64. 
Thomas Moran, b. res. Fairfield, Vt.; cr. New Marlborough; m. i. April 

13, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as m. in a. May, '64; m. o. as ab. sick. 
John E. Morse, b. Hingham; 24; s.; machinist; pris. B. B.; m. o. 
Silas H. Newton, b. unknown, res. cr. Phillipston; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 23; 

s.; painter; dis. Jan. 12, '64. 
Francis Nichols, b. res. cr. Westminster; 31; s.; lumberman; dis. April 

10, '63. 
Frederick Nichols, b. res. cr. Westminster; 35; s.; lumberman; m. o. 
Lyman Nichols, b. res. cr. Westminster; 22; s.; engineer; reen. Batt. I, 

1st U. S. L. Art., Nov. 13, '62; m. o. July 12, '64. 
Alpheus J. Nye, b. unknown, res. cr. Dana; m. i. Aug. 27/62; 31; m.; 

mechanic; m. o. G. O. 28. 
Ai D. Osborn, b. Ashburnham; 28; s.; millwright; pris. wd. leg B. B.; d. 

Dec. 1, '61. 
Anson P. Peckham, b. Rutland, res. cr. Dana; m. i. Jan. 2, '64; 20; s.; 

laborer; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as pris.; d. Aug. 22, '64, a 

pris. 
Thomas J. Peckham, b. Petersham, res. cr. Dana; m. i. Aug. 13, '62; 22; 

farmer; k. June 3, '64. 
George W. Phillips, b. Dublin, N. H.; 42; m.; stone-mason; dis. Aug. 1/62. 
Amos C. Plaisted. b. Haverhill, N. H.; 18; s.; machinist; m. o. 
Charles F Pope, b. Canada East; res. cr. Winchester; 20; s.; farmer; 

m. o. 
Joel Pratt, b. Gardner; 21; s.; chairmaker; pris. B. B.; reen. Batt. I, 1st 

U. S. L. Art., Nov. 13, '62. 
John H. Prichard, 24; s.; farmer; pris. B. B.; dis. Jan. 22/63. 
Harrison Rich, b. unknown; 25; s.; palmleaf -maker; m. o. 
Ira M. Richardson, b. res. Waterford, Vt.; cr. Marshfield; m. i. April 14, 

'64; 18; s.; farmer; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab. sick; dis. June 9, '65. 
John R. Ring, b. Germany; 27; s.; basket-maker; m. o. 
Stillman Safford, b. Springfield, Vt.; res. cr. Winchendon; 40; m.; pail- 
maker; tr. V.R.C. March 15, 64; m. o. July 21, 64. 
Camille Sausee, b. Canada, res. Boston, cr. Groveland; m. i. April 8, '64; 

23; s.; farmer; wd. May 6, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 
Thomas Scolly, res. cr. Westminster; m. i. March 3, '62; 18; s.; student; 

tr. V.R.C. Nov. 15, '63; d. March 19, '64. 
Elijah M. Scott, b. Sutton, res. cr. Wincheddon; 20; s.; pail-maker; k. 

B. B. 
Frank Scott, b. Winchendon; 18; s.; farmer; reen. Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. 

Art., Oct. 24, '62; m. o. July 12, '64. 
D. Walter Scott, b. Sutton, res. cr. Winchendon; 22; s.; blacksmith; m. o. 
George F Simonds, m. i. Jan. 21, '62; 19; s.; machinist; dis. July 18/62. 
John Skerrington (Skirrington), b. England, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Jan. 

9/62; 25; s.; mason; d. July 29/62. 
Henry Smith, b. Dublin, N. H.; res. cr. Dana; m. i. Jan 2, '64; 19; m.; 

mechanic; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. as pris. 



COMPANY C. 357 

George A. Spofford, b. unknown, res. cr. Orange; m. i. Feb. i8, '62; 18; s.; 

farmer; d. July 17, '62. 
George J. Spooner, b. unknown, res. cr. Dana; m. i. Aug. 27, '62; 32; 

mechanic; d. Dec. 27, '62. 
Charles A. Stevens : b. Nashua, N. H.; res. cr. Winchendon; 20; s.; box- 
maker; pris. B. B.; dis. Feb. 4, '63. 
Nicholas Stevens, b. res. Philadelphia, Pa.; cr. Chelsea; m. i. April 8, '64; 

22; s.; moulder; tr. Co. E, 20th, as m. in a.; m. o. 
Frederick C. Stewart, b. Castleton, Vt; res. cr. Winchendon; 20; s.; pail- 
maker; dis. Jan. 21, '63. 
Edward M. Stone, b. unknown, res. cr. Dana; m. i. Dec. 16, '63; 42; m.; 

shoemaker; k. June 3, '64. 
Luman W Stone, b. Massina, N.Y.; 30; s.; mechanic; pris. B. B.; dis. 

March 22, '62. 
George G. Taylor, b. unknown, res. cr. Winchendon; m. i. Aug. 11, '62; 

32; carpenter; m. o. G. O. 28. 
Thomas P. Taylor, 28; m.; sailor; pris. wd. B. B.; dis. Oct. 12, '62. 
William E. Taylor, b. res. cr. Winchendon; 22; s.; pail-maker; pris. June 

22, '64; m. o. as pris. 
James H.Tenney, b. unknown; m. i. Aug. 11, '62; 24; mechanic; wd. leg 

Gett.; m. o. G. O. 28. 
John K. Walker, b. New Ipswich; res. cr. Ashburnham; 25; wood-turner; 

k. B. B. 
Thomas Welsh, b. Ireland, res. cr. Milford; m. i. Nov. 12/63; '91 S -I 

bootmaker; wd. arm May 6, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 

June 20, '65. 
Orlando Wetherbee, b. Ashby; 18; s.; butcher; wd. shoulder May '64; 

m. o. 
Charles A. Wheeler, b. unknown, res. cr. West Boylston; m. i. Dec. 5, '61 ; 

25; m.; physician; m. o. Dec. 17, '62, for pro.; 1st lieut. asst. surgeon 

1 2th Mass. Dec. 20, '62; m. o. July 8, '64. 
Benjamin Whitcomb, b. unknown, res. cr. Winchendon; m. i. Dec. 14, 

'61; 38; m.; carpenter; wd. leg Ant.; dis. Dec. 5, '62. 
Gilman W. Whitcomb, b. Ashby, res. cr. Princeton; 21; s.; farmer; wd. 

foot; dis. April '64. 
Lowell C. White, b. res. cr. Westminster; 18; s.; butcher; m. o. 
Enoch Whitney, b. unknown, res. cr. Cambridge; m. i. Aug. 7, '62; 25; 

physician; des. Sept. 9, '62. 
Henry F Whittemore, b. unknown; 29; m.; stone-cutter; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Oct. 24, '62. 
Josiah W. Wilder, b. unknown, res. cr. Dana; m.; Aug. 13, '62; 21; me- 
chanic; m. o. G. O. 28. 
Horace H. Wyman, b. res. cr. Winchendon; 20; s.; machinist; dis. Feb. 

10, '62. 

COMPANY C. 

The members of this company were natives and citizens of Clinton, 

and were credited on the quota of that town unless it is otherwise stated 

in each particular. For the history of the company before the date of 

muster, see pages 15-18 and 21-23. 

Henry Bowman, capt. Co. C Aug. 1,'61-Aug. 6, '62; b. Lancaster; 26; m.; 
book-keeper; pris. B. B., ex. Aug. 2, '62; pro. major 34th M. V. Aug, 



358 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

6, '62, declined commission; col. 36th M.V Aug. 22, '62; com. brigade 
as col. July '63; re. July 27, '63; re-com. col. 36th Oct. '63, never m., 
reg't below minimum. On staff Gen. Wilcox Nov. 21-Dec. 25, '63; 
asst. q. m. U.S.V. Feb. 29, '64; q. m. U.S.V Aug. 2-Nov. io, '64; bre- 
vet major U. S. V March 13, '65; m. o. Aug. 15, '66. 

Richard Derby, 2d lieut. Co. H; b. Medfield, res. Boston, cr. Salem; 26; 
s.; salesman; 1st lieut. Nov. 22, '61; m. and ass. Co. C Jan. 5, '61; capt. 
Co. C Aug. 6, '62; com. never reached him; com. Co. C in ab. of Capt. 
Bowman Jan.6,'6i-Aug.6, '61, as capt. Aug.6,'6i-Sept. 17/61; k. Ant. 

Walter Gale, b. res. cr. Northboro; p.; 27; s.; student; sergt. Aug. i,'6i; 
2d lieut. Jan. 17, '62; m. and ass. Co. C Feb. io, '62; capt. Oct. 24, '62; 
m. and ass. Co. C Nov. 26, '62; com. Co. C Sept. 17, '62-Jan. '64; det. 
judge advocate staff of gen. 2d div. 2d Army Corps, Jan. 8, '64; major 
July 14, '64, not m.; wd. neck Ant. leg Gett.; m. o. July 29, '64. 

Thomas J. Hastings. See Co. D. Com. Co. C as 1st lieut. in ab. of Capt. 
Gale, Feb. 1, '64-June 22, '64; capt. July 14, '64, not m. 

Henry G. Bigelow. See Co. D. 1st lieut. ass. Co. C April 9, '63; dis. 

Aug. 28, '63. 
Joshua Freeman, sergt.; b. Provincetown; 40; m.; blacksmith; com. 

sergt. 15th regt. Jan. 1, '62; 2d lieut. March 19, '63; 1st lieut. and ass. 

Co. C Oct. 17, '63; det. chief pioneers 1st brig. 2d div. 2d Army Corps 

Nov. 1, '63-Jan. 18, '64; tr. Co. I April 28, '64; m. o. 
Andrew L. Fuller, 1st lieut.; b. Lancaster; 37; m.; manufacturer; re. Oct. 

7, '61. 

James N. Johnson, 2d lieut.; b. Leominster, res. cr. Northboro; s.; 33; 

comb-maker; re. Jan. 16, '62; reen. as private March 31, '62; tr. 20th 

as ab. sick. 
John E. Norcross. See Co. E. 2d lieut. Co. C April 9-Sept. 6, '63. 

John D. Brigham, corp.; b. Boylston; 27; s.; railroad repairer; 1st sergt. 

June 1, '62; pris. and wd. B. B.; dis. Dec. 10, '62. 
Elisha G. Buss, p.; b. Sterling; 26; s.; carpenter; corp. May 1, '62; sergt. 

Aug. 5, '62; 1st sergt. Oct. 10, '62; 2d lieut. Nov. 14, '62, m. Feb. 17, 

'63, ass. Co. K; 1st lieut. March 15, '63, Co. K; wd. thigh Gett.; d. 

wd. July 23, '63. 
Willis A. Cook, sergt.; b. Wrentham; 32; m.; operative; 1st sergt. Sept. 

14, '61; pris. B. B.; dis. April 12, '62. 
William J. Coulter, p.; b. Troy, N.Y.; 20; s.; printer; corp. Nov. 12, '62; 

sergt. Dec. 10, '62; acting 1st sergt. July '63; 1st lieut. Nov. 21, '63, m. 

and ass. Co. B Dec. 10, '63; pris. June 22, '64; ex. March '65; de- 
clined com. as 1st lieut. 20th; m. o. March 12, '65. 
Alden Fuller, 1st sergt.; b. Watertown; 29; m.; machinist; pris. B. B.; 

dis. March 11, '63. 
Charles H. Hurlburt, p.; b. Portland, Me.; res. cr. Worcester; 18; s.; 

railroad repairer; corp. July 1, '63; sergt. Dec. 10, '63; acting 1st 

sergt. Dec. 11, '63; 1st lieut. July 14, '64, ass. Co. F; pris. B. B. and 

June 22, '64; reen. Feb. 19, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. o. May 

16/65. 
Joseph P. Johnson, sergt.; res. cr. Northboro; 27; m.; comb-maker; 1st 

sergt. May 1/62; wd. spine Ant.; d. Oct. 4, '62. 
James Mahoney, p.; b. Fall River, res. cr.Westboro; m. i.; Aug. 6, '61; 19; 

s.; fireman; corp. Sept. 18, '62; sergt. Oct. 1/62; 1st sergt. Nov. 1/62; 

wd. head, legs, Gett.; m, o. Sept. 26, '64, 



COMPANY C. 359 

Edward W. Benson, Corp.; b. Portsmouth, N. H.; 25; m.; moulder; sergt. 

Feb. 1, '62; d. Aug. 4, '62. 
Thomas Caulfield, p.; b. Roxbury; 24; m.; iron moulder; corp. Nov. 23, 

'61; sergt. May 30, '62; pris. and wd. body Ant.; dis. Dec. 1, '62; reen. 

2d L. Batt. Jan. 16, '64; pris. and wd. April 9, '64; m. o. Aug. 12, '65. 
Charles Frazer, p.; b. Scotland; 23; m.; fish dealer; corp. '61; color-sergt. 

Feb. 10, '62; wd. hand Ant.; 2d lieut. Aug. 6, '62, com. declined. 
Henry B.Sargent, p.; b. West Boylston; 16; s.; farmer; dis. Feb. 11, '63; 

reen. Co. M, 2d H. Art. Dec. 15, '63; corp.; sergt.; m. o. Sept. 5, '65. 
William R. Wheelock. See Staff Officers. 
James K. Witham, p.; b. Hartford, Ct., res. cr. Worcester; 18; s.; farmer; 

corp. Dec. 10/62; sergt. Jan. 1, '63; wd. arm Ant.; m. o. July 11/64. 
Lafayette Worden, p.; b. Cleveland, O.; res. cr. Berlin; 19; farmer; corp. 

Nov. 15/62; sergt. July 4/63; wd. hand June 27, '62; reen. Feb. 18, 

'64; wd. knee May '64; d. June 15, '64. 
Archibald D. Wright, p.; b. Scotland; 18; s.; machinist; sergt. Nov. i, 

'62; wd. ankle, abdomen B. B.; wd. arm Gett; pris. May 6, '64; m. 

o. May 25/65. 

Moses S. Beaman, p.; b. res. cr. Sterling; 19; s.; farmer; corp. Dec. 10, 

'63; pris. B. B.; m. o. July 11, '64. 
James F Burgess, Corp.; b. England; 26; s.; dresser; dis. Jan. 7, '63. 
James P. Chenery, p.; b. Medfield; 19; s.; printer; corp. Jan. 1, '63; pris. 

B. B.; k. Gett. 
Briggs M. Daboll, corp.; b. Stephentown, N.Y.; 29; s.; watchman; wd. 

hand B. B.; dis. May 1, '62; reen. 36th M. V M. June 4, '62; dis. June 

'62. In Q. M. dept. of Army of Potomac, Aug. '64-July '65. 
Trustum D. Dexter, p.; b. Orange; 27; s.; carpenter; corp. Jan. 1/63; 

gave up warrant; wd. arm Ant.; m. o. 
John H. Diamond, p.; b. Buffalo, N.Y.; res. Baltimore, Md.; cr. Fal- 
mouth; sub.; m. i. July 30/63; 25; s.; sailor; corp. Aug. 15/63; tr. 

Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 
Daniel W. Freeman, p.; b. Webster, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 8/62; 

26; school-teacher; corp. Dec. 10, '63; wd. thigh Ant. and arm Gett.; 

tr. non. com. staff as sergt.-major June 4, '64; m. o. 
Horace L. Peverly, p.; b. Charlestown, N. H.; res. cr. Northboro; 23; m.; 

painter; corp. May 1, '62; wd. legs Ant.; dis. Feb. 18, '63. 
Charles G. Ryder, p.; b. Rochester; m. i. Aug. 12, '62; 28; m.; machinist; 

corp. July 1, '63; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. May 17, '65. 
Charles L. Shaw, p.; b. res. cr. Northboro; 28; s.; farmer; corp. July 1, 

'63; reen. Feb. 18, '64; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; d. 

Dec. 19, '64, as pris. 
David O. Wallace, corp.; b. Lunenburg; 19; s.; carpenter; pris. and wd. 

hand B. B.; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; d. Feb. 4, '65, 

as pris. 
William H. Taylor, drummer; b. Boston, res. cr. Lowell; 24; s.; carpen- 
ter; pris. B. B.; tr. V.R.C. Oct. 27, '63; m. o. July 14, '64. 
Thomas D. Mahan, wagoner; b. res. cr. Northboro; 40; s.; stone-layer; 



tr. Co. I Feb. 2, '62; m. o. 



Privates. 



Nathaniel Alexander, b. res. cr. Lancaster; m. i. Dec. 17/61; 40; m.; 

farmer; dis. Oct. 15/62. 
Edward A. Andrews, b. res. unknown, cr. Worcester; 25; dis. Aug. 6, '61, 



360 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

George L.Avery, b. Becket, N. H.; res. cr. Brookfield; m. i. Aug. 15/62; 

21; m.; farmer; wd. foot Ant.; dis. Jan. 6, '63. 
Tompkins Baker, b. res. unknown, cr. Worcester; dis. Aug. 6, '61. 
Charles H. Balcomb, b. Tewksbury, res. cr. Lancaster; m. 1. Dec. 14/61; 

33; in.; stone-mason; tr. V.R.C. April 15, '64; m. o. Oct. 27, '65. 
James C. Barlow, b. Gardiner, Me.; res. cr. Southbridge; m. 1. Aug. 11, 

'62; 29; wheelwright; wd. hip Ant.; dis. April 18/63. 
Zadoc C. Batterson, b. Northbridge; m. i. Dec. 14, '61; 26; m.; machinist; 

k. Ant. 
James A. Bonney, p.; b. Erving; 25; s.; printer; pns. B. B.; k. May 31, 64. 
Thomas Breach, b. England, res. cr. Northboro; m. i. Dec. 19, '61; 31; s.; 

hostler; wd. contusion F- O.; reen. Feb. 19, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. 
Samuel D. Brigham, b. Boylston; 40; m.; butcher; dis. Jan. 24, '63. 
Amos W Broad, b. Sterling, res. cr. West Boylston; m.i. Feb. 24/62; 18; 

s.; farmer; det. Batt. B, 3d R. I. Art. April 19, '63; tr. V.R.C. before 

April 20, '64. 
Thomas H. Burgess, b. England; 21; s.; operative; wd. wrist Ant.; dis. 

Nov. 15/62. 
Charles Campbell, b. Fairfax, Va., res. unknown, cr. Dennis; sub.; m. 1. 

July 31/63; 21; harness-maker; never reported. 
John H. Carpenter, b. Uxbridge, res. cr. Belmont; m. i. Aug. 14, '62; 21; 

clerk; wd. shoulder Ant.; wd. side, shoulder, Gett.; tr. V.R.C. March 

15, '64; m. o. July 1 1, '64. 
Cornelius Carr, b. England, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 23, 

'63; 27; s; sailor; dis. Dec. 4/63. 
John E. Carruth, b. Bolton; 19; s.; shoomaker; wd. face Ant.; dis. Feb. 

4, '63; reen. 2d H. Art., Co. M, Dec. 28, '63; m. o. Sept. 3, '65. 
William Carter, b. unknown, res. cr. Sturbridge; m.i. Dec. 17, '61; 37; m.; 

farmer; d. July 18, '62. 
Charles Cassidy, b. Jersey City, N. J.; res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. 

i. Aug. 1, '63; 21; s.; teamster; wd. May 15, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as 

ab. sick; m. o. as ab. sick. 
Hiram A. Chambers, b. Woonsocket Falls, R. I.; res. Worcester; 19; s.; 

wire-worker; k. Ant. 
Robert Clark, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m.i. Aug. 1/63; 

22; s.; laborer; never reported. 
Thomas E. Clarke, b. res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 16/63; 

26; s.; laborer; tr. navy April 23/64. 
Joseph Clegg, b. England, res. Worcester, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 1, 

'63; 33; m.; machinist; pris. Oct. 14, '63; d. Feb. 28, '64, as pris. 
James Coates, b. res. England, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 22, '63; 27; m.; 

trunk-maker; pris. June 22/64; tr- Co. E, 20th, as ab. pris.; d. Oct. 

11, '64, as pris. 
Isaac P Conmg, b. res. West Cambridge, cr. Clinton; m. i. Aug. 12, '62; 

24; m.; machinist; wd. thigh Ant.; dis. March 19, '63. 
Charles Coolidge, b. res. unknown, cr. Worcester; 33. No further record. 
Rufus K. Cooper, b. Northbridge; 23; s.; painter; pris. B. B.; wd. breast 

Gett.; m. o. 
John H. Cowan, b. Scotland, res. cr. Orleans; sub.; m. i. July 31, '63; 27; 

m.; cooper; d. May 25, '64. 
Matthew Creelman.b. Nova Scotia; 21 ; s.; harness-maker; des. Dec. 31/61. 
John Cronan, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i, July 23, '63; 

des. Sept. 12, '63. 



COMPANY C. 361 

George W Cutler, b. Nashua, N. H.; res. cr. Lancaster; 22; s.; harness- 
maker; k. B. B. 
Isaac N. Cutler, b. Nashua, N. H.; res. cr. Lancaster; 20; s.; machinist; 

wd. ankle Ant.; dis. March 24, '63. 
Orin L. Cutting, b. Framingham; 2g; s.; stable-keeper; dis. Oct. 28, '62. 
Patrick Dagan (Daghan), b. Ireland, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 5, 

'63; 26; s.; hostler; des. Sept. 12/63. 
Henry L. Davidson, b. Littleton, res. cr. Sterling; 22; s.; farmer; reen. 

Feb. 12, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. 
Peter Dawson, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Chatham; sub.; m. i. July 27, 

'63; 21 ; s.; seaman; wd. May 6, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 
Patrick Dempsey, b. Ireland, res. Mansfield, cr. Raynham; sub.; m. i. 

July 24, '63; 30; m.; laborer; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 
Edward Deniff, b. Ireland, res. Boston, cr. Roxbury; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 22; s.; laborer; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 
Joseph S. Dickson, b. Ireland; 31; m.; farmer; wd. knee Ant.; dis. Dec. 

17, '62. 
Jacob Dockwiller, b. France, res. Brooklyn, N.Y., cr, Taunton; sub.; m. 

i. July 24, '63; 21; s.; sailor; had been soldier C. S. A.; des. March 

7. '64. 
George Doherty, b. Canada, res. unknown, cr. Boxboro; sub.; m. i. July 

24, '63; 21; baker; des. Aug. 21, '63. 
John Donaldson, b. Scotland, res. unknown, cr. Sandwich; sub.; m. i. 

July 30, '63; 33; book-binder; des. Jan. 4, '64. 
Peter Donnelly, b. Ireland, res. Long Island, N.Y., cr. Provincetown; 

sub.; m. i. July 29, '63; 21; s.; baker; des. Sept. 12, '63. 
George S. Drieur, b. Switzerland, res. unknown, cr. Barnstable; sub.; m. 

i. July 28, '63; 33; s.; farmer; des. Sept. 12, '63. 
John Dumas, b. England, res. unknown, cr. Berlin; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 26; s.; laborer; des. Oct. 4, '63. 
William Eccles, b. Pawtucket, R. I.; 22; s.; comb-maker; wd. Ant.; d. 

Jan. 4, '63. 
Heman O. Edgerly, b. Cambridge, Vt.; 22; s.; comb-maker; pris. B. B.; 

no record of dis.; reported reen. 4th N. H.; wd. Petersburg. 
Frank H. Fairbanks, b. res. cr. Lancaster; 25; s.; pump-maker; reported 

k. F. O.; dis. April 10, '62; reen. Co. H, 34th Regt; pris. Cedar Creek 

Oct. 13, '64; d. pris. Jan. 4, '65. 
Franklin H. Farnsworth, b. res. cr. Lancaster; 19; s.; farmer; k. F. O. 
George O. Fitch, b. Amherst, res. cr. Uxbridge; m. i. March 6/62; 20; 

m.; blacksmith; wd.head '62; d. Ant. 
John Frazer, b. Scotland; 31; s.; operative; k. Ant. 
Orin A. French, b. Nashua, N. H.; res. Brookline, N. H.; cr. Dartmouth; 

m. i. March 5, '64; 18; s.; farmer; wd. thumb May '64; tr. Co. E, 

20th; d. Jan. 1, '65, as pris. 
Albert C. Frost, b. res. cr. Belmont; m. i. Aug. 14, '62; 17; farmer; wd. 

leg Gett.; d. Gett. Sept. 16, '63. 
Joseph L. Frost, b. res. cr. Belmont; m. i. Aug. 14, '62; 21; farmer; wd. 

hand Gett.; m. o. 
Harlow D. Getchell, b. Canada, res. cr. Worcester; 19; s.; shoemaker; 

wd. thigh Ant.; d. Oct. 14, '62. 
David N. Gilmore, b. Boston, res. cr. Westboro; m.i. March 11, '62; 18; 

s.; farmer; dis. Dec. 3/62; reen. Co. K, 34th Regt., Dec. 26, '63; k. 

April 16, '64, New Market. 
Pearl S. Gott, b. Brookville, Me.; res. cr. Sterling; 20; s.; wheelwright; 

tr. Western Flotilla Feb. 17, '62; k. Island No 10, April 7, '62. 

24 



362 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Frank Graichen, b. unknown; m. i. Aug. 27, '61; 28; m.; weaver; wd. B. 

B.; reen. 2d H. Art. Dec. 24, '63; m. o. Sept. 3, '65. 
Gustave Graichen, b. Germany; 22; s.; operative; wd. knee Ant.; dis. 

Dec. 30, '62. 
James M. Gray, b. Sheffield, Vt.; res. cr. Lancaster; 23; s.; pump-maker; 

dis. Feb. 16, '63. 
Henry Greenwood, b. England; 25; s.; printer; pris. B. B.; reen. Feb. 19, 

'64; tr. Signal Corps April 1, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. Aug. 16, '65. 
Joseph A. Hamilton, b. Barre, res. cr. Worcester; 19; s.; farmer; pris. 

B. B.; dis. Feb. 18, '63. 

Charles H. Hapgood, b. Harvard; 20; s.; baker; wd. arm Ant.; tr. V.R. 

C. Feh. 15, '64; m. o. July 16, '64. 

Thomas Hastings, res. cr. Berlin; m. i. Dec. 14, '61; 43; w.; shoemaker; 

wd. thigh Ant. d. Sept. 28, '62. 
Junius D. Hayes, b. Poland, Me.; m. i. Dec. 14, '61; 24; s.; engineer; 

dis. Nov. 15, '62. Afterwards drafted; paid commutation July '63. 
George I. Henry, b. Boylston; 20; s.; operative; tr. V.R.C. Dec. 23, '63; 

m. o. July 14, '65. 
Samuel Hodgkins, b. Lyman, Me.; res. cr. Northboro; 19; s.; clerk; pris. 

B. B.; dis. to accept clerkship adjt. gen. office, Feb. 20, '64. 
Charles E. Holbrook, b. Nashua, N. H.; 19; s.; operative; k. Ant. 
William P Holder, b. unknown; m. i. Jan. 5, '64; 45; shoe-binder; m.; m. 

o. Jan. 22, '64. 
Henry B. Holman, b. Northboro; 19; s.; hostler; wd. leg Ant.; dis. Dec. 

6, '62. 
Joseph S. Holman, b. Northboro; 20; s.; hostler; forage master 1st div. 

2d Army Corps; m. o. 
Henry H. Hosley, b. West Townsend, res. cr. Townsend; 21; s.; painter; 

tr. Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. A., Nov. 12, '62; wd. chin June 20, '64; m. o. 

July 12, '64. 
Frank E. Houghton, b. Amherst; 18; s.; butcher; reen. Batt. I, 1st U. S. 

L. A., Nov. 12, '62; k. June 24, '64. 
James O. Howard, b. Bethel, Me.; 19; s.; hostler; pris. B. B.; never re- 
ported. 
Elmer B. Howe, b. res. cr. Boylston; 32; m.; butcher; pris. June 22,,'64; 

m. o. 
Henry G. Howe, b. res. cr. Sterling; 22; s.; surveyor; wd. leg Ant.; dis. 

Sept. 19, '63. 
Andrew J. Hunt, b. Hopkinton, N. H.; 28; m.; machinist; det. Western 

Flotilla Feb. 17, '62; dis. 15th regt. O. War. Dept. Dec. 8, '63; m. o. 

Aug. 8, "64. 
George W Hunt, b. Lowell; 18; s.; machinist; pris. Ant.; dis. Dec. 4/63. 
Calvin Jameson, b. res. unknown; cr. Worcester; 33; dis. Aug. 6, '61. 
Amos S. Jaquith, b. Jaffrey, N. H.; 35; m.; comb-maker; pris. B. B.; m. 

o. July 11, '64. 
Albert N. Jefts, b. Brookline, N. H.; 20; cooper; s.; reen. Batt. I, 1st U. 

S. L. A. Nov. 13, '62; dis. June 4, '63. 
Adelbert W. Johnson, b. Leominster, res. cr. Lancaster; 23; carpenter; 

s.; dis. Dec. 13, '61; reen. Co. C, 53d Regt., Nov. 6, '62; d. wds. re- 
ceived July 11/63, about Aug. I. 
Charles A. Jones, b. New Brunswick, res. Nova Scotia, cr. Boston; sub.; 

m. i. July 16, '63; 27; m.; barber; ass. Co. C Tan. 6, '64; tr. Dept. of 

the North West, April 29, '64. 
Sumner R. Kilburn, b. Lunenburg; res. cr. Sterling; 18; s.; farmer; wd. 

leg Gett.; reen. Feb. 18, '64; d. June 16, '64. 



COMPANY C. 363 

Henry Kinney, b; New Milford, res. cr. Northboro; 28; m.; shoemaker; 

wd. hip B. B.; dis. Oct. 10, '62. 
John Kirchner, b. Germany; 31: m.; weaver; supposed drowned B. B. 
Solomon Kittredge, b. Billerica, res. cr. Lancaster; m. i. Dec. 14, '61; 42: 

m.; stone-mason: dis. May I, '62; in V.R.C. July I, '64. 
Hiram Laflin. See Co. D. 
John P. Larkin, b. Wrentham, res. cr. Northboro; m. i. July 27, '61; 19; 

s.; shoemaker; k. Ant. 
Willard R. Lawrence, b. Jaffrey, N. H.; res. cr. Lancaster; 28; s.; farmer; 

k. B. B. 
Gilman W Laythe, b. Newport, Vt.; 23; s.; shoemaker; wd, leg Ant.; 

dis. Jan. 6, '63. 
Orin A. Laythe, b. Newport; Vt.; m. i. Aug. 12, '62; 25: s.; carpenter; 

wd. shoulder, breast Ant.; dis. March 14, '63. 
Alexander Lord, b. Orange: m. i. Aug. 12, '62; 27; m.; manufacturer; 

pris. and wd. left side Ant.; k. Gett. 
Leander Loring, b. Boylston, res. cr. Princeton; m. i. Jan. 6, '62; 44; m.; 

brick-maker; dis. Dec. 9, '62. 
Albert W Lowe, b. res. unknown, cr. Worcester; 29; dis. Aug. 6, '61. 
Theodore E. Lowe, 21; s.; comb-maker; wd. hip Ant.; tr. V.R.C. Jan. 15, 

'64; m. o. Nov. 19, '65. 
Alexander Lyle, b. Scotland; 29; s.; operative; wd. foot F O.; dis. Sept. 

18, '62. 
Thomas G. Mahan, b. Northboro; 40; stone-layer; tr. Co. I Feb. 2, '62. 
Edward Malley, drummer; b. Ireland; 20; s.; operative; m. o. [Should 

have been entered as a musician.] 
Hiram Makepeace, b. Biddeford, Me.; 39; m.; carpenter: dis. July 31/62. 
Charles V. Marsh, b. res. cr. Belmont; m. i. Aug. 14, '62; 27; farmer; wd. 

head, hand Gett.; m. o. as m. in a. 
Joseph Mason, b. E. Canada, res. Canada, cr. Dartmouth; m. i, March 

14, '64; 23; s.; farmer; wd. May 6, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. 

o. March 18, '65, as ab. wd. 
Waldo B. Maynard, b. Northboro; 23; farmer; s.; wd. chest Ant.; d. Sept. 

24, '62. 
Joseph E. Miner, b. Boston; m. i. Aug. 12/62: 26; m.; carpenter; wd. 

face, hands, knees Ant.; wd. hand Gett.; det. Pioneer Corps April 

14-July '64; m. o. 
Joseph Minot, b. St. Albans, Vt.; res. cr. Grafton; m. i. Aug. 7, '62; 24; 

farmer; dis. unknown. 
Oliver W. Moore, b. res. cr. Lowell; m. i. Aug. 11/62; 20; farmer; det. 

Batt. B, R. I. Art., Dec. 24, '62; tr. V.R.C. Sept. 8, '63; dis. July 18/64. 
Robert R. Moses, b. Wales, res. cr. Lancaster; m. i. Dec. 17, '61; 24; s.; 

slater; wd. Ant.; d. Oct' 3, '62. 
George Muir, b. Scotland; 21; s.; weaver; no record of dis.; reen. Co. 

B, 13th N.Y. Cav. 
Thomas P. Munyan, b. unknown, res. cr. Webster; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 25; 

s.; teamster; wd. shoulder Ant.; d. Oct. 27, '62. 
Patrick Neyland, b. Ireland, res. cr. Boylston; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 35; s.; 

farmer; dis. Dec. 2, '62. 
Hervey B. Olcott, b. Keene, N. H.; m. i. Dec. 14/61; 29; m.; engineer; 

wd. loin Ant.; wd. arm Gett.; tr. V.R.C. March 15, '64; m. o. Dec. 

13. '64. 
George F Osgood, b. Lancaster; m. i. Aug. 12, '62; 22; s.; bootmaker; 

pris. wd. Ant.; k. Gett, 



364 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Otis S. Osgood, b. Brattleboro, Vt.; 22; s.; watchman; wd. arm Ant.; dis. 
Jan. 10, '63. 

Charles H. Palmer, b. Southbridge, res. cr. Worcester; 20; s.; wire- 
worker; dis. May 1, '62. 

Jasper A. Partridge, b. Illinois; res. cr. Alstead, N. H,; 20; s.; farmer; 
dis. April 15, '62. 

Charles G. Perkins, b. Nashua, N. H.; res. cr. Worcester; 20; s.; watch- 
man; wd. hand Ant.; dis. Nov. 17, '62. 

Silas Priest, b. res. unknown; cr. Worcester; 31; m. o. unknown. 

George T. D. Putnam, b. Wilton, N. H.; m. i. Dec. 14. '61; 21; s.; mer- 
chant; reg't bugler Feb. 10, '62; dis. Dec. 17, '62. 

Henry A. Putnam, b. Nashua, N. H.; 24; s.; mechanic; pris. B. B.; tr. 
Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. Art, Nov. 12, '62; m. o. July 12, '64. 

George O. Raymond, b. Thompson, Ct.; res. cr. Oxford; m. i. Aug. 8,'62; 
32; shoemaker; wd. hip Gett; d. July 22, '63. 

Henry Reed, b. Ireland, res. East Canada, cr. Dartmouth; m. i. March 
14, '64; 34; s.; farmer; pris. May 6, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m.o. 
as pris. 

Henry H. Rugg, b. res. cr. Lancaster; 21; s.; baker; wd. shoulder B. B.; 
dis. May 1, '62; reen. Co. K, 53d Regt., Oct. 17/62: m. o. Sept. 2/63; 
also in Co. E, 42d Regt., July 22, '64; m. o. Nov. 11, '64. 

George W B. Sawyer, b. Westboro, res. cr. Shrewsbury; 18; s.; shoe- 
maker; pris. B. B.; k. Ant. 

Joseph C. Shattuck, b. Townsend; res. Brookline; cr. Dartmouth; m. i. 
March 14, '64; 18; s.; farmer; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. June 3, '65. 

Alfred Smith, b. Thompson, Ct.; m. i. Aug. 7/62; 27; s.; farmer; wd. 
face Ant.; reen. Feb. 18, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 

Charles E. Smith, b. Framingham, res. cr. Northboro; 25; m.; shoemaker; 
wd. head Ant.; dis. Dec. 13, '61. 

Francis E. Smith, b. Dorchester; 18; s.; weaver; d. July 25, '62. 

John Smith, b. England; 27; m.; weaver; pris. B. B.; wd. breast Gett.; 
tr. V.R.C. Jan. 15, '64; d. 

Samuel T. Smith, b. Philadelphia, Pa.; res. cr. Boylston; 34; m.; painter; 
wd. hip B. B.; wd. ankle Ant.; dis. March 13, '63. 

Egbert M. Stevens, b. Collinsville, Ct.; res. cr. Webster; m. i. March 11, 
'62; 18; s.; farmer; wd. Ant.; d. Feb. 8, '63. 

Charles E. Stone, b. Tolland, Ct.; res. unknown, cr. Worcester; m. i. 
Dec. 14, '61; dis. Nov. 13, '62. 

Charles A. Tenney, b. Leominster, res. cr. Sterling; 21; s.; chair-maker; 
pris. B. B.; wd. foot May 16, '64; m. o. 

Leonard M. Towsley, b. Manchester, Vt.; 27; m.; machinist; wd. arm 
Ant.; d. Sept. 27, '62. 

Charles A. Trowbridge, b. Westford, res. cr. Northboro; 34; m.; comb- 
maker; dis. Oct. 28, '62. 

Luther G. Turner, b. Groton, res. cr. Lancaster: 23; m.; blacksmith; wd. 
B. B.; d. Nov. 1, '61. 

William Walker, b. Germany; 28; s.; weaver; k. B. B. 

Charles W. Ware, b. res. unknown, cr. Worcester; dis. Aug. 6, '61. 

James G. Warner, b. res. cr. Lancaster; 31; m.; farmer; k. B. B. 

Charles E. Warren, b. Princeton, res. cr. Northboro; 18; s.; farmer; wd. 
thigh Ant.; d. Oct. 2, '62. 

George O. Wilder, res. cr. Holliston; m. i. Dec. 14. '61; 18; s.; clerk; 
sergt.-raajor Oct. 22, '63; 1st lieut., adjt., Dec. 3, '63, m. and ass. Co. A 
June 4, '64; pris. Ant.; pris. June 22, '64; reen. March 10, '64; tr. Co, 
G, 20th; m. o. as pris. May 15, '65. 



COMPANY D. 365 

Edwin H. Willard, b. Sterling, res. cr. Lancaster; 23; m.; farmer; m. o. 

Milo Winchester, b. res. unknown; 39; dis. Aug. 6, '61. 

John Wood, b. res. cr. Bolton; m. i. Dec. 14/61; 20; s.; farmer; dis. Jan. 
12, '63. 

Thomas X. Woodward, Jr., b. Brookline, res. cr. Northboro; 23; s.; farm- 
er; pris. B. B.; d. Nov. 25, '61, as pris. 



COMPANY D. 

The members of this company were natives and citizens of Worces- 
ter, and were credited to that city unless it is otherwise stated in each 
particular. For the history of the company before the date of muster 
see pages 22-24. 

John M. Studley, capt.; 32; m.; stair-builder; pris. B. B.; dis. Oct. 27, '62, 
to accept pro.; lieut.-col. 51st Regt. Oct. 31, '62, m. Nov. 11, '62; m. o. 
July 27, '63. 

Edward J. Russell. See Co. F. Capt. Co. D April 10-Sept. 8, '63. 

Samuel J. Fletcher. See Co. H. Capt. Co. D Oct. 30, '63-July 28, '64. 

Thomas J. Hastings, sergt.; b. Camden, Me.; 26; s.; machinist; 1st sergt. 

Feb. 1, '63; 2d lieut. March 15, '63; 1st lieut Aug.. 30, '63 (see Co. C); 

com. Co. D Dec. 11-21, '63, March 19-June 22, '64; capt. July 14, '64, 

never m.; pris. B. B.; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. March 11, ''65. 
Daniel W. Knight. See Co. F 1st lieut. Co. D Dec. 23, '63-July 28, '64. 

Com. Co. D Dec. 31, '63-Jan. 29, '64. 
Charles M. Murray, p.; b. Lowell; 31; m.; bootmaker; sergt. Aug. '61; 

1st sergt. Sept. 21, '61; 2d lieut. Nov. 7/62; 1st lieut. Jan. 3, '63, m. 

Feb. 16, '63; wd. Ant.; wd. ankle Gett.; re. Sept. 25, '63. 
Nelson V Stanton. See Co. H. Com. Co. D as 1st lieut. Oct. 21-Dec. 

1, '63. 
Edwin P. Woodward, 1st lieut.; 29; s.; accountant; det. signal service 

Sept. 1, '61-June '63; capt. April 11/63, never m.; tr. Co. K July 21, 

'63; re. July 29/63. 

J. William Grout, 2d lieut; 18; s.; student; k. B. B. 

John S. Hall, 1st sergt.; b. Boston; 21; s.; actor; sergt.-major Sept. 25, 

'61; 2d lieut. Nov. 22, '61, m. and ass. Co. D Jan. 6/62; wd. thigh 

while on picket duty April 28, '62; re. Jan. 8, '63. 
Hans P Jorgensen. See Co. A. 2d lieut. Co. D Nov. 22, '61-Jan. 6, '62. 

George E. Barnard, p.; b. Waldoboro, Me.; 21; s.; jeweler; sergt. May 
16/63; acting 1st sergt. July 29,-Oct. 23/63; 1st sergt. Oct. 23/63; 
wd. B. B.; k. June 22, '64. 

William H. Ford, Corp.; b. res. Abington; 21; s.; wool-carder; sergt. Oct. 

24/63; pris. B. B.; wd. leg May '64; reen. Feb. 4, '64; tr. to Co. E, 

20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 
Luther D. Goddard, sergt; 34; m.; merchant; pris. B. B.; dis. June 20, '62. 
Henry Houghton, p.; b. England; 22; s.; machinist; corp.; sergt. Jan. 1, 

'64; pris. B. B.; wd. May 12, '64; reen. Feb. 4, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as 

ab. wd.; m. o. July 10. '65. 
John S. Logue, p.; b. Boston; 23; m.; boot-packer; Corp.; sergt. Nov. 1, 

'63; reen. March 23, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 



366 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

F. McCambridge, Corp.; b. Newton Corner; 21; s.; trader; lance-sergt. 

Oct. 22, '61; sergt. June 20, '62; d. Aug. 8, '62. 
George G. Noyes, p.; b. Holliston; 25; s.; book-maker; sergt. before B. 

B.; pris. B. B.; dis. April 22, '63. 
Oliver S. Oakes, sergt.; b. Prescott; 24; s.; telegraph operator; wd. fore- 
head B. B.; wd. arm Ant.; m. o. 
Edward A. Rice, p.; b. Boston; 27.; s.; clerk; sergt. Feb. 1, '63; Q. M. 

sergt. Dec. 8, '63; m. o. 
John A. Richardson, p.; b. Shrewsbury, cr. Leicester; 22; s.; mechanic; 

corp. Oct. 22, '61; sergt. Oct. 24, '63; wd. May 4, '64; reen. March 24; 

'64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab.; dis. June 21, '65. 
Walter S. Shaw, p.; b. res. cr. Paxton; 22; s.; marble-worker; lance-sergt. 

Oct. 22, '61; wd. arm June 27, '62; d. July 17, '62. 
Charles W Upham, p.; 18; s.; clerk; sergt.; pris. B. B.; d. Dec. 14/61, 

as pris. 

Samuel W Armington, p.; b. St. Johnsbury, Vt.; m. i. Jan. 3, '62; 24; s.; 
clerk; corp.; pris. Nov. 27, '63; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. March 
26, '65. 

Henry S. Baker, p.; b. Grafton; 22; s.; clicker; corp.; wd. shoulder Gett.; 
dis. April 22, '64. 

William H. Bergen, p.; b. Newark, N. J.; res. cr. Leicester; 19; s.; boot- 
maker; corp.; wd. shoulder Gett.; tr. V. R.C. March 15/64; d. July 
11/64. 

George W. Farr, p.; b. Walpole, N. H.; m. i. Aug. 25, '61; 22; s.; clerk; 
corp. Sept. '63; tr. 20th; m. o. May 22, '65. 

James B. Gibson, p.; b. Acquackanonck, N. J.; res. Fitchburg, cr. Mill- 
bury; m. i. Feb. 24, '62; 20; s.; yeoman; reen. Feb. 25, '64; corp. 
Feb. 25/64; wd. May 6. '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 

E. D. Jordan, corp.; b. Lowell; 29; m.; tinsmith; Sept. 20/61; wd. leg 
Ant.; d. Sept. 25, '62. 

James H. Kneeland, p.; b. Boston; 24; s.; carriage-smith; Corp.; lost arm 
Ant.; dis. Dec. 13/62; reen. V. R.C. ; m. o. Oct. '64. 

John S. Knight, p.; b. unknown, res. cr. Greenville, Me.; 26; s.; scythe- 
maker; corp.; wd. shoulder, side, back Gett.; dis. Feb. 8, '64. 

Charles A. Mullany, p.; b. res. cr. Boston; 21; s.; shoemaker; corp.; m. o. 

Warren F. Osgood, corp.; b. res. cr. Salisbury; 22; s.; carriage-trimmer; 
wd. thigh Ant.; tr. V.R.C. July 19, '63: dis. date unknown. 

Lyman B. Parkhurst, p.; b. unknown, res. cr. Hopkinton; 19; s.; me- 
chanic; corp.; m. o. 

Joseph F. Pierce; 21; s.; moulder; corp.; m. o. 

Camden W. Smith, Corp.; b. Darien, Ga.; 22; s.; hospital attendant; pris. 
B. B.; dis. Sept. 21/62. 

Charles F. Southwick, p.; b. res. cr. Northbridge; 23; s.; machinist; 
corp.; dis. April 16, '62. 

Benjamin Taft, corp.; b. Webster; 20; s.; clerk; pris. B. B.; tr. Co. I 
Sept. 20, '61, as 1st sergt.; d. pris. Jan. 15, '65. 

Priestly Young, corp.; b. Schenectady, N. Y'; 42; m.; merchant. 

Frederick T. Maple, p.; s.; moulder; musician; reen. Dec. 25, '63; tr. Co. 
G, 20th; m. o. 

Frank Knight, wagoner; b. Leicester; m. i. Aug. 5, '61; 24; s.; teamster; 
dis. Jan. 31, '62. 

Henry S. Whittemore, p.; b. Roxbury; 40; m.; wagoner; teamster Jan. 
'64; master wagoner of brigade; reen. Jan. 1/64; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. 



COMPANY D. 367 

Privates. 

Elbridge Acker, b. Claremont, N. Y.; res. cr. Oxford; m. i. Aug. 11, '62; 

31; s.; merchant; wd. foot Ant.; reen. Feb. 11, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th; 

pris. Aug. 25, '64; m. o, July 27, '65. 
Charles H. Adams, b. res. cr. Hopkinton; 19; s.; butcher; pris. B. B.; d. 

Feb. 27, '62. 
Warren H. Alger, b. Winchendon; 21; s.; mechanic; pris. B. B.; reen. 

Feb. 7, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; d. Aug. 14, '64, as pris. 
Charles W Allen, b. res. cr. Hubbardston; 17; s.; teamster; m. o. 
Edward Anderson, b. Sutton; 23; s.; shoemaker; dis. Dec. 30, '62. 
Edwin F Andrews, b. res. Millbury, cr. Worcester; m. i. Jan. 15, '62; 18; 

clerk; dis. Dec. 30, '62. 
William H. Andrews, b. Winchester; 21; s.; pattern-maker; pris. B. B.; 

dis. Feb. 16, '63. 
William D. Bell, b. Scotland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 

23, '63; 30; sailor; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
Charles H. Bemis, b. Ashburnham; 21; m.; plough-maker; pris. B. B.; 

tr. Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. Art, Nov. 14, '62; m. o. July 12, '64. 
Henry N. Bemis, b. Ashburnham; m. i. July 24, '61; 24; s. farmer; pris. 

B. B.; tr. Batt, I, 1st U. S. L. Art.; m. o. July 12, '64. 

Thomas Bickford, b. North Belgrade, Me.; res. Waterville, Me.; 22; s.; 

brakeman; des. Aug. 1, '62. 
W S. Bickford, b. unknown; m. i. March 1, '62; 27; m.; clerk; dis. Dec. 

6, '62. 
Henry G. Bigelow. p.; b. res, cr. Paxton; 20; s.; clerk; sergt.-major Dec. 

23, '61 ; 2d lieut. Oct. 28, '62, ass. Co. H; 1st lieut. Jan. 27, '63, ass. Co. 

C, April 9, '63; wd. thigh Ant.; re. Aug. 28, '63. 

Edwin Blake, 21; s.; hammersman; wd. abdomen F O.; d. on passage 

home of wds. 
William M. Blodgett, b. Dorchester, N. H.; res. Hudson, N. H.; 24; m.; 

mechanic; k. F. O. 
Herbert Bond, b. Saccarrapa, Me.; res. cr. Grafton; 19; s.; boot-maker; 

dis. Aug. 23, '61. 
Charles P Bonzey, b. Auburn, res, Millbury; 28; m.; carpenter; pris. B. 

B.; m. o. 
Lewis Brigham, b. Canada; m. i. Feb. 18, '62; 23; s.; blacksmith; dis. 

Feb. 3, '63. 
Mitchell Butterfield, b. Canada; m.i. Jan. 20/62; 21; s.: shoemaker; reen. 

Jan. 22, '64; dropped as des. March 26, '64. 
Andrew Cadret, b. Canada, res. cr. West Boylston; m. i. Jan. 24, '62; 29; 

m.; shoemaker; pris. Ant.; des. May 1, '63. 
Peter C. Cain, b. Ireland, res. cr. Southbridge; m. i. Jan. 2i,'62; 22; s.; 

mule-spinner; wd. left hand May '64; m. o. Jan. 20, '65. 
Clinton A. Chapman, b. New York, res. cr. Charlton; m. i. Feb. 4, '62; 28; 

s.; gunsmith; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. May 3, '65. 
Herbert L. Cheney, b. Holden, res. cr. Paxton; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 18; s.; 

shoemaker; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. Dec. 12, '64. 
George G. Childs, 23; s.; carriage-maker; tr. Western Flotilla Feb. 17/62. 
Charles W. Clifford, b. North Edgecomb, Me.; res. cr. Leicester; m. i. 

Aug. 4, '62; 42; m.; painter; dis. Dec. 1, '62. 
Andrew S. Cobb, b. Cornish, Me.; 24; s.; boot-maker; det. signal service; 

d. Aug. 12, '62. 
Harvey Conant, b. unknown, res. cr. West Boylston; m. i. Feb. 13, '62; 32; 

m.; mason; dis. Jan. 7, '63 as of Co. A. 



368 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Barney Cooney, b. Ireland; m. i. March 14, '62: 21; s.; shoemaker; d. 

wds. Ant. 
Joseph Copeland, b. res. Corinna, Me.; cr. Lancaster; m. i. April 29, '64; 

21; s.; laborer; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; d. Oct. 17, 

'64, as pris. 
James B. Cromac, b. Concord, N. H.; 22; s.; boot-maker; tr. igth M.V 

Aug. 6, '61; dis. Sept. 27, '62, as Joseph B. Cromac. 
Stillman L. Cummings, b. Athol; 24; m.; carpenter; k. B. B. 
Charles H. Cutler, b. res. cr. Boston; m. i. March 21, '64; 18; s.; clerk; 

tr. Co. K, 20th, as musician; V.R.C. June 26, '65; m. o. July 26, '65. 
James D. Daniels, b. Virginia; 22. s.; machinist; pris. B. B.; wd. knee 

Gett.; m. o. 
Henry R. Dawson, b. England, res.cr. Leicester; 20; s.; wool-sorter; pris. 

B. B.; wd. May 6, '64; reen. Feb. 7/64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as abs. wd; m.o. 
Charles L. Defose, b. Spencer; 20; s.; boot-maker; dis. Jan. 22, '63; reen. 

57th Regt; 2d lieut. June 12, '65; m.o. July 30, '65. 
John H. Divoll, b. Crompton, R.I.; 33; m.; soap-maker; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Sept. 21, '62. 
John Donnelly, b. Ireland; res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Jan. 13, '62; 33; m.; 

jack-spinner; tr. Co. D, 20th, as ab. pris.; m. o. April 20, '65. 
William Douglas, b. Scotland, res. Haverhill, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 

23, '63; 30; m.; sailor; tr. navy, April 23, '64. 
Oscar Downs, b. Woodbridge, Ct.; m. i. Aug. 20, '61; 37; m.; cabinet- 
maker; dis. Aug. 2, '62. 
Irvin Dunn, b. res. unknown, cr. Deerfield; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 25; s.; 

laborer; sentenced to labor, Dry Tortugas, March 31, '64. 
John H. Dunn, b. England, res. Cambridgeport, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. 

July 31, '63; 27: m.; book-keeper; des. April n, '64. 
Edward O. Eames, b. res. cr. Upton; 20; s.; clerk; dis. Mar. u, '63. 
Anthony Earle, 22; s.; carpenter; pris. B. B.; dis. Nov. 22, '62; reen. 61st 

Regt.; 2d lieut. Dec. 28, '64; 1st lieut. Dec. 30, '64; m. o. July 16, '65. 
Francis W. Eaton, res. East Cambridge; sub.; m. i. July 27, '63; 45; m.; 

tailor; wd. May 6, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; d. Sept. 29, '64, as pris. 
James Farrell, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 31, 

'63; 26; s.; shoemaker; des. Oct. 1, '63. 
Eugene L. Fay, res. unknown; m. i. July 9, '62; 18; mechanic; dis. Jan. 

9, '63. 
John Ferguson, b. England, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 30 

'63; 23; s.; sailor; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
Thomas Ferguson, b. Ireland, res. San Francisco, Cal.; cr. Boston; sub.; 

m. i. Aug, 1, '63; 27; s.; waiter; des. Aug. 16, '63. 
William Finch, b. England, res. unknown, cr. Yarmouth; sub.; m. i. July 

30/63; 21; s.; laborer; d. March 24/64. 
Ralph T. Finney, b. Boston; 25; m.; clerk; wd. thighs B. B.; m. o. 
George Fish, b. res. Canada West, cr. Douglas; m. i. April 29, '64; 20; s.; 

seaman; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. June 27, '65. 
William Fisher, b. Prussia, res. Philadelphia, Pa.; cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. 

Aug. 1, '63; 21; s.; mechanic; des. Aug. 7, '63. 
Francis W. Fisk, b. Ireland, res. Belchertown; sub.; m. i. July 27, '63; 

24; s.; shoemaker; wd. back May 6, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; 

m. o. 
Charles M. Fitch, b. Charlestown; 20; s.; butcher; reen. Feb. 4, '64; tr. 

Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. June 30, '65. 
James Foley, b. Ireland, res. West Springfield, cr. Granby; sub.; m. i. 

July 28, '63; 40; m.; shoemaker; tr. Co. E, 20th; dis. Oct. 22, '64. 



COMPANY D. 369 

John Frederig, b. Germany, res. New York, cr. Attleboro; sub.; m. i. 

Aug. 5, '63; 35; m.; blacksmith; wd. leg Oct. 14, '63; dis. May 24, '64. 
Joseph Freeman, b. Nova Scotia, res. unknown; sub.; m. i. July 28, '63; 

21; s.; farmer; d. Nov. 22, '63. 
James Fry, b. Ireland, res. Albany, N. Y.; cr. Easthampton; sub.; m. i. 

July 30/63; 22; s.; printer; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab.; 

m. o. July 27, '65. 
Henry J. Fuller, b. Warwick; res. Oakham; 18; s.; wire-drawer; pris. 

B. B.; dis. Jan. 22, '63. 
Ormando H. Fuller, b. Athens, Yt.; res. cr. Derby, Vt.; 22; s.; clerk; dis. 

May 11, '63. 
Lyman W Gilbert, b. res. cr. West Brookfield; 26; s. farmer; dis. April 

16, '62. 
William S. Gilman, b. Marietta, Ohio; 22; s.; medical student; wd. hand 

'62; V.R.C. Jan. 15, '64. 
John L. Givan, b. Canada, res. unknown, cr. Nantucket; sub.; m. i. July 

30, '63; 30; s.; carpenter; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. sick; d. Oct. 6, '64, as 

pris. 
Charles A. Gleason, b. res. cr. Leicester; 24; s.; leather-dresser; pris. 

Ant.; d. Nov. 8, '64, as pris. 
Milan Gleason, b. Rutland, Vt.; 2}\ carpenter; wd. arm B. B.; dis. July 

7. '63- 
Charles H. Goff, b. Mendon; res. cr. Leicester; 25; s.; wool-spinner; k. 

B. B. 
Charles O. Goodnow, b. res. cr. Paxton; 22; s.; clerk; wd. hand June 29, 

'62; des. Sept. 2, '62. 
Wilbur Goodrich, b. res. cr. Greenfield; sub.; m. i. July 29/63; 23; s.; 

teamster; des. Aug. 11/63. 
Alfred M. Goodwin, b. Deerfield, N. H.; res. cr. Amesbury; sub'; m. i. 

July 10, '63; 2S; s.; laborer; tr. Co. G, 20th; pris. July 29, '64; d. Sept. 

1, '64. 
Herman G. Goudig, b. res. Prussia, cr. Dorchester; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 36; s.; currier; wd. May '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 
Edwin Goulding, m. i. Feb. 6, '62; 18; s.; shuttle-maker; wd. back Gett.; 

rcen, Feb. 15, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. 
Charles A. Green, b. Franklin, Ct.; m. i. July 24, '62; 33; pris. June 22, 

'64; m. o. March 25, '65. 
Levi C. Greenleaf, 26; s.; clerk; tr. to Non.-Com. Staff as com.-sergt. be- 
fore Dec. 8, '63; tr. V.R.C. March 15, '64; m. o. 
John Grey, b. St. Johnsbury, Vt.; res. New Jersey, cr. Taunton; sub.; m. 

i. July 30, '63; 22; s.; bar-tender; dis. April 18, '64. 
Gusippa Griff a, b. Italy, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 16, '63; 

32; s.; iron-keeper; pris. Nov. 27, '63. 
Richard L. Hannant, b. Vermont.; m. i. Jan. 20/62; 31; m.; mechanic; 

wd. arm F. O.; dis. Nov. 12, '62. 
Eben Harris, b. Cooperstown, N. Y.; 33; m.; weaver; dis. March 14, '62. 
Charles Head, b. Waltham; 22; s.; wire-drawer; wd. Ant.; dis. Oct. 27, '62. 
Harlan Henry, b. res. Rutland; 24; s.; wire-maker; pris. B. B.; dis. Dec. 

19, '62. 
Charles M. Hersey, b. Spencer, res. cr. Southbridge; 21; s.; butcher; dis. 

May 16, '64. 
James Holmes, b. res. cr. Paxton; 18; s.; boot-maker; dis. Nov. 12, '62. 
Michael Holligan, b. Ireland; m. i. July 17, '62; 25; laborer; wd. thigh 

May '64; tr. 20th; des. June 30, '64. 



370 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Benjamin D. House, b. Vermont; 20; s.; clerk, student; wd. jaw F ().; 

dis. Sept. 19, '62. 
Hollis H. Howe, b. res. cr. Paxton; m. i. Dec. 10, '61; 43; m.; boot-maker; 

d. May 4, '62. 

D. L. Jennison, b. res. cr. Auburn; m. i. July 30, '61; 21; s.; shoemaker; 

pris. B. B.; m. o. 
Andrew S. Knight, b. res. cr. Charlton; m.i. Aug. 13, '62; 24; shoemaker; 

wd. leg, head Ant; tr. V.R.C. Jan. 22, '64; m. o. 
Hiram Laflin. Name given in Co. D record, Mass. Vols. No such name 

in company books. See unassigned recruits. 
Charles H. Lamb, b. Dudley, res. cr. Oxford; 24; m.; mechanic; det. 

Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. Art. July 15, '62; wd. May '64; reen. Feb. 4, '64; 

tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. July 15, '65. 
Jeremiah B. Lamb, b. Phillipston; m. i. Dec. 2, '61; 32; m.; butcher; dis. 

April 22, '63. 
Edson T. Leland, b, Barton, Vt.; 21; s.; wheelwright; d. Sept. 12, '62. 
Charles P Mansfield, b. Suffield, res. cr. Westboro; m. i. March 11, '62; 

18; s.; farmer; d. June 18, '62. 
Silas D. Marsh, b. res. cr. Hardwick; 26; s.; maker of woodenware; wd. 

breast, d. Ant. 
Peter McKeon (McCune), b. Ireland; m.i. Jan. 31/62; 21; s.; shoemaker; 

pris. Ant.; dis. March 21, '63. 
John McDonald, b. Ireland; m. i. March 8, '62; 22; s.; farmer; wd. leg 

and shoulder Nov. 27, '62; tr. 20th; m. o. 
Albert Megan, b. Bangor, Me.; res. cr. West Boylston; m. i. Jan. 20, '62 

21; s.; lumberman; wd. right thigh May '64; d. July 28, '64. 
Frank H. Merrifield, res. Holden; m. i. March 5, '62; 20; s.; carpenter 

wd. scalp and arm, Oct. 14/63; reen. March 29, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th 

as ab. sick; m.o. 
Walton M. Mirick, b. Paxton; 25; s.; farmer; wd. arm Ant.; dis. Jan. 21/63 
John Morey, b. Oxford; m. i. July 15/62; 41; shoemaker; tr. 15th Batt. 

m. o. Aug. 1, '64. 
George B. Newcomb, b. res. Ashland, cr. Marlboro; m. i. March 22, '64 

21; s.; shoemaker; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. sick; d. Aug. 27, '64, pris. 
Oliver W. Newton, b. Danvers; m. i. Feb. 6, '62; 18; farmer; pris. Ant. 

reen. Feb. 7, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. sick; dis. July 5, '65. 
Charles H. Nichols, b. unknown, res. Ossipee, N. H.; cr. New Marlboro 

m. i. April 13, '64; 21; s.; farmer; d. July 2, '64. 
Francis H. Noyes, b. Needham; m. i. July 24, '62; 29; wire-roller; d. wd 

Ant. 
Willis H. Odlin, b. Madison, Me.; res. Benton, Me.; 20; s.; wheelwright 

m. o. 
Leander J. Owen, b. Ashford, Ct.; m. i. Jan. 20, '62; 27; m.; factory over- 
seer; k. Ant. 
George Parsons, b. Sutton; m. i. March 14, '62; 34; s.; bootmaker; dis. 

Dec. 20/62; d. Jan. 8, '63, at hospital, Alexandria. 
George W. Pasco, b. Thorndike, res. cr. Palmer; m. i. Dec. 9, '61; 19; s; 

card-spinner; dis. Dec. 17, '62. 
James F. Peacock, b. England; 21; s.; farmer; dis. Nov. 22, '62; reen. 

57th Regt. 2d lieut. April 9, '64; m. o. May 25, '65. 
Edward L. Pierce, b. unknown; 23; s.; moulder; not accepted. 

E. W. Pierce, b. Northboro; 19; s.; mechanic; dis. Oct. 9, '62; reen. Co. 

G, 34th Regt., Jan. 5, '64; d. wds. Dec. 26. '64. 
George 0. Pierce, b. res. cr. Paxton; 20; s.; clerk; d. Aug. 1, '62. 



COMPANY D. 37I 

Frank Pollinger, b. Germany; m. i. Feb. 20, '62; 34; m.; cigar-maker; 

dis. Sept. 19, '62. 
George S. Putnam, 18; s.; sailor; tr. Western Flotilla Feb. 17, '62. 
Patrick Ratigan, b. Ireland; m. i. Jan. 25, '62; 25; m.; laborer; reen. Feb. 

7, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. 
A. J. Rawson, b. East Douglas, res. cr. Millbury; 18; s.; bootmaker; dis. 

Oct. 28, '62. 
Melville R. Rowe, b. unknown, res. cr. West Boylston; m. i. Feb. 17, '62; 

23; s.; bootmaker; tr. Co. K, 20th; m. o. March 7, '65. Name not on 

company books. Is it Melvin B. Rowe, Co. E? 
Alonzo Sabin, b. Southbridge, res. cr. Millbury; 25; s.; carnage-maker; 

tr. Co. I April 2, '62; m. o. 
David B. Seaver, b. Mendon, res. cr. Millbury; 24; s.; mechanic; wd. 

arm B. B.; wd. June 29, '62; des. Aug. 5, '62. 
William L. Sholes, b. Canterbury, Ct.; res. cr. Webster; m. i. Aug. 6, '62; 

22; m.; shoemaker; k. Ant. 
Augustus Sibley, b. res. cr. Grafton; m. i. Aug. 7, '61; 25; teamster; dis. 

May 1, '62. 
Samuel Slater, b. England; m. i. July 10, '62; 20; s.; operative; wd. hand 

May '64; m. o. G. O. 28. 
Alfred F- Smith, b. Northampton; 19; s.; clerk; pris. B.B.; W. D. clerk; 

m. o. 
Eli L. Smith, b. Ludlow; m. i. July 24, '62; 34; wire drawer; pris. Ant.; 

dis. Jan. 10, '63. 
John W Smith, b. Rockland, Me.; 22; s.; clerk; k. B. B. 
John W. Southland, b. Mendon, res. cr. Milford; m. i. Jan. 30; '62; 24; m.; 

bootmaker; wd. head, heel Ant; tr. V.R.C. Jan. 15/64; dis. Feb. 24/64. 
Amos Sprague, b. New Bedford; 22; s.; shoemaker; dis. April 15, '62. 
John F. Stafford, b. Charlestown; 19; s.; wood-worker; k. B. B. 
Orman Stevens, b. Charlton, Me.; res. cr. Charlton; m. i. July 27, '62; m.; 

painter; k. Gett. 
Charles H. Stiles, b. unknown; m. i. Aug. 6, '62; 22; k. Ant. Name ap- 
pears in Mass. Volunteers, but no such name on company books. 
Dwight Stockwell, b. Leverett, res. cr. Spencer; m. i. Feb. 4, '62; 23; s.; 

wire-drawer; wd. thigh Ant.; tr. V.R.C. Oct. 26, '63; m. o. Feb. 4, '65. 
Josiah Stone, b. Saco, Me.; res. cr. Boston; m. i. March 31, '64; 39; m.; 

carpenter; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 
George M. Sylvester, b. South Hingham; 19; s.; mason; dis. Oct. 2, '62. 
James Taylor, b. Providence, R. I.; 22; s.; machinist; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Dec. 30, '62. 
George H. Thompson, b. Wrentham, res. cr. Blackstone; m. i. Feb. 25, 

'62; 29; m.; farmer; k. Ant. 
J. B. Thompson, b. Hardwick; 28; m.; sawyer; pris. B. B; wd. shoulder 

May '64; m. o. 
Christopher Train, b. Germany; m. i. July 26/62; 39; wire-drawer; wd. 

knee Gett.; V.R.C. March 15, '64; m. o. July 12, '65. 
Melville Walker, b. Hopkinton; m. i. Dec. 2, '62; 37; m.; clicker; wd. 

foot Ant.: d. Sept. 27, '62. 
Henry C. Ward, m. i. July 31, '61; 18; s.; carriage-trimmer; sergt.-major 

Nov. 1, '62; 2d lieut. March 14, '63, ass. Co. F; tr. to Co. I, April 15, 

'63; wd. hip B. B., hand Ant.; re. Sept. 4, '63; 1st lieut. 57th regt., 

March 9, '64; capt. July 31, '64; m. o. June 30, '65. Since war 2d 

lieut., ist lieut. and capt. U. S. A. 
Henry A. Waters, b. res. cr. Millbury; 21; s.; cabinet-maker; dis. Nov. 

22, '62. 



372 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Herman B. Weixler, b. Germany; 25; m.; actor; pris. B. B.; dis. Nov. 

26, '62. 
James E. White, b. res. cr. Grafton; 22; s.; carpenter; pris. B. B.; des. 

March 30, '63. 
Oliver L. White, b. Lagrahge. Me.; res. cr. West Boylston; m.i. Feb. 19, 

'62; 22: s.: boot-maker; wd. ankle; tr. V.R.C. Aug. 8, '63; m. o. close 

of war.. Name not on Company books. 
Albert C. Willard, b. res. cr. Charlton; 24; s.; carriage-maker; dis. Jan. 

6, '64. 
Charles W. Wood, b. Hardwick; m. i. July 23/62 ; 18; finisher; pris. June 

22, '64; m. o. May 22, '65. 
Dwight B. Woods, b. Leicester; 19; s.; blacksmith; m. o. 
Aaron P Young, b. Southbridge, res. cr. Webster; 19; s.; student; dis. 

Dec. 9, '62. 



COMPANY E. 

The members of this company were natives and citizens of Oxford 
and were credited on the quota of that town unless it is otherwise stated in 
each particular. For the history of this company before the date of 
muster, see pages 24-25. 

Charles H. Watson, capt; b. New Braintree; 36; s.; shoemaker; wd. 

side June 27, '62; re. Jan. 21, '63; 2d lieut. 1st Batt. H. A. Aug. 16, '64; 

m. o. June 28, '65. 
Albert Prince, sergt.; 22; m.; shoe-cutter; 1st sergt. Sept. 12, '61; 2d lieut. 

Feb. 22, '62 (see Co. G); 1st lieut. Sept. 18, '62 (see Co. G); acting 

adjt; capt. Co. E Feb. 21, '63; wd. leg B. B.; White Oak Swamp; 

Ant.; hands, Gett.; Spottsylvania; m. o. 

Nelson Bartholomew, 1st lieut; b. Hardwick; 26; s.; lawyer; d. Nov. 

22, '61. 
George W. Brown. See Co. A. 2d lieut. Co. E April 10/63: 1st lieut. 

Co. E July 13-Oct. 22, '63. 
Daniel W Knight. See Co. F- 1st lieut. com. Co. E April '64. 
James May. See Co. B. 2d lieut; 1st lieut. Co. E; tr. to Co. B Dec. 9/63. 
Thomas J. Spurr. See Co. G. 1st lieut. Co. E Jan. i-April 29, '62. 
William R. Steele. See Staff Officers. 1st lieut. Co. E, ass. Dec. 9, '63. 
William B. Storer. See Staff Officers. 1st lieut., ass. Co. E May n, '62. 
Bernard B. Vassall, 2d lieut; 25; s.; clerk; pris. B. B.; 1st lieut. Aug. 11, 

'62, declined com.; re. Oct. 31, '62. 

Peleg F. Murray, sergt; b. Nova Scotia; 23; s.; carpenter; 1st sergt. 
March 1, '62; dis. Nov. 18, '62. 

John E. (M.) Norcross, Corp.; b. Shrewsbury, res. Sutton; 36; s.; shoe- 
maker; sergt. June 1, '62; 1st sergt. Nov. 8, '62; 2d lieut. March 1, '63, 
ass. Co. C April 9, '63; pris. B. B.; re. Sept. 6, '63. 

Luther C. Torrey, 1st sergt; b. Woodstock, Ct; 37; m.; painter; gave 
up warrant Sept. 13, '61, voluutarily; k. F O. 

George B. Works, sergt; b. Dudley; 22; s.; shoemaker; 1st sergt. March 
31/63; m. o. 

Charles A. Bacon, Corp.; 20; s.; shoe-cutter; sergt. March 1, '62; dis. 
May 22, '62. 



COMPANY E. 373 

Henry J. Ball, p.; b. Dudley, res. cr. Charlton; 20; s.; shoemaker: corp. 

March 1, '62; sergt. Nov. 15, '63; wd. back F. O.; wd. face Ant.; wd. 

(Spottsylvania) May '64; m. o. 
George H. Carr, p.; b. Leicester, res. cr. Worcester; 21; s.; machinist; 

corp. Feb. '62; sergt. March 1/62; dis. May 27, '63. 
Otis Coburn, p.; 22; s.; shoemaker; sergt. March 6, '63; pris. B. B.; det. 

Batt. A, R. I. Art. Oct. 22/63; reen. Jan. 4, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as 

pris.; m. o. June 12, '65, as pris. 
James Comrie, p.; b. Scotland, res. cr. Worcester; 21; s.; boiler-maker; 

corp. June 15/62; sergt. Sept. 18/62; wd. leg Ant.; wd. Gett.; pris. 

Nov. 27, '63; m. o. as pris. 
Edward Cudworth, p.; 18; s.; farmer; corp. June 15, '62; sergt. March 1, 

'63; wd. Ant.; wd. May 6, '64; reen. Dec. 25, '63; tr. Co. E, 20th; pris. 

Aug. 25, '64; m. o. 
Henry W. Harold, sergt.; b. England; 32; s.; soldier; bugler March 1, 

'62; dis. Dec. 19, '62. 
Loren C. Hoyle, p.; b. Killingly, Ct.; res. cr. Sutton; 30; m.; shoemaker; 

corp.; sergt. June 1/62; dis. May 27, '63. 
Charles McFarland, p.; b. unknown, res. cr. Salem; m. i. Feb. 18, '62; 26; 

m.; operative; corp. July 1, '62; sergt. May 1, '64; wd. Gett.; tr. Co. K, 

20th; m. o. Feb. 18, '65. See Co. A. 
Amos H. Shumway, corp.; 21; s.; shoemaker; sergt. Oct. 12, '61; k. Ant. 
John A. Thurston, p.; b. Windsor; 18; s.; operative; sergt. Nov. 8, '62; 

pris. June 22, '64; m. o. May 22, '65. 
Andrew B. Yeomans, p.; b. Webster; 25; s.; painter; corp. July '63; sergt. 

May 1, '64; pris. June 30, '62; pris. June 22, '64, but escaped and rej. 

Co. Aug. 11, '64; m. o. Aug. 24, '64. 



Pliny Allen, corp.; b. Charlton; 31; s.; shoemaker; wd. fingers F O.; 

dis. Nov. iq, '62. 
Simon Carson, p.; b. Ireland; 27; s.; finisher; corp. March 1, '62; wd. 

Ant; dis. May 14, '63. 
Joseph E. Fellows, p.; b. Bridgewater, N. H.; 23; s.; shoemaker; corp. 

May 1, '63; pris. B. B.; reen. Dec. 25, '63; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 

20th, as pris.; d. March 29, '65, as pris. 
Horace P Howe, p.; b. Manchester, N. H.; 21; s.; hostler; corp. June 1, 

'62; wd. leg Ant.; dis. Nov. 27, '63. 
William F, Miller, p.; b. Worcester, res. cr. Southbridge; 18; s.; harness- 
maker; corp. May I, '63; m. o. 
Patrick Moore, p.; b. Ireland, res. cr. Millbury; 19; s.: weaver; corp. be- 
fore B. B.; pris. wd. B. B.; m. o. 
Anthony Murphy, p.; b. Ireland; 20; s.; spinner; corp. May 1, '63; wd. 

shoulder Gett.; dis. April 28, '64. 
John Toomey, p.; b. Ireland; 21; s.; shoemaker; corp. April 23/62; k. 

F. O. 
Nathaniel A. Viall, p.; b. Manchester, Vt.; 23; s.; shoemaker; corp. Oct. 

12, '61; pris. wd. arm B. B.; dis. Nov. 8, '62. 
Alonzo V Walker, p.; res. cr. Northbridge; 22; s.; shoemaker; corp. 

June 15/62; dis. Nov. 25, '62. 
George S. Williams, p.; b. Holliston, res. cr. Auburn; 23; s.; farmer; 

corp. Nov. 1, '63; reen. Jan. 15, '64; k. May 13, '64. 
Joseph H. Williams, p.; b. Worcester; 22; s.; shoemaker; corp. Sept. 20, 

'61; pris. wd. ankle, groin B. B.; dis. Nov. 8, '62. 
David Craig, drummer. See Co. I, 



374 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Elias B. Ellis, p.; b. Berlin, Ct.; res. cr. Kensington, Ct.; m. i. Oct. 11/61; 
18; s.; farmer; pris. June 29, '62; reen. Dec. 25, '63, as of North Brook- 
field; musician; wd. May 6, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as on det. serv.; m. o. 
Aug. 30. '65. 

Oscar L. Guild, musician; 19; s.; shoemaker; tr. V.R.C. March 7, '64; m. 
o. Nov. 18, '65. 

William H. Smith, musician; b. res. cr. Southbridge; 31; s.; shoemaker; 
des. Aug. 9, '61. 

Charles Sutton, wagoner; b. res. cr. Worcester; 22; s.: engineer; m. o. 

Privates. 

George W. Albee, b. res. cr. Charlton; 19; s.; shoemaker; wd. wrist F 

O.; dis. Oct. 21, '62. 
William H. Amidon, b. Dudley, res. cr. Charlton; 30; s.; bit-maker; pris. 

B. B.; dis. Jan. 9, '63. 
Conrad Amptaeur (Conrad M. Tower), b. Germany; 28; s.; operative; k. 

Ant. 
Emory F. Bailey, b. res. cr. Sturbridge; m. i. Dec. 9, '61; 22; s.; farmer; 

pris. Dec. 13, '62; paroled; no further record. 
Henry A. Baker, b. Lowell, res. Gilmanton, N. H.; cr. Harvard; m. i. 

March 30, '64; 18; s.; farmer; tr. Co. E, 20th, as m. in a.; pris. Aug. 

25, '64; m. o. as pris. 
Charles E. Barnard, b. res. cr. Auburn; 19; s.; shoemaker; dis. Nov. 24, 

'62; reen. Co. F, 57th, Feb. 18, '64, as 1st sergt.; 2d lieut. June 12, '65; 

m. o. July 30, '65. 
Charles H. Beattie, b. res. cr. Dudley; m. i. Dec. 5/61; 24; s.; farmer; 

dis. April 28, '64. 
Henry L. Berry, b. Douglas, res. cr. Worcester; 21; s.; sailor; tr. Western 

Flotilla, Feb. 17, '62; dis. May 14, '63. 
Edwin Booth, b. Ireland, res. cr. Fitchburg; m. i. Dec. 31, '61; 27; m.; 

farmer; wd. foot '64; tr. 20th; dis. Dec. 31, '64. 
Matthew Brennan, b. Ireland; 20; m.; mechanic; wd. leg Ant; dis. Feb. 

9, '63. 
Patrick Brennan, b. Ireland; 34; s.; spinner; dis. Dec. 17, '62. 
Horace C. Brown, b. res. cr. Grafton; 25; s. farmer; dis. Jan. 16, '63. 
Richard W. Cheney, b. res. cr. Southbridge; 24; s.; machinist; dis. Oct. 

24, '62. 
Samuel A. Clark, b. Topsfield; m. i. July 31, '62; 39; m.; shoemaker; dis. 

Feb. 4, '63. 
James C. Clifford, b. England, m. i. May 24, '64; 20; s.; operative; pris. 

June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as m. in. a.; m. o. June 30, '65, as pris. 
Daniel Cobb, b. Ireland; 19; s.; spinner; pris. B. B.; m. o. 
Thomas Conroy, b. Lynn, res. cr. Sutton; 21; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; 

exchanged; no further record. 
William Conroy, b. Lynn, res. cr. Marlboro; 20; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. 

B.; dis. Nov. 22, '62; drafted and ass. 32d Regt., July 24, '63; m. in a. 

May 12, '64. 
George W Cross, b. East Hanover, N. H.; res. unknown; m. i. Feb. 15, 

'62; 2i ; farmer; k. Gett. See Co. G. 
Timothy J. Crowley, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Dec. 11, "6i; 37; 

m.; laborer; dis. March 18, '63. 
John H. Curran, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 31, '62; 23; m.; 

laborer; k. Ant. 



COMPANY E. 375 

Alfred W. Davis, b. Newmarket, N. H.; res. cr. Leicester; m. i. Aug. 6, 

'62; 28; m.; gun-maker; wd. mouth Ant.; d. Sept. 22, '62. 
Freeman Davis, b. Newmarket, N. H.; res. cr. Spencer; 19; s.; boot- 
maker; wd. side B. B.; dis. May 14, '63; reen. Co. F, 57th; Corp.; k. 

May 6, '64. 
George P. Davis, b. Durham, N. H.; res. cr. Charlton; 29; s.; bit-maker; 

pris. B. B.; reen. Jan. 4, '64; pris. May 6, '64; reported d. pris., also 

as k. May 8, in Wilderness; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris. 
George W Davis, b. Oakham, res. cr. Hardwick; m. i. Aug. 5, '62; 18; s.; 

farmer; wd. side Ant.; m. o. 
James H. Davis, b. England; m. i. Aug. 6, '62; 32; m.; dresser; k. Ant. 
James L. Davis, b. Auburn, res. Spencer, cr. Oxford; m. i. Feb. 11,62; 

18; s.; bootmaker; pris. June 22, '64; reen. Feb. 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 

20th; m. o. June 21, '65. 
William M. Davis, b. Newmarket, N. H.; res. cr. Leicester; 23; s.; shoe- 
maker; pris. B. B.; d. March 10, '62. 
Thomas F. Dockham, b. Guilford, N.H.; res. cr. Charlton; 20; s.; farmer; 

pris. B. B.; dis. Dec. 20, '62. 
Cyrus J. Dodd, b. Paxton, res. cr. Worcester; 22; m.; mechanic; wd. 

head Ant.; m. o. 
Horatio C. Dodge, b. Southbridge; m. i. March n, '62; 18; s.; farmer; 

m. in a. June 30, '62; tr. 20th, as on det. ser. at Fort Schuyler, N. Y. 
Daniel Donahue, b. res. New Brunswick, cr. Harvard; sub.; m. i. March 

28, '64; 21 ; m.; laborer; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. as ab. sick. 
Caleb F. Dudley, b. Sutton; 31; m.; shoemaker; det. and wd. Chantilly; 

dis. Nov. 22, '62. 
James Duffy, b. Ireland; 19; m.; weaver; pris. B. B.; exchanged; no 

further record. 
Frank Dupre, b. Canada; 23; s.; shoemaker; det. Gen. Sedgwick's guard 

April 9, '62; m. o. 
Frank Eaton, b. res. cr. Worcester; 19; s.; machinist; wd. leg Ant.; dis. 

March 19, '63. 
John Eckersley, b. England; 25; s.; weaver; pris. B. B.; dis. Oct. 21/63. 
William H. Emerson, b. res. cr. Auburn; 29; s.; farmer; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Dec. 10, '62. 
Edward Ennis, b. res. cr. Millbury; 31; s.; gardener; w. arm Ant.; tr. 

V.R.C. June '63; rej. Co, Feb. 25, '64; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. as pa- 
roled pris. 
George W Faulkner, b. res. cr. Southbridge; m. i. Dec. 21, '61; 31; s.; 

baker; tr. non-com. staff, Oct. 22, '63, as com. sergt; tr. 20th; m. o. 

Sept. 7, '64. 
Patrick Feighan, b. Ireland; 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. and wd. head B.B.; 

dis. Sept. 27, '62. 
John Fitzpatrick, b. Dudley, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. March 23, '64; 21; 

m.; shoemaker; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. June 

28/65. 
Michael Flynn, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; 20; s.; wire-drawer; wd. 

B. B and F. O.; det. R. I. Batt. before April 30, '63; k. Gett. 
Herbert N. Fuller, b. cr. Wilbraham, res. Charlton; m. i. Feb. 24, '62; 21; 

m.; yeoman; wd. lip Ant.; reen. Feb. 26, '64; pris. June 22/64; tr. 

Co. £, 20th, as pris.; d. Feb. 20, '65, as pris. 
William Gannett (Garnett), b. res. Cohasset, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 

24/63; 24; s.; stone-cutter; pris. June 22/64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; 

d. Oct. 6, '64, as pris. 



376 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Bartholomew Green, b. Barre, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 24, 62; 42; 

shoemaker; dis. Feb. 27, '63; d. July u, '64. 
Josiah M. Green, b. Holden; 19; s.; operative; reen. Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. 

Art. Nov. 12, '62; m. o. 
John Grob, b. Switzerland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 1, 

'63; pris. May 18, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; d. Sept. 9, '64, as pris. 
George W Gunston, b. England; 24; m.; operative; pris. Dec. 13/62; m.o. 
Thomas Haggerty, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 

if '63; 31; harness-maker; des. Sept. 29, '63. 
Frederick A. Hall, b. Sutton, res. cr. Millbury; 43; m.; farmer; wd. arm, 

head Ant.; dis. Feb. 5, '63. 
Peter Hansen, b. res. Denmark, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 21, '63; 24; 

sailor; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
James J. Hardman, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Gloucester; sub.; m. i. 

Aug. 5, '63; 24; laborer; des. Oct. 14, '63. 
Michael Harris, b. Hartford, Ct.; res. New York City, cr. Boston; sub.; 

m. i. July 22, '63; 22; printer; never reported. 
John Hart, b. Ireland, res. cr. Dorchester; sub.; m. i. Aug. 1, '63; 22; s.; 

sailor; tr. 20th, as ab. sick; no further record. 
Rudolph Hase, b. Germany, res. unknown, cr. Worcester; sub.; m. i. 

July 25, '63; 27; s.; soldier; des. Oct. 15/63. 
Joseph E. Haskell, b. Springfield; m. i. Feb. 20, '62; 31; m.; operative; 

wd. arm Ant.; dis. March 27, '63. 
Edward Hill, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Beverly; sub.; m. i. Aug. 4, 

'63; 21; s.; shoemaker; real name was McGriel; des. Oct. 24, '63, 

captured by enemy; enlisted in rebel army; des., captured and tried 

for des. in Union army. 
James Hilton, b. England; 21; s.; weaver; k. B. B. 
Henry Hoolan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; sub.; m. i. July 24, '63; 25; 

s.; sailor; des. Oct. 15,63. 
William Hoy (Hogg), b. res. Springfield, cr. Athol; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63;. 21; s.; clerk; never reported to Co. 
Henry Hoyle, b. Webster, res. cr. Grafton; 18; s.; farmer; wd. June 30, 

'62; wd. arm July 1, '62; dis. Feb. 9, '63; reen. V R. C. Aug. 25, '64; 

dis. V.R.C. Jan. 13, '65. 
Otis E. Hoyle, b. Warwick, R. I.; res. cr. Sutton; 24: s.; farmer; pris. 

June 16, '63; m. o. 
Charles Hubbard, b. Philadelphia, Penn.; res. Hartford, Ct.; cr. Fal- 
mouth; sub.; m. i. July 30/63; 21; s.; seaman; dis. Dec. 19/63. 
Archibald B. Hudson, b. Ellisburg, N. Y.; res. Worcester, cr. Grafton; 

m. i. Aug. 7/62; 37; m.; farmer; pris. May 6, '64; reen. Feb. 27, '64; 

tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. o.July 24, 65, as pris. 
John W Humphrey, m. i. Aug. 7, '62; 18; s.; shoemaker; wd. arm. Ant.; 

dis. Jan. 7, '63. 
Louis Jaquier, b. Switzerland, res. unknown, cr. Athol; sub.; m. i. July 

22, '63; 27; s.; cook; m. in a. Nov. 27, '63; tr. 20th, as ab. sick; no 

further record. 
Hendrick Jarveson (Jameson, Jirvenson), b. Germany, res. Salem, cr. 

Berlin; sub.; m. i. July 31/63; 29; sailor; wd. Oct. 14, '63; des. March 

27, '64. 
Joseph Jennison, Jr., b. Auburn; 41; m.; farmer; k. B. B. 
Peter Johnson, b. Ireland, res. cr. Amherst; sub.; m. i. July 30/63; 21; 

s.; sailor; wd. hand Ant.; tr. navy April 23, '64, 
Charles A. Jones. See Co. C, 



COMPANY E. 



377 



Charles Jones, b. Boston, res. unknown, cr. Abington; sub.; m. i. July 31, 

'63; 41; m-; seaman; dis. Jan. 7, '64. 
James Kemble, b. res. Canada, cr. Bernardston; sub.; m. i. July 27, '63; 

21; s.; clerk; des. Aug. 21, '63. 
Thomas King, b. Millbury; 31; m.; shoemaker; wd. back Gett.; m. o. as 

ab. sick. 
Patrick D. Kinney, b. Ireland, res. cr. Auburn; 20; s.; painter; dis. Tan. 
- 28, '62. 
Frank L. Kirby, b. Spencer; 18; s.; shoemaker; vvd. Ant.; wd. hand May 

'64; m. o. 
Leander T. Kirby, b. Spencer; 20; s.; shoemaker; wd. Ant.; pris., wd. 

Nov. 27, '63; m. o. 
Henry Konch (Koch), b. Germany, res. unknown, cr. Abington; sub.; m. 

i. Aug. 5, '63; 28; s.; clerk; k. May 31, '64. 
Cyrus Larned, res. unknown, cr. Worcester; m. i. July 31, '62; 18; shoe- 
maker; s.; d. Sept. 2, '62. 
Joel W. Larned, res. unknown, cr. Worcester; m. i. July 23, '62; 21 ; shoe- 
maker; s.; m. o. 
Edward Lovely, b. Canada; 18; s.; shoemaker; wd. Dec. 13, '62; tr. V 

R.C. July 1, '63; reen. V.R.C. April ii, '64; dis. Nov. 15, '65. 
Peter Luck. See Co. A. 
Robert Lusty, b. res. Palmer; m. i. Dec. 9, '61; 18; s.; operative; wd. 

back Ant.; wd. leg Gett.; dis. Feb. 10, '64. 
Mac (Mike) Lynch, b. Ireland, cr. unknown; 29; s.; laborer; dis. Feb. 28/63 
John B. Marcy, b. Webster, res. cr. Charlton; 18; s.; shoemaker; wd 

Ant., Gett.; m. o. 
Owen McCann, b. Ireland, res. cr. Auburn; 20; s.; carder; wd. head Ant. 

reen. Batt. I, 1st U S. L. Art., Nov 12, '62; no further record. 
Orlando Mclntire, b. res. cr. Mendon; 29; m.; bootmaker; pris. B. B. 

reen. Feb. 5, '64; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris; m. o. 
Elliot F. McKinstry, b, res. cr. Southbridge; 24; s.; farmer; pris. B. B. 

wd. hand Ant.; tr. V.R.C. before June '63; m. o. July 15, '64. 
Albert S. Moffit, cr. unknown; 20; s.; shoemaker; pris. wd. ankle B. B. 

dis. Oct. 1, '62. 
Charles E. Morse, b. res. cr. Charlton; 22; s.; farmer; dis. April 25, '62. 
Timothy J. Moynahan, b. Ireland; 26; s.; spinner; pris. B. B.; m. o. Jan. 

9, '63, as paroled pris. 
George H. Nicholas, b. res. cr. Sutton; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 19; s.; shoe- 
maker; dis. April 15, '62. 
Lyman Phipps, b. Hopkinton; 24; s.; shoemaker; pris. vvd. B. B.; d. Dec. 

2, '61. 
Francis C. Pope, b. Southbridge; 26; m.; shoemaker; wd. head June 3, 

'64; reen. Feb. 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; d. Feb. 15, '65. 
Bradley Reed, m. i. Dec. 17, '61; 43; m.; laborer; dis. Oct. 26, '62; reen. 

Co. D, 59th Regt., Feb. 9, '64; tr. to 57th Regt. Jan. 5, '65; m. o. July 

3°. '65. 
Edwin E. Rindge, b. Southbridge; 26; m.; shoemaker; wd. knee Ant.; 

d. Oct. 24, '62, or Oct. 18, '62 (headstone). 
Vernon F Rindge, b. Southbridge; 23; m.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Nov. 25/62; d. Feb. 24, '63, disease incurred in service. 
Wilson B. Robbins, b. res. cr. Upton; m. i. Dec. 5, '61; 42; m.; farmer; 

dis. April 23, '62. 
William Ronan, b. Ireland; 24; s.; shoemaker; m. o. 
Melvin B. Rowe, b. Madrid, Me.; res, unknown, cr. Strong, Me.; m. 1, 

Feb. 17/62; 23/s.; bootmaker; tr. 20th. 



.V 



S INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 



Patrick Ryan, b. Cohasset, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. i, 

'63; 26; operative; wd. May '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 
Bernard Schmidt, b. France; 22; s.; weaver; pris. B. B.; k. May 8, '64. 
Felix Sherbino, b. Canada; m. i. Feb. 19, '64; 21; s.; shoemaker; k. May 

8, '64. 
George Shortsleeve, b. cr. Brandon, Vt.; m. i. Feb. 19/64; 21; s.; shoe- 
maker; wd. leg May 8, '62; d. June 5, '64. 
Stephenson Sill, b. res. cr. Holyoke; m. i. Jan. 4, '62; 29; m.; weaver; wd. 

hand Ant; dis. March 12, '63. 
Thomas B. Smith, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 31, '62; 38; shoemaker; 

wd. '63; m. o. as ab. wd. 
James M. Snow, b. res. cr. Sutton; m. i. May 14, '62; 27; s.; painter: dis. 

Jan. 15/63. 
Jerome P. Southwick, b. res. cr. Northbridge; 17; s.; shoemaker; wd. 

arms, breast Ant.; dis. Aug. 27, '63. 
Marquis E. Steere, b. Palmer; 18; s. shoemaker; wd. B. B.; wd. lungs 

Ant.; dis. Jan. 13, '63. 
Alonzo E. Stockwell, res. cr. Sutton; 31; m.; brickmaker; forage master 

for brigade Oct. '63: m. o. 
Luther Stone, b. Sutton; m. i. July 31, '62; 30; m.; shoemaker; wd. finger 

Ant; dis. Jan. 15, '63; reen. V.R.C. Aug. 18, '64. 
John Sullivan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; 18; s.; blacksmith; wd. arm 

Ant.; dis. Dec. 19/62. 
Leonard E. Thayer, b. Palmer; 18; s.; student; dis. Dec. 20, '62. 
Alexander Thompson, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; 18; s.; wire-drawer; 

k. Ant. 
Samuel Thompson, b. Warren; 26; s.; shoemaker; d. Feb. 5, '62. 
Thomas Thompson, 2d, b. Ireland; 29; m.; carpenter; reen. July 7, '62; 

pris. Gett; tr. 20th; dis. Aug. 6, '64. 
Francis E. Tingley, b. sea, res. cr. Bellingham; 25; m.; bootmaker; dis. 

Nov. 5, '62. 
Owen Tonar, b. France; m. i. July 16/62; 37; s.; laborer; m. in a. wd. 

Ant; wd. hip Gett; tr. V.R.C. Dec. 20, '63; reported d. in service 

Feb. 26, '64. 
Conrad M. Tower. Ssee Conrad Amptaeur. 

tive; k. Ant. 
John Tully, b. Ireland; 23; s.; shoemaker; dis. March 23/63. 
Simeon E. Waters, b. res. cr. Millbury; 20; s.; farmer; dis. Sept. 25, '61. 
Martin Welch, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Feb. 20, '62; 19; s.; 

shoemaker; paroled pris. Aug. 31/63; reen. Feb. 24/64; tr. Co. E, 

20th; m. o. 
Charles H. Wheelock, b. Buffalo,' N.Y.; res. cr. Mendon; 21; s.; shoe- 
maker; k. Ant. 
Oliver L. White. See Co. D. 
Albert L. Williams, b. N. Becket, res. cr. Charlton; 18; s.; stone-cutter; 

d. June 13, '62. 
George O. Williams; b. Worcester, res. Auburn; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 18; s.; 

farmer; wd. arm Ant.; tr. Co. E, 20th, Jan. 15, '64; m. o. June 29, '65. 
William T. Woodbury, b. Charlton, cr. unknown; 20; m.; stone-cutter; 

wd. hip Ant: dis. March 24, '63. 
Leonard L. Wright, b. Littleton, res. cr. Millbury; 19; s.; chalrmaker; 

dis. March 16, '62. 



COMPANY F 379 

COMPANY F 

The members of this company were natives and citizens of the 
Brookfields. The birthplace, residence and credit is Brookfield for each 
particular for which there is no other entry; North Brookfield for each 
name followed by N. B.; W B. and S. B. signify respectively West 
Brookfield and South Brookfield. 

Sardus S. Sloan, capt.; b. Shutesbury; 27; s.; shoemaker; wd. foot B. B.; 
re. Jan. 17, '62. 

J. Evarts Greene, 1st lieut; X. B.; b. Boston; 26; s.; lawyer; capt. Jan. 
17, '62; pris. B. B.; re. as paroled pris. Oct. 22, '62. 

Lyman H. Ellingwood, 2d lieut.; b. res. Beverly; 22; s.; clerk; 1st lieut. 
Jan. 17, '62; capt. Nov. 26, '62; major July 4, '63, never m.; wd. leg- 
Ant.; wd. hand Nov. 27, '63; com. Co. F in ab. capt. and 1st lieut. 
from Dec. 23, '61; dishonorably dis. May 6, '64. 

David M. Earle, p.; N. B.; 22; m.; farmer; sergt. July 24, '62; 1st sergt. 
Sept. 20, '62; 2d lieut. Jan. 8, '63, ass. Co. I; 1st lieut. April 17, '63, ass. 
Co. K; acting adjt. May n-July28, '63; capt. Sept. 9, '63, ass. Co. A; 
ass. Co. F June 5, '64; wd. arm, chest Ant.; det. serv. Boston Harbor 
July 28, '63; m. o. 

Carlton M. Deland. See 1st sergt. 1st lieut. May n, '64, never m. to 

serve as such in Co. F. 
Charles H. Hurlbut. See Co. C. 1st lieut. July 14/64, ass. Co. F, never m. 
Edward J. Russell, sergt.; N. B.; b. Hadley; 28; m.; carpenter; 1st 

sergt. March 1, '62; 2d lieut. July 24, '62; 1st lieut. Sept. 28, '62; com. 

Co. I Feb. '63; acting adjt. March '63; capt. Jan. 26, '63, ass. Co. D 

April 10, '63; com. Co. F in ab. superior off. Sept. 20, '62-Jan. 23, '63; 

re. Sept. 9, '63; reen. 3d H. Art. May 4, '64, 2d lieut.; 1st lieut. May 

28, '64; capt. July 1, '65; m. o. Oct. I, '65. 
George B. Simonds. See Co. B. 1st lieut., ass. Co. F Oct. 30 (16), '63; 

com. Co. F in ab. capt. Dec. 1, '63-May 10, '64. 

Frederick Bullard, Corp.; 30; m.; wheelwright; sergt. March 1/62; 1st 
sergt. July 24, '62; 2d lieut. Sept. 19, '62; 1st lieut. Jan. 8, '63, never 
m.; wd. chest Ant.; re. March 29, '63; reen. Co. H, 4th Cav., Feb. 8, 
'64; ist sergt.; claims to be the first man to enter Richmond after 
surrender; dis. June 24, '65. 

Lyman Doane, ist sergt.; 26; s.; clerk; 2d lieut. Jan. 17, '62; wd. head B. 
B.; re. July 23, '63. 

Henry C. Ward. See Co. D. 2d lieut. Co. F, ass. April 9, '63; re. Sept. 
6, '63. 

Henry C. Ball, ist sergt.; b. Sunderland; res. cr. Amherst; 28; m.; broom- 
maker; wd. contusion Ant.; k. Gett. 

Carlton M. Deland, p.; N. B.; b. Speedville, N. Y.; corp. April 9/63; 
sergt. May 15/63; ist sergt. Jan. 17, '64; ist lieut. May 11, '64, did 
not m. until April'65, in 20th; reen. March 31/64; wd. Gett.; pris. 
June 22, '64; com. Co's E, G, K, in 20th, April-July 16,65; m - °- 

Owen Clapp, p.; b. res. South Scituate, cr. Scituate; m. i. Aug. 11, '62; 29; 

m.; butcher; Corp. Sept. 20, '62; sergt. Nov. 1, '63; m. o. G. O. 28. 
Ferdinand Dexter, sergt.; b. Boston; 35; s.; painter; k. B. B. (G. A. R, 

Post, Brookfield, named from him.) 



38O INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Albert H. "Foster, corp.; X. B.; b. New Braintree; 21; s.; shoemaker; 

sergt. March 1, '63; pris. B. B.; det. serv. Boston Harbor, conscript 

camp, July 28, '63-end of war; m. o. 
Elisha F. Johnson, sergt.; b. Upton; 30; s.; carpenter; k. Ant. 
Daniel W. Knight, corp.; N. B.; 26; s.; shoemaker; sergt. Sept. 18/62; 

1st lieut. April 9, '63, ass. Co. D; pris. B. B.; m. o. 
Lucien A. Lamb, p.; b. Charlton, res. cr. Sturbridge; 23; s.; shoemaker; 

corp. March 1, '62; sergt. Jan. 1, '64; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. as pris. 
Seth L. Lowe, p.; b. Barre, res. cr. Worcester; 21; s.; shoemaker; sergt. 

March i,'63; m. o. July 11, '64. 
Edwin H. Newton, p.; b. unknown; m. i. Feb. 3, '62; 18; s.; shoemaker; 

wd. hand May '64; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. 
Henry E. Smith, corp.; N. B.; 20; s.; shoemaker; sergt.; wd, leg Ant.; 

breast May 26, '64; at Chester Hospital as* com. guard from Gett- 

March '64; reen. March 29, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, ab. wd.; in V.R.C. 

Dec. '64; 2d lieut. 193d N.Y. Regt. from V.R.C. special order War 

Dept; post adjt. Wheeling, Va., July 4, '65; provost marshal Rom- 

ney, W Va., Aug. 10, '65; asst. supt. Freedman's Bureau, Harper's 

Ferry; dis. Jan. 18, '66. 

James E. Adams, corp.; b. Eastford, Ct.: 21; s.: shoemaker; wd. head 

B. B.; dis. March 8, '62. 
William L. Adams, corp.; N. B.; res. cr. W B.; 21; s.; farmer; pris. B. 

B.; wd. shoulder Ant.; d. Nov, 7, '62 (Oct. 10, '62). 
Charles H. Bartlett, p.; N. B.; 19; s.; mechanic; corp. Nov. 1/63; pris. 

B. B.; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. May 22, '65. 
William L. Blood, corp.; b. res. cr. Sturbridge; 19; s.; shoemaker; k. Ant. 
Henry G. Earle, p.; N. B.; m. i. Aug. 13, '62; 18; s.; shoemaker; corp. 

March 1, '63; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. G. O. 28. 
Joseph C. Fretts, p.; N. B.; b. Hebron, N. H.; 27; s.; shoemaker; corp. 

June 7, '62; k. Ant. 
John W Heath, p.; b. Plymouth, N. H.; 24; s.; shoemaker; corp.; wd. 

leg Ant.; d. wds. Oct. '62. 
Charles N. Holmes, p.; b. New Braintree; 25; s.; sawyer; corp. Sept. i, 

'63; det. Pioneer Corps '62-'64; m. o. 
Richard Layton (Leighton), p.; b. Fairfax, Va.; res. unknown; cr. Yar- 
mouth; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 37; s.; soldier; corp.; tr. navy April 

23, '64. 
William A. Mullett, p.; b. New Braintree; 33; m.; shoemaker; corp.; 

pris. June 30/62; wd. shoulder May '64; d. wds. May 23/64. 
Elliot H. Robbins, p.; b. Southbridge, res. cr. Charlton; 26; s.; farmer; 

corp.; wd. head, neck Ant.; wd. May 6, '64; d. wds. July 15, '64. 
Henry H. Slayton, p.; 20; s.; shoemaker; corp. May '63; pris. B. B.; det. 

Signal Corps Aug. 16, '63; m. o. July 12, '64. 
Benjamin Stevens, p.; N. B.; b. Andover; 21; s.; shoemaker; corp. Nov. 

1/63; wd. arm Ant.; wd. arm. Wilderness, May '64; m. o. 
Artemas D. Ward, p.; b. Warwick; 23; s.; carpenter; corp. March 1, '63; 

pris. B. B.; wd. arm Gett.; m. o. 
John H. Johnson, musician; N. B.; 19; s.; shoemaker; m. o. 
Isaac N. Matthews, p.; b. New York; res. Charlton; 19; s.; shoemaker; 

reen. Jan. 4, '64, as musician; tr. Co. K, 20th; m. o. 
Eli Clements, wagoner; b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; 31; s.; teamster; 

m, o. 



COMPANY F 38I 



Privates. 



Edwin L. Adams, b. cr. Townsend, res. Worcester; 21; s.; miller; wd. 

face B. B.; wd. head May 18, '61; reen. March 31, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, 

as ab. wd.; dis. March 30, '65. 
Reuben W Adams, b. Watertown, N. Y.; m. i. Aug. 2/62; 23; s.; shoe- 
maker; m. in a. Ant.; returned within a few day?; dis. May 1, '63. 
Henry C. Albee, b. Milford; 27; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; dis. Nov. 22/62. 
Alonzo Allen, b. res. Brimfield; m.; farmer; m. i. Feb. 1, '62; wd. legs 

Ant.; dis. Feb. 1, '63. 
George W Allen, b. unknown; m. i. Feb. 1, '62; 21; s.; farmer; pris. June 

30, '62; wd. abdomen, fingers Gett.; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. Feb. 3, '65. 
William J. Babbitt, X. B., b. Warren; m. i. Feb. 1, '62; 39; m.; teamster; 

dis. Nov. 24, '62. 
Sumner H. Bannister, b. Charlton; 17; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Nov 22, '62. 
Francis A. Barnes, b. res. X. B.; m. i. Feb. 3, '62; 27; m.; shoemaker; 

wd. foot Gett.; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. Feb. 2, '65. 
James H. Belcher, b. Calais, Me.; 18; s.; shoemaker; wd. pris. B. B.; dis. 

April 15, '62. 
William A. Belcher, b. Calais, Me.; 24; s.; painter; pris. B. B.; m. o. 
Amasa Bemis, b. Spencer; 29; m.; shoemaker; dis. Dec. 15, '61. 
Abram Benjamin, b. unknown, res. cr. Sturbridge; m. i. Jan. 16, '62; 31; 

m.; farmer; dis. Dec. 24, '63. 
Andrew J. Benson, b. unknown; m. i. July 16, '62; 18; s.; farmer; pris. 

wd. thigh Ant.; returned within a few days; dis. Dec. 19, '62. 
Franklin L. Benson, b. Sturbridge, res. cr. Brimfield; 28; s.; shoemaker; 

des. Oct. 31, '62. 
Luke H. B. Blackmer, b. Greenwich, res. cr. Ware; 41; m.; farmer; pris. 

B. B.; dis. April 24, '63. 
Henry R. Bliss, X. B.; m. i. July 30, '62; 22; m.; mechanic; k. Ant. 
Oliver Bliss, X. B., b. Xew Braintree; 27; m.; mechanic; tr. V.R.C. Dec. 

16, '63; m. o. July 18, '64. 
William H. H. Brewer, N. B.; b. Spencer; 20; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; 

ex. but never reported. 
John Brown, b. Ireland; res. cr. Worcester; 20; s.; laborer; wd. foot Ant.; 

dis. Feb. 7, '63. 
Shepard Brown, b. Canterbury, Ct.; 42; m.; carriage-maker; k. Ant. 
Emerson H. Bullard, b. Holden, res. cr. W. B.; 19; s.; farmer; dis. June 

2, '62. 
Wady H. Chaver, b. unknown; 22; s.; shoemaker; wd. arms Ant.; pris. 

June 22, '64; m. o. 
William H. Clark, b. Brimfield, res. cr. Sturbridge; 21; m.; bootmaker; 

wd. spine Ant.; d. Oct. 1, '62. 
Josiah C. Converse, b. res. cr. New Braintree; 18; s.; farmer; wd. thigh 

Ant.; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. 
Ezekiel M. Cooper, b. unknown; m. i. Jan. 24, '62; 42; m.; farmer; dis. 

June 1, '63. 
William Corcoran, b. Ireland, res. cr. Clinton; 40; s.; laborer; dis. Feb. 

15, '62. 
James Costello, b. Cambridge, cr. Brimfield; 18; s.; farmer; wd. arm 

Gett.; m. o. 
Theodore Cummings, X. B.; b. Palmer; 52; m.; shoemaker; dis. Oct. 31, 

'62; reen. V.R.C. June 21, '64; m. o. Nov 30, '65. 
Benjamin Davis, b. Shirley; m. i. Aug. 2, '62; 42; shoemaker; k. Ant. 



382 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

George A. Davis, b. res. cr. New Braintree; 18; s.; shoemaker; wd. head 

Ant.; wd. Gett; k. Oct. 14, '63. 
James L. Davis. See Co. E. 

Richard T. Davis, b. Watertown; res. cr. New Braintree; 41; m.; boot- 
maker; dis. Nov. 1/62. 
Amos Dean, N. B.; b. Oakham; m. i. Feb. i,'62; 25; m.; mechanic; dis. 

May 1, '62. 
Francis Dickinson, b. Belchertown, res. cr. Amherst; 25; s.; blacksmith; 

k. B. B. 
Elbridge Doane, 21; s.; farmer; pris. B. B.; wd. arm Gett.; m. o. 
Jeremiah Donovan, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Dec. 5, '61; 32; 

m.; wool-sorter; lost arm Ant.; dis. April 2, '64. 
Wellington H. Dore (Dorr), b. Meredith, N. H.; res. cr. Worcester; m. 

i. July24, '62; 24; s.; operative; dis. Jan. 23, '63. 
Warren Ellis, b. Fitzwilliams, N.H.; res. cr. Lancaster; 20; s.; mechanic; 

wd. shoulder Ant.: det. Signal Corps Oct. 27, ,63; m. o. July 12, '64. 
James B. Freeman, b. Nova Scotia; 28; s.; shoemaker; det. Signal Corps 

Oct. 9, '61; dis. July 21, '62; reen. Co. B, 57th Mass. Jan. 4, '64, as 

sergt.; k. May 6, '64. 
Samuel L. Gilbert, 18; s.; shoemaker; wd. thigh Ant.; dis. Jan. i7,''63. 
William Graham, N. B.; b. England; 26; s.; painter; dis. May 20, '62. 
Gilbert W Green, b. Leominster; res. cr. Fitchburg; 28; s.; clerk; dis. 

Jan. 17, '63; reen. Co. C, 4th Cav., p., March 23, '64; corp. April 1, '64; 

sergt. Sept. 1, '64, 1st sergt. Jan. 1, '65; 2d lieut. July 8, '65; m.o. Nov. 

14, '65. 
Otis H. Hamilton, m. i. Aug. 2/62; 26: m.; shoemaker; wd. arm Ant.; 

dis. Nov. 2, '62. 
Stephen Harrington, N. B.; b. Stockbridge, Vt.; 32; m.; shoemaker; dis. 

Oct. 13, '63. 
Joseph D. Harvey, b. res. cr. Brimfield; 22; s.; shoemaker; dis. May 22/62. 
Michael B. Hayes, b. Ireland, res. cr. Charlton; 35; m.; tailor; wd. legs 

Ant.; dis. March 25, '63; reen. V.R.C. Aug. 10, '64; dis. Nov. 28, '64. 
Thomas Hays, b. Ireland, res. cr. West Boylston; 20; s.; weaver; pns. 

wd. collar bone Ant.; m. o. 
Sidney Hewett, b. Charlton; 30; s.; blacksmith; tr. V.R.C. July 28, '63; 

des. Jan. 21, '64. 
Everett A. Hibbard (Hebard): 17; s.; farmer; dis. Oct. 8, '62. 
George W. A. Hill, N. B.; b. Randolph; 22; s.; shoemaker; dis. Dec. 6,'6i. 
John H. Hillman, b. N. B.; 22; s.; sawyer; k. Ant. 
John Howard, N. B.; b. Ireland; 23; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; ex., 

never reported. 
John A. Hughes, N. B.; b. Boston; 19; s.; shoemaker; d. May 16, '63. 
David Jenks, b. Pelham; m. i. Aug. 12, '62; 38; machinist; pris., wd. arm 

Ant.; reported to Co. in a few days; dis. Jan. 8, '63. 
John Keenan, b. New York, res. cr. Conway; sub.; m. i. July 31, '63; 21; 

butcher; wd. May 11/64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as m. in a.; m. o.; (reported 

k. May 6, '64, but in hospital June 13, '64). 
William H. Keniston, b. Thomaston, Me.; res. unknown, cr. Boston; 

sub.; m. i. July 31, '63; 33; s.; soldier; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
Amasa B. Kimball, N. B.; 35; m.; teamster; m. 0. 
Henry H. Knight, b. res. Charlton; m. i. Jan. 9, '62; 21; s.; whip-maker; 

dis. May 8, '62. 
Thomas Kohein, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Beverly; sub.; m.i. July 31, 

'63; 21; s.; sailor; tr. navy April 23, '64. 



COM PAN V F 383 

Edmund Krenn, b. res. unknown, cr. Taunton; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 28; 

s.; butcher; des. Aug. 20, ,63. 
William Laffler, b. Germany, res. unknown, cr. Berkley; sub.; m. i. July 

30/63; 21; s.; machinist; des. Aug. 21, '63. 
John Lake, b. res. Troy, N. Y.; cr. Barre; sub.; m. i. July 31, '63; 24; m.; 

sailor; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. o. May 21, '65. 
Harrison S. Lamb, N B.; res. cr. New Braintree; 21; s.; shoemaker; wd. 

hand May 7, '64; m. o. 
Horace G. Langdon, b. Kennebec, Me.; res. Roxbury, cr. Boston; sub.; 

m. i. July 30, '63; }2; m.; sailor; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. May 

3. '65- 
James Larkins, b. Cape Vincent, X. \.; res. New York, cr. Berlin; sub.; 

m. i. July 29, '63; 22; m.; clerk; des. Aug. 21, '63. 
Michael Lawler, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Bernardston; sub.; m. i. 

July 30, '63; 23; s.; laborer; des. Sept. 13, '63. 
William Lawler, b. Ireland, res. New York City, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. 

Aug. 1 ,'63; wd. May '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, pris. Oct. 27/64; m. o. as pris. 
Albert H. Lawrence, b. res. Falmouth, cr. Harwich; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 26; s.; seaman; dis. Jan. 7, '64. 
Charles Leford, b. res. Pittsfield, cr. Ashburnham; sub.; m. i. July 25/63; 

22; s.; farmer; des. Sept. 15, '63. 
Albert \Y. Livermore, b. res. c. \V B.; 18; s.; hostler; wd. leg Ant.; d. 

Jan. 18, '63. 
William Logan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 1,63; 30; m.; 

sailor; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
Robert Long, b. res. England, cr. Salem; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 21; s.; 

sailor; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
John Lupicelle, b. Canada, res. unknown, cr. Concord; sub.; m. i. July 28, 

'63; 25; m.; laborer; des. Aug. 20, '63. 
Jeremiah Lynch, X. B.; b. Ireland; 21; m.; shoemaker; wd. leg Ant.; tr. 

Y.R.C. Feb. 15, '64; m. o. July 12, '64. 
James Lyon, b. New York City, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. I, '63; 

21; s.; laborer; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. July 16, '65. 
William Lyons (Lines), b. res. Patterson, N. J.; cr. Belchertown; sub.; 

m. i. July 29, '63; 29; m.; printer; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; pris. 

Dec. '64; m. o. as pris. 
George C. Mann, b. Ashby, res. cr. Lancaster; 21; s.; painter; pris. B.B.; 

wd. ankle Gett; m. o. 
Charles W Marsh, b. Barre, res. cr. W. B; 20; s.; painter; dis. Nov. 15/62. 
George L. Marsh, X. B.; b. Sturbridge; m. i. Feb. 1, '62; 19; s.; tailor; 

dis. Oct. 28, '62; reen. Co. G, 4th Cav., Jan. 27, '64, as saddler; des. 

June 12, '65. 
Daniel Mclnnis, b. res. Nova Scotia, cr. Gloucester; sub.; m. i. Aug. 5, 

'63; 23; s.; fisherman; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. as ab. sick. 
James McRobbie, b. Scotland, res. cr. West Boylston; 27; m.; weaver; 

dis. Feb. 7, '63. 
Diederick Monkin, b. Prussia, res. cr. Swanzey; sub.; m. i. Aug. 5, '63; 

27; s.; locksmith; des. Aug. 21/63. 
Harrison Moulton, X. B.; m. i. Jan. 20, '62; 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; 

wd. thigh Gett; reen. Feb. 5, '64; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as 

pris.; d. Jan. 25, '65, as pris. 
Lafayette C. Moulton, b. Monson; 37; m.; iron-moulder; dis. May 1,62. 
Elijah Nichols, N. B.; b. Fletcher, Vt.; 53; m.; shoemaker; dis. Aug. 2, 

'62; reen. V.R.C. Sept. 16, '64; m. o. Nov. 30, '65. 



384 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

James S. Nichols, b. Princeton; 19; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; dis. April 

15, '62. 
John R. Nichols, N. B.; 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; dis. Nov. 22, '62; 

reen. as corp. Co. H, 8th Regt., July 20, '64; m. o. Nov. 10, '64; reen. 

also March 22, '65, as sergt. Co. A, 62d; dis. May 3, '65. 
William H. Nichols, 21; m.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; wd. arm May '64; 

m. o. 
Alexander Oakes, b. Chesterfield, N.Y.; res. cr. Sturbridge; 22; m; shoe- 
maker; dis. Feb. 19, '63. 
Orin O. Ormsby, b. Fairlee, Vt.; m. i. Aug. 2, '62; 45; m.; farmer; tr. V. 

R.C. Nov. 11, '63; m. o. Aug. 2, '64. 
William H. H. Ormsby, b. Wolcott, Vt.; 20; s.; farmer; pris. B. B.; m.o. 
Joseph Pecot, b. Canada; m. i. Jan. 30, '62; 34; m.; shoemaker; wd. leg 

Ant., back Gett., side, arm May '64, hips Aug. 17, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th; 

m. o. Jan. 28, '65. 
Archibald S. Pellett, N. B.; b. Canterbury, Ct.; cr. unknown; 34; m.; 

shoemaker; dis. Nov. 15/62. 
Charles Perry, N. B.; 18; s.; shoemaker; lost leg Ant.; d. Sept. 27, '62. 
Alonzo W. Phillips, b. Albany, N. Y.; 19; s. shoemaker; dis. Oct. 6, '62. 
Charles M. Plummer, b. Haverhill, res. cr. Sturbridge; m. i. Jan. 10, '62; 

20; s.; farmer; dis. Dec. 16, '62. 
Augustus N. Potter, b. Rindge, N. H.; 24; painter; dis. Jan. 10, '62; reen. 

July 28, '62; wd. leg Ant., wd. Gett., arm Nov. 27, '63; pris. June 22, 

'64, paroled June 25, '64; m. o. as paroled pris. G. O. 28. 
John Pratt, b. Troy, Vt.; res. cr. Brimfield; m. i. March 6, '62; 21; m.; 

shoemaker; dis. Dec. 31, '63. 
Ralph Preston, b. England; 42; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; tr. V R. C. 

Nov. 15, '63, m. o. July 26, '64. 
John H. Prior, b. New York City; 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; wd. leg 

Ant., hand Nov. 2J, '63; tr. V.R.C.; m. o. July 12, '65. 
Edward U. Prouty, b. Leverett; m. i. Feb. 7/62; 31; m.; shoemaker; wd. 

hip Gett.; d. wds. Gett. 
John W Raymore (Raymond), N. B.; b. Williamson, N. Y.; m.i. Jan, 21, 

'62; 20; s.; shoemaker; wd. neck Ant; dis. Feb. g, '63; reen. as com. 

sergt., Co. C, 4th Cav., Jan. 6, '64; m. o. Nov. 14, '65. 
David Reekie, b. Scotland, res. cr. West Boylston; 22; s.; weaver; pris. 

B. B.; dis. April 20, '63. 
Edwin A. Rice, N. B.; b. Springfield; 20; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Nov. 22, '62; reen. Co. K, 1st Conn. H. Art., Jan. 4, '64; pris. Fort 

Steadman March 25, '65; m. o. Sept. 25, '65. 
Emery N. Robbins, b. Thomson, Ct.; m. i. Jan. 14, '62; 29; m.; shoe- 
maker. No record of service. 
Stephen Robbins, b. unknown, res. cr. Charlton; m. i. Aug. 17/62; 37; 

farmer; m. o. G. O. 28. 
Michael Rock, N. B.; b. Ireland; m. i. Jan. 30/62; 29; m.; blacksmith; 

tr. Co. K, 20th; m. o. Jan. 27, '65. 
Alfred L. Russell, res. cr. Sturbridge; m. i. Dec. 17, '61; 20; s.; farmer; 

k. Ant. 
James E. Sargent, b. Watertown, Vt.; m. i. Feb. 3/62; 18; s.; shoemaker; 

k. Ant. 
Henry H. Slayton, 20; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; det. Signal Corps Oct. 

27, '63; m. o. 
Sidney Smith, b. Framingham, res. cr. New Braintree; 29; s.; farmer; k. 

B. B. 



COMPANY F. 



385 



Jonas H. Spencer, b. Canada, res. cr. Clinton; 18; s.; draper; m. o. Nov. 

20, '62; reen. Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. Art. Nov. 20, '62. 
Harrison \V. Stone, X. B.; b. Sutton; m.i. Feb. 3/62: 27; m.; shoemaker; 

wd. neck, back Gett.; reen. Dec. 25, '63; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab.; k. 

Feb. 5, '65, Hatcher's Run. 
Charles C. Torrey, N. B.; b. Northfield; 40; m.; blacksmith; m. o. 
Merritt A. Towne, b. Union, Ct.; res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Feb. 24, '62; 23; 

s.; farmer; pris. Ant.; tr. Y.R.C. July 28, '64; m. o. Feb. 24, '63. 
George F.Tucker, N. B.; b. Oxford; 43; m.; shoemaker; tr. V.R.C. Sept. 

20, '64; m. o. Nov. 14, 65. 
Anthony F. Tufts, b. unknown, res. cr. Westhampton; m. i. Jan. 30, '62; 

21; s.; farmer; dis. March 19, '63. 
William E. Yanever, b. Boston, res. cr. W. B.; m. i. Feb. 24, '62; 34; m.; 

carpenter; wd. chest, hand Ant.; d. Nov. 5, '62, of wds. 
Henry Vibbert, b. Mason, N. H.; res. cr. Fitchburg; 20; s.; cigar-maker; 

pris. B. B.; des. Oct. 17, '62. 
Porter Walbridge, b. res. cr. Wales; m. i. March 6, '62; 19; s.; farmer; 

wd. hand, arm Ant.; dis. Dec. 16, '63. 
Warren A. Walker, 21; s.; farmer; wd. leg Ant.; dis. Dec. 4, '62. 
William H. Walker, cr. Worcester; m. i. July 22, '62; 21; farmer; dis. 

March 19, '63. 
Edward F Ware, b. Oakham; 25; in.; shoemaker; d. Sept. 23, '61. 
Charles P Webber, b. W B.; m.i. Jan. 16, '62; 21; shoemaker; dis. Nov. 

15, '62; reen. Co. I, 2d H. Art., Dec. 11, '63; m. o. Sept. 3, '65. 
Justus C. Wellington, X. B.; res. cr. WB.; 23; s.; shoemaker; k. Ant. 
Benjamin C. Wheelock, X. B.; b. South Orange; m.i. Feb. 3, '62; 31; m.; 

shoemaker; dis. March 3, '63, as in Co. A. 
Elias H. Woodard, X. B.; b. Leicester; 39; m.; mechanic; dis. Feb. 

12, '62. 
Albert R. Wright, b. unknown, res. cr. Amherst; m. i. Jan. 50, '62; 21; s.; 

farmer; dis. March 21, '63. 
Richard Yeaton, b. Alfred, Me.; 27; m.; tool-maker; dis. Jan. 31, '62. 



COMPANY G. 

The members of this company were natives and citizens of Grafton 
and were credited on the quota of that town unless it is otherwise stated in 
each particular. For the history of this company before the date of 
muster, see pages 24-25. 

Walter Forehand, capt.; b. Croydon, N. H.; 35; m.; shoemaker; wd. 

foot B. B.; wd. hand Ant.; re. Oct. 9, '62; reen. V.R.C. capt. Co. G, 

9th Regt. 
John Murkland. See Co. B. Capt. Co. G Nov. 27, '62-July 3, '63. 
William R. Wheelock. See Staff Officers. Capt. July 5, '63, ass. Co. G; 

det. serv. as brig. q. m., and in com. pioneers 2d div. 2d Army Corps; 

m. o. 

Pliny M. George. See Co. I. 1st lieut. Co. G March 1, '63-April 15, '64. 
Newell K. Holden, 1st lieut.; b. Newfane, Vt; 24; s.; shoemaker; re. 

April 27, '62. 
Albert Prince. See Co. E. 2d lieut. Feb. 22, '62, ass. Co. G; 1st lieut. 

Sept. 18, '62, ass. Co. G; tr. as capt. Co. E Feb. 21, '63. 



386 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Thomas J. Spurr, istlieut.; res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Nov. 17, '61; reported, 
ass. Co. E Jan. 1, '62; ass. Co. G April 29, '62; wd. leg Ant.; d. wds. 
Sept. 27, '62. 

Charles M. Batchelder, 1st sergt; 29; s.; shoemaker; 2d lieut. Sept. 18, 
'62; 1st lieut. Jan, 3, '63, declined promotion; wd. Ant.; re. Dec. 26,'63. 

Stephen L. Kearney, b. New London, Ct.; res. Washington, D.C.; 26; m.; 
soldier; re. Jan. 16, '62. 

Henrv T. Dudley, p.; b. res. cr. Sutton; 20; s.; machinist; 1st sergt. Dec. 
19, '62; 2d lieut. Jan. 3, '63; m. April 9, '63, ass. Co. A; 1st lieut. April 
1 1, '63, ass. Co. A; capt. Dec. 3, 63, ass. Co. A; tr. as Capt. Co. G, 20th, 
in actual command of Cos. E, G and K, as tr. to 20th, being only line 
officer present; wd. leg Ant., side Gett, knee May 6,'64, leg 2d Deep 
Bottom; pris. Aug. 25, '64; m. o. March 25, '65. 

Charles H. Oakes, p.; b. Temple, Me.; 25; m.; shoemaker; sergt. March 
1, '63; 1st sergt. Sept. 1, '63; wd. arm May 6, '64; m. o. 

George N. Wheelock, p.; b. Barre; 23; s.; farmer; sergt. March 5, '62; 
1st sergt. April 13, '63; wd. Gett.; d. July 3, '63, of wds. 



Alfred A. Howe, p.; b. Fitchburg; 19; s.; currier; sergt. Sept. '63; wd. 

Nov. 27/63; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. July 22, '64; d. Annapolis, Md., 

Dec. 23, '64. 
Charles A. Johnson, p.; b. Philadelphia, Pa.; 38; m.; sailor; sergt. Nov. 

1, '62; dis. Oct. 12, '63. 
James S. Kirkup, p.; b. Northbridge; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 18; s.; farmer; 

sergt. Oct. 1, '64; wd. leg Ant.; tr. Co. G, 20th, Dec. 25, '63; m. o. as 

ab. wd. 
Daniel R. Knox, p.; b. Blackstone, res. cr. Millbury; m.i. Aug. 6, '61; 25; 

s.; shoemaker; sergt.; wd. shoulder Gett.; tr. V.R.C. Feb. 15,64; m. 

o. Aug. 6, '64. 
Abner H. Rice, Corp.; b. Stratton, Vt.; 23; s.; shoemaker; sergt. Feb. 

'63; wd. leg B. B.; k. May 5, '64. 
Albert A. Smith, sergt.; 29; m.; shoemaker; wd. Ant.; dis. Oct. 28/62. 
Jonathan P Stowe, sergt.; 29; s.; farmer; pris. B. B.; lost leg Ant.; d. 

Oct. 1, '62. 
George E. Tiffany, sergt.; b. Walworth, N. Y.; 23; m.; gardener; wd. 

forearm, side B. B.; tr. V.R.C. March 9,64. 
Charles W Wingate, p.; b. Oxford, res. cr. Manchester; m. i. Aug. 6, '61; 

27; s.: shoemaker; corp.; sergt. Oct. 2, '62; pris. B. B.; V.R.C. March 

15, '64; m. o. as ab. sick. 

Gilbert E. Balcolm, p.; b. East Douglas; 20; s.; shoemaker; corp. March 

5, '62; d. Dec. 12, '62. 
Thomas M. Bigelow, p.; 19; s.; shoemaker; corp.; tr. V.R.C. Sept. 30/63. 
Julius A. Clisbee, p.; b. unknown; m.i. Dec. 11, '61; 28; m.; carpenter; 

corp. Sept. 1, '62; dis. Dec. 6, '62. 
Charles Davis, corp.; b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 4, '61; 

38; s.; tailor; pris. B. B.; d. Washington, March 15, '62. 
George Davis, p.; b. Rutland; 36; s.; shoemaker; corp.; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Aug. 20, '63. 
Asa F. Day, b. Dudley, res. cr. Sutton; 29; s.; farmer; dis. May 24, '62. 
Francis P. Fairbanks, p.; 19; s.; farmer; corp. March 15/62; dis. Nov. 

25, '62. 



COMPANY G. 



387 



Levi T. Ford, p.; b. Canada; 26; m.; shoemaker; corp. April 1, '62; dis. 

May, '62. 
Wilder S. Holbrook, p.; b. Northbridge, res. cr. Sutton; 20; s.; farmer; 

corp. April 1/62; wd. shoulder B. B.; dis. July 6/62; reen. 36th Regt.| 

2d lieut. Aug. 22''62; re. July 31, '63. 
John H. Kimball, p.; b. Haverhill; 30; s.; shoemaker; corp. March 1, '63; 

pris. June 22, '64; m. o. May 17, '65. 
George A. Macker, p.; b. Medway; 18; s.; shoemaker; corp. Oct. 2/62; 

pris. June 22, '64; m. o. May 17, '65. 
George McCouche, p.; b. Albany, X. Y.; res. Pittsfield, cr. Berlin; sub.; 

m. i. July 30, '63; 23; s.; machinist; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. sick; tr. V 

R.C. April 17, '65; m. o. Oct. 10, '65, as corp. 
Frank D. Morse, p.; b. unknown; res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Nov. 26, 61; 

18; s.; machinist; corp. April 1, '63; wd. foot Ant.; tr. 20th; m. o. 

Nov. 4, '64. 
Frederick B, Robinson, p.; 22; s.; shoemaker; corp.; wd. shoulder B.B.; 

dis. May 24, '62. 
Thomas W Allen, musician; b. Northbridge; 18; s.; shoemaker; reen. 

Feb. 21, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. 
Joseph L. Cummings, musician; b. Woodstock, res. cr. Spencer; m. i. 

July 30, '61; 37; s.; bootmaker; dis. Feb. 13, '62. 
Curtis Cady, wagoner; b. Vermont.; m. i. July 30, '61 ; 37; m.; groom; k. 

June 3, '64. 

Privates. 

Henry O. Adams, b. res. cr. Townsend, Ct.; m. i. Aug. 5/61 ; 24; s.; laborer 

pris. B. 1].; wd. face Ant.; dis. Feb. 7, '63. 
Bradford E. Aldrich, b. unknown; m. i. Feb. 4, '62; 21; m.; boot-maker 

wd. face Ant.; tr. Y.R.C. July 27, '63; m. o. 
Charles H. Aldrich, b. Norwich, Ct.; res. cr. Sutton; m. i. July 30, '61; 24 

s.; farmer; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. July 29, '64. 
Walter H. Allen, b. unknown, res. cr. Blackstone; m. i. July 26, '62; 18 

farmer; dis. Feb. 5, '63. 
Arthur J. Andrews, b. Springfield, res. cr. Northbridge; m. i. Aug. 8, '62 

19; machinist; k. Ant. 
Henry S. Ball, 24; s.; shoemaker; d. Dec. 7, '62. 
Lerov D. Ball, b. Princeton, res. cr. Worcester; 18; s.; machinist; pris. 

B. B.; m. o. 
Simeon E. Ball, b. Lewiston, Me.; res. cr. Leicester; 18; s.; farmer; d. 

Jan. 24, '62. 
Joseph Berry, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Dec. 9, '61; 22; s.; 

shoemaker; wd. arm May '64; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. Dec. 4/64. 
Richard Barrett, b. unknown, res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Dec. 5, '61; 35; m.; 

mechanic; dis. July 11, '62. 
Renssalaer Barton, b. unknown, res. cr. Spencer; m. i. Aug, 31/62; 43; 

m.; mason; dis. Jan. 27, '63. 
Harvey Bassett. No further record. 
Alonzo R. Belknap, b. Sterling, res. cr. Sutton; 34; m.; bootmaker; wd. 

breast B. B.; d. Oct. 23, '61. 
Charles W. Berry, b. Marshfield; 18; s.; teamster; wd. arm Ant.; dis. 

Feb. 5, '63. 
James E. Black, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 28, '62; 42; m. 

o. Aug. 15, '64. 
Joseph Bonner, b. Canada; 35; m.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; k. May 6/64. 



388 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Lucius U. Boyden, b. Holden; 25; m.; shoemaker; d. Aug. 26, '62. 
Robert N. Brainard, b. Chicopee Falls, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 26, 

'62; 24; mechanic; wd. hand , May '64; reen. Feb. 9, '64; tr. Co. E, 

20th; tr. V.R.C. Oct. 6, '64; dis. Jan. 1, '65. 
Adelbert L. Brown, 19; s.; bootmaker; wd. shoulder F O.; d. June 18/62. 
Ira F. Brown, res. cr. Sutton; 23; s.; boxmaker; dis. Jan. 13, '63. 
Asa T. Bryant, b. Sutton; 22; s.; shoemaker; k. Ant. 
George E. Burns, b. unknown, res. cr. Sutton; m. i. Dec. 9, '61 ; 39; m.; 

operative; wd. thigh Gett.; tr. 20th. 
George E. Burns, 2d, b. unknown; m. i. July 30, '62; 27; m.; carpenter; 

pris. wd. leg, thigh Ant.; returned from m. in a. Oct. 24, '62; d. Nov. 

15, '62. 
Donald A. Campbell, b. unknown; m. i. July 30, '62; 18; operative; pris. 

June 22, '64; d. Feb. 16, '65, as pris. 
C. L. Caswell, b. Vermont; 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; k. Dec. 13, '62. 
John Chappell, b. Providence, R. I.; 23; s.; 3ailor; dis. Dec. 20, '62. 
Charles Claflin, b. Hopkinton; 20; s.; shoemaker; dis. Aug. 25, '61; reen. 

Jan. 6, '64, Co. C, 4th Cav.; dis. April 1, '65. 
Richard E. Clapp, b. Franklin, Vt.; res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Aug. 21, '62; 

30; gunsmith; dis. Dec. 30, '62. 
Harrison J. Clisbee, b. unknown; m. i. Dec. 11, '61; 18; s.; carpenter; k. 

Ant. 
William E. Collins, b. Brookfield, Wis.; 18; s.; shoemaker; m. o. 
J. W Cook, b. Mendon, res. cr. Millford; 22; s.; bootcutter; m. o. Aug. '61. 
George W Cross, b. unknown, res. cr. Marlboro; m. i. Feb. 17, '62; 21; s.; 

farmer; k. Gett. Is he the George W. Cross of Co. E? 
Joseph L. Cummings, b. unknown, res. cr. Spencer; m. i. July 30, '61; dis. 

Feb. 13, '62. 
David M. Daniels, b. Woonsocket, R. I.; res. cr. Sutton; 20; s.; opera- 
tive; wd. arm Ant.; dis. Nov. 27, '62. 
Marcus Daniels, 19; s.; shoemaker; never left state; reen. Co. E, 51st 

Regt., Sept. 25, '62; m. o. July 27, '63. 
Albert Davis, b. res. cr. Upton; m. i. July 30, '61; 18; m.; shoemaker; wd. 

arm Ant.: tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. May 5, '65. 
John W. Davis, b. Nantucket; 36; m.; tinsmith; dishonorably dis. Nov. 

4, '63- 
Orin (Orville) L. Davis, b. unknown; m. i. Aug. 1, '62; 41; s.; shoemaker; 

k. Ant. 
Horace Day, b. Killingly, Ct.; 35; m.; shoemaker; wd. B. B.; dis. April 

25, '62. 
William Dean, b. Stoneham, res. cr. Upton; m. i. July 30, '61; 21; s.; me- 
chanic; dis. April 25, '62. 
James T. Dennis, 20; s.; groom; tr. V.R.C. March 15, '64; m. o. as ab. 

sick. 

John C. Desmond, b. res. unknown; m. i. Dec. 1 1, '61. 

John C. Dixon, b. Heath, res. Worcester, cr. Dudley; m. i. Aug. 1, '62; 24; 

m.; farmer; reen. Dec. 25/63; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as 

pris.; m. o. July 27, '65. 
Michael Dugan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Uxbridge; m. i. July 30, '61; 18; s.; 

farmer; pris. B. B.; pris. wd. heels Ant.; d. as pris. 
Benjamin R. Elliott, b. Rumford, Me.; res. cr. Douglas; m. i. July 30, '61; 

27; m.; teamster; k. Ant. 
Reuben A. Ellis, b. Middlesex, Vt.; 22; s.; painter; pris. B. B.; d. pris. 

Dec. 25, '61. 



COMPANY G. 389 

Alton W Fairbanks, b. Boylston; 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Nov. 22, '62. 
William (Walter) J. Flagg, b. Hubbardston, res. cr. Northbridge; 28; s.; 

farmer; dis. Aug. 3, '62. 
John C. Ford, b. Canada, res. cr. Sutton; m. i. Feb. 4, '62; 28; m.; farmer; 

dis. April 16, '62. 
Henry A. Frissle, m. i. Aug. n, '62; 18; hostler; pris. Oct. 14, '63; d. March 

7, '64, as pris. 
William L. Fuller, b. Millbury, res. cr. Sutton; 19; s.; farmer; wd. foot 

B. B.; dis. April 25, '62; reen. Co. A, 34th Regt., July 31, '62; des. 

June 13, '63. 
Charles L. Goodwin, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Feb. 20, '62; 25; 

m.; bootmaker; dis. Oct. io, '62. 
William H. Gordon, b. res. cr. Troy, N.Y.; m. i. July 30, '61; 30; s.; pain- 
ter; wd. leg Ant.; dis. Jan. 22, '63. 
William C. Green, b. New Hampshire, res. cr. Sutton; 23; m.; shuttle- 
maker; d. June 30, '62, on march. 
Alexander Gravling, b. unknown, res. Poolesville, Md.; m. i. Sept. 4, '61; 

tr. 20th. 
William S. Hall, b. Sutton, res. cr. Northbridge; m. i. July 30, '61; 43; m.; 

shoemaker; wd. head Ant.; dis. May 23, '62. 
Edwin L. Hammond, b. res. unknown; m. i. Dec. 11, '61. No record. 
Daniel Harris, b. Moretown, Vt.; res. cr. Worcester; 26; s.; painter; d. 

June 30, '62, drowned on march. 
William Hart, b. res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 28, '62; 22; yeoman; d. 

pris. Sept. 6, '64. 
Cromwell L. Hill, b. Millbury; 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; dis. July 

23, '62. 
John Holland, b. Worcester; m. i. July 12, '61; 19: s.; shoemaker; wd. 

B. B.; dis. April 19, '62. 
Theodore E. Holt, b. unknown; m.i. Aug. 11, '62; 18; shoemaker; wd. leg 

Ant.; tr. Y.R.C. Feb. 15, '63; m. o. Feb. 6, '64. 
John Howith (Howarth), b. England; 38; s.; weaver; pris. B. B.; wd. side 

Gett; dis. Aug. 26, '63. 
Francis E. Huckins, res. Grafton; 19; s.; farmer; m. o. 
James Hughes, b. Ireland; 18; s.; bootmaker; lost leg Ant.; d. Sept. 28/62. 
E. S. Johnson, b. Southboro; 17; s.; clerk; pris. Ant.; dis. date unknown. 
Richard M. Johnson, b. Northbridge; 19; s.; bootmaker; reen. Dec. 25, 

'63; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 
James L. Keating, b. Worcester; 23; s.; shoemaker; never left state. 
James C. Kelley, b. Ireland; 23; s.; shoemaker; lost hand B. B.; dis. 

March 12, '62. 
Alonzo E. Kennedy, b. Northbridge; res. cr. Boston; m. i. Aug. 15, '62; 

24; merchant; m. o. G. O. 28. 
John Legasy, b. Vermont; m. i. July 30, '61; 20; s.; machinist; wd. arm 

Ant.; dis. Oct. 6, '63. 
Elisha S. Livermore, b. Lisle, N.Y.; res. cr. Millbury; 41; m.; bootmaker; 

pris. B. B.; wd. breast Gett.; dis. Aug. 12, '63. 
Henry Mack, b. England, res. unknown, cr. Wellfleet; sub.; m. i. July 

30, '63; des. Sept. 13, '63. 
Robert Madden, b. Ireland, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 31, '63; 21; s.; 

laborer; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. o. as ab. pris. 
Herman Maier, b. Germany, res. cr. Harwich; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 32; 

s.; steward; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. o. as ab. sick. 



390 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Francis H. Marble, b. Sutton; 18; s.; shoemaker; wd. shoulder B. B., 

breast Ant.; d. Nov 26, '62. 
Frederick C. Margrum, b. Trenton, N. J.; 21; s.; shoemaker; dis. March 

25, '63. 
Frank Martin, b. France, res. unknown, cr. Amherst; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 32; s.; sailor; wd. Nov. 27, '63; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
John Martin, b. Ireland; m. i. Dec. 11, '61; 20; s.; farmer; reen. Jan. 1, 

'64; wd. May 6, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. 
William Matthews, b. England; 25; m.; gardener; k. Dec. 13, '62. 
Henry Mayer, b. res. Germany, cr. Barre; sub.; m. i. July 25, '63; 30; s.; 

cook; pris. May 15, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. o. as pris. 
James McCarthy, b. unknown, res. New York City, cr. Chesterfield; sub.; 

m. i. July 30, '63; 19; s.; carpenter; des. Sept. 15, '63. 
John McCue, b. Pittsfield, res. cr. Bernardston; m. i. July 31/63; 21; s.; 

blacksmith; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m.o. May 30,'65. 
Samuel A. McCurdy, b. Worcester, res. cr. Sutton; 18; s.; shoemaker; 

pris. B. B.; wd. leg Gett; tr. V.R.C. Jan. 9. '64; m. o. July 19, '64. 
John McDormal, b. Denmark, res. unknown, cr. Bernardston; sub.; m. i. 

July 24, '63; 28; s.; moulder; des. Sept. 15, '63. 
Miles McHugh, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m.i. July 31, 

'63; 20; shoemaker; des. Aug. 26, '63. 
Patrick McHugh, b. res. Ireland, cr. Milton; sub.; m. i. July 31, '63; 22; 

s.; soldier; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. o. as pris. 
John M. McKenzie, b. unknown; m. i. Aug. 6, '61; 26; m.; shoemaker. 

Never left state. 
Adam McKnight, b. Scotland, res. unknown, cr. Oxford; sub.; m. i. July 

28, '63; 35; s.; seaman; tr. Co. G, 2oth; m. o. 
James McLaughlin, b. Ireland; 33; s.; weaver; dis. March 12, '62. 
Patrick McNulty, b. Ireland, res. Pittsfield, cr. Fitchburg; sub.; m. i. July 

27, '63; 26; s.; mill hand; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 
C. J. Merriam, res. cr. Worcester; 24; m.; wood-turner; k. Ant. 
George Meyers, b. res. Germany, cr. Milton; sub.; m. i. July 29, '63; 21; 

merchant; des. Sept. 13, '63. 
Charles L. Mitchell, b. Dixfield, Me.; m. i. Aug. 11, '62; 45; shoemaker; 

d. Oct. 24, '62, of wds. 
James Moor, b. Ireland, res. New York City, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 

17, '63; 21; laborer. Never reported to Co. 
David Moore, b. Mt. Vernon, Me.; res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 24, '62; 

43; wagoner; wd. thigh Ant.; tr. V.R.C. Feb. 15/64; m.o. July 18, '64. 
Henry Moore, b. Ireland, res. Canada, cr. Quincy; sub.; m. i. Aug. i, '63; 

30; m.; clerk; des. April 18, '64. 
Lewis H. Moore, b. unknown, res. cr. Sutton; m. i. July 30, '62; 19; shoe- 
maker; k. Ant. 
William T. Moore, b. Boston, res. cr. Worcester; 20; s.; machinist; wd. 

leg Ant., face, leg Gett.; tr. V.R.C. Feb. 15, '64; m. o. July 26, '64. 
George L. Morse, b. res. cr. New York City; m. i. Aug. 6, '61; 23; s.; 

shoemaker; dis. April 22, '62. 
William E. Morse, b. Concord; 18; s.; machinist; wd. hip Ant.; d. Dec. 

30, '62. 
John Muller, b. Germany, res. New York City, cr. Rehoboth; sub.; m. i. 

July 30, '63; 34; m.; farmer; des. Sept. 13, '63. 
George A. Munroe, b, unknown; m. i. Dec. 11, '61; 18; s.; farmer; tr. Y 

R.C. Oct. 15/62. 
John Murphy, 1st, b. Scotland, res. Boston, cr. Warwick; sub.; m, i. July 

29/63; 29; m.; seaman. Never reported, 



COMPANY G. 3gi 

John Murphy, 2d, b. res. unknown, cr. Barre; m. i. July 30, '63; 21; s.; 

printer; tr. 20th as ab. sick; m. o. as ab. sick. 
Patrick Murphy, b. England, res. Canada, cr. Dennis; sub.; m^i. July 30, 

'63; 23; s.; seaman; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Elmer N. Newton, 23; s.; clerk; k. B. B. 
Sylvester Oakes, b. Temple, Ale.; m. i. July 31, '61; 21; s.; shoemaker; 

k. Dec. 13, ,62. 
William K. Oakes, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Feb. 20, '62; 19; 

m.; bootmaker; wd. leg Ant.; dis. Dec. 12, '62. 
Samuel C. Osland, b. res. cr. Paxton; m. i. July 30, '61; 24; s.; farmer; 

pris. B. B.; d. March, '62. 
George H. Paine, b. res. cr. Sutton; m. i. Aug. 4, '62; 19; farmer; dis. 

May 28, '63. 
James Perry, b. N. B., res. cr. Worcester; m. i. March 2, '64; 18; s.; lab- 
orer; k. May 6, '64. 
Oscar Phetteplace, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 18; 

s.; machinist; wd. leg. Ant.; dis. Jan. 31, '63. 
George G. Phillips, b. Harwood, res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Aug. 6, '61; 32; 

m.; shoemaker; k. B. B. 
Charles H. Plimpton, b. unknown, res. cr. Sutton; m. i. July 31, '62; 17; 

s.; farmer; wd. leg Ant., leg Gett.; tr. V.R.C. Sept. 1, '63. 
Frank A. Plympton, b. Woodsboro, Vt.; m. i. July 30, '61; 20; s.; team- 
ster; dis. Dec. 31, '63. 
Webster Plympton, b. Woodsboro, Vt.; m.i. July 30/61; 21; s.; teamster; 

m. o. Oct. 20, '62; reen. Batt. I, 1st U. S. L. Art Nov. 10, '62. 
C. L. Preston, b. res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 30, '61; 17; s.; farmer; 

wd. hip B. B.; pris. Ant.; des. March 1, '63. 
John A. Remick, b, Richmond, Me.; res. cr. Sutton; 18; s.; bootmaker; 

wd. face, shoulder, breast Ant.; dis. Jan. 29, '63. 
M. A. Rhoades (Roods), 23; s.; farmer; m. o. 
Charles A. Rice, b. Killingly, Ct.; res. cr. Sutton; 31; m.; shoemaker; 

tr. V.R.C. Sept. 30, '63. 
William E. Robbins, b. unknown; m. i. Feb. 11, '62; 33; m.; shoemaker; 

dis. Jan. 18, '63. 
William Robins, b. Boston, res. cr. Cambridge; m. i. Nov. 22, '62; 42; 

carpenter; d. Sept. 8, '63, wds. 
Calvin A. Rockwood, b. Northbridge, res. cr. Worcester; 19; m.; clerk; 

pris. B. B.; wd. arm Spottsylvania, May '64; d. wds. May 31, '64. 
John M. Sargent, b. Oxford, N. H.; m. i. Aug. 11/62; 36; clicker; wd. 

heel, ankle Ant.; dis. March 26, '63. 
Lucius M. Sargent, b. res. unknown; dis. Aug. '61. 
Peter Sherburt, b. Canada; 23; m.; shoemaker; wd. leg B. B.; dis. Feb. 

12, '62. 
J. D. Sherman, 21; s.; shoemaker; k. B. B. 
Harvey L. Sibley, b. Cuba, N. Y.; res. cr. Douglas; m. i. July 30, '61; 21: 

s,; machinist; wd. hand Ant.; tr. V.R.C. Nov. 15, '63; m. o. 
William Sibley, b. Leicester; 31; m.; shoemaker; dis. Nov. 14, '62. 
Wilson Sibley, b. Leicester, res. cr. Sutton; 31; m. shoemaker; wd. back 

B. B.; dis. Nov. 14, '62. 
Edwin J. Smith, b. Waterford, R. I.: res. cr. Uxbridge; m. i. July 20, '62; 

18; hostler; dis. Jan. 31, '63. 
John R. Smith, b. New London, Ct.; res. unknown; m. i. Aug. 25, '62. 
Alfred Snow, b. Medway; 20; s.; shoemaker; wd, leg Ant.; d. Oct. 18/62. 
Charles D. Snow, b. Shemango, N. Y.; 18; s.; shoemaker; wd. arm B.B.; 

dis. Sept. 19/62. 



392 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Walter H. Steadson (Stetson), b. Boston, res. cr. Cambridge; m. i. Xov 

20, '62; 19; s.; shoemaker; tr. Co. K, 20th, as pris.; d. Aug. 22, '64, as 

pris. 
J. Frank Sweeney, 23; m.; artist; never left state. 
G. E. Tiffany, b. unknown; 23; tr. V.R.C. March 9, '64. 
Albert Wait, b. Woodstock, Ct.; res. cr. Providence, R.I.; 22; s.; jeweler; 

dis. Aug. 12, '62. 
Frederick Whitney, b. Marlboro; m. i. Feb. 4, '62; 33; m.; shoemaker; 

dis. July 31, '62. 
Frederick Whitney, b. unknown; m. i. July 30, '62; 18; s.; farmer; tr. 

20th; m. o. Aug. 6, '64. 
Cassius M. Wilder, b. res. cr. Sutton; 18; s.; clerk; det. signal serv. Aug. 

31, '61; d. July 20, '62. 
Samuel Young, b. sea; 17; s.; weaver; m. o. Aug. 25, '61. 



COMPANY H. 

The members of this company were natives of Northbridge, and 
were credited on the quota of that town unless it is otherwise stated in 
each particular. For the history of this company before the date of 
muster, see pages 27-29. 

Chase Philbrick. See Field Officers. Capt. Co. H to April 29, '62. 

Amos Bartlett. See Co. I. Capt. May 21, '62, ass. Co. H; re. Jan. 7, '63. 

Henry S. Taft, 1st lieut.; b. Charlton; 26; m.; clerk; det. Signal Corps 
Sept. '61; capt. Jan. 17, '63, ass. Co. H but still on det. serv. Signal 
Corps; capt. Signal Corps, U. S. A., March 3, '63; brevet major U. S. 
Vols. March 13, '65; serv. at Port Royal Ferry Jan. 1, '62; brevet 
lieut.-col. U. S. Vols. March 13. '65, gallant and meritorious serv. dur- 
ing war; acting chief signal off. Dept. of the South July-Dec. 11,62, 
Dec. 11-June '63, chief signal off. Dept. of the South. In charge sig- 
nal office at Washington under Col. Myer June '63-re. Nov 25, '63. 

Amable Beaudry. See Co. B. 1st lieut. July 4, '63, m. Oct. 31, ass. Co. 

H; m. o. 
Samuel J. Fletcher, sergt.; b. Solan, Me.; 30; s.; engineer; 1st sergt. Jan. 

16, '62; 2d lieut. July 18, '62; 1st lieut. Nov. 14, '62; capt. July 4, '63, m. 

Oct. 30, '63, ass. Co. D Nov. 6, '63; wd. face Gett.; wd. hand May '64; 

m. o. 

Henry G. Bigelow. See Co. D. 2d lieut. Oct. 28, '62, ass. Co. H. 
Richard Derby. See Co. C. 2d lieut. Co. H to [an. 5, '62. 
James May. See Co. B. 2d lieut. Co. H April 14, '63. 
James M. Taft, 1st sergt.; b. Uxbridge; 37; m.; trader; 2d lieut. Jan. 17, 
'62; re. July 17, '62. 

Edwin R. Brown, p.; b. Rehoboth; 22; s.; machinist; corp. Sept. 18, '62; 

sergt. Sept. 1/63; 1st sergt.; wd. neck B. B.; wd. side June '64; d. 

June 24, '64. 
Edward Chapin, p.; b. White Pigeon, Mich.; m. i. Aug. 6, '62; 21; s.; 

student; corp. Sept. 18, '62; sergt. April 8, '63; 1st sergt.; wd. legs 

Gett.; d. wds. Aug. 4, '63. 
Nelson V Stanton, p.; b. unknown; 19; s.; painter; corp. Aug. 9, '61; 

sergt. May 4, '62; 1st sergt. Sept. 17, '62; 2d lieut. Jan. 22, '62, ass. Co, 



COMPANY H. 393 

B; ist lieut. July 4, '63, ass. Co. D; adjt; capt. Feb. 6, '6+, never m.; 
wd. arm, breast Gett.; wd. May 12, '64; m. o. 
Edwin H. Tanner, p.; b. Webster; 20; s.; machinist; Corp. Sept. 18, '62; 
sergt. Oct. 11, '62; ist sergt. June '64; m. o. 

Charles H. Bean, sergt.; 22; s.; engineer; dis. Qct. 16/62. 

John T. Bixbee, p.; b. res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 2, '61; 18; s.; ma- 
chinist; wd. neck Ant.; d. Sept. 12, '63. 

Abram F Burrell, p.; b. Slatersville, R. I.; res. cr. Uxbridge; 21; s.; la- 
borer; corp. Feb. 17, '62; sergt. May 1, '63; wd. leg Ant.; wd. leg 
Gett.; d. wds. Aug. 21/63. 

George W. Davidson, Corp.; b. Brooklyn, Ct.; 23; m.; machinist; sergt. 
Jan. 16/62; dis. Oct. 11, '62. 

Edward R. Harrington, p.; res. cr. Millbury; m. i. July 25/61; 20; s.; 
clerk; corp. Sept. 1/63. sergt. Feb. 2/64; wd. wrist B. B.; wd. hip 
June '64; d. July 30, '64; m. o. as ab. 

Patrick Murphy, p.; b. Ireland; 23; s.; stone-cutter; sergt. Oct. 11/62; 
wd. back Gett.; m. o. 

Nathan A. Seaver, p,; b. Thompson, Ct.; m. i. July 25, '61 ; 18; s.; laborer; 
corp. Sept. 1/63; sergt. June 23, '64; m. o. • 

Silas A. Slocomb, corp.; b. Sutton; 27; s.; machinist; sergt. June 6/62; 
wd. arm Ant.; m. o. 

Gilbert P. Whitman, sergt.; b. Johnston, R. I.; 24; s.; machinist; wd. 
arm, breast, thigh Ant.; dis. Jan. 5, '63. 

James H. Williams, p.; 40; m.; machinist; corp. Sept. 18/62; sergt. Oct. 
II, '62; wd. wrist May '64; m. o. 

Eli M. Batchelor, p.; b. Uxbridge; 23; s.; painter; corp. Jan. 16, '62; dis. 

April 27, '62. 
Rufus H. Belding, p.; b. Westfort, Ct.; res. cr. Douglas; 18; s.; axe-maker; 

corp, Feb. 2, '64; wd. hand Ant.; m. o. 
Franklin Bullard, p.; b. Holden, res. cr. Douglas; 18; s.; machinist; 

corp. June 23, '64; wd. thigh Ant.; m. p. 
William H. Burgess, Corp.; b. Providence, R. I.; 29; s.; seaman; tr. 

Western Flotilla Dec. 8, '63. 
John F. Butters, p.; b. Brookfield, res. cr. Maiden; m. i. Aug. 7, '61; 20; 

s.; farmer; corp.; reen. Dec. 23, '63; wd. May 12, '64; d. wds. 
Henry A. Collar, corp.; b. Xew Boston, Ct.; res. cr. Uxbridge; 20; s.; 

clerk; wd. thigh B. B.; k. Ant. 
Albert Everett, p.; b. res. cr. Sutton; 21; s.; shoemaker; corp. May 1/63; 

wd. in arm Gett.; m. o. July 15, '64. 
Harlow Fairbanks, p - ; b. Worcester, res. cr. Douglas; 20; s.; axe-maker; 

corp. Jan. 16, '62; wd. thigh, foot F O.; dis. Aug. 29, '62. 
George F Fletcher, p.; b. unknown; m. i. July 31, '62; 18; s.; mechanic; 

corp. Jan. 1/63; wd. face Ant.; k. Gett. 
James B. Fletcher, corp.; 21; s.; clerk; k. Ant. 
Andrew W. Garside, p.; b. res. cr. Uxbridge; 23; s.; machinist; corp. 

Nov. 1, '62; pris. wd. head May 6. '64; acting color sergt. Wilderness; 

d. pris. Nov. 15, '64. 
Lamson A. Seagrave, corp.; b. res. cr. Uxbridge; 21; s.; mechanic; wd. 

. leg. Ant.; m. o. 
William Addison, musician; b. Scotland; 42; m.; laborer; dis. Jan. 23/62. 
Robert W. Graham, musician; b. Ireland; 24; s.; machinist; dis. Nov. 5, 

'62. 

?6 



394 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Angelo A. M. Hale, corp.; b. East Douglas; 21; s.; machinist; drummer; 

dis. Jan. 24, '63. 
Stillman C. Newell, wagoner; b. Troy, N.Y.; 21; s.; butcher; tr. V.R.C. 

Nov. 20, '63; m. o. July 25, '64. 

Privates. 

Andrew Addison, b. Scotland, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 22, '62; 18; 

machinist; k. Ant. 
James Addison, b. Scotland; 20; s.; machinist; des. Sept, 1/62. 
Henry W. Ainsworth, b. Millbury; m. i. Aug. 6, '62; 24; clerk; k. Ant. 
Horace M. Allen, b. Connecticut, res. cr. Sutton; m. i. Aug. 4, '62; 40; m.; 

blacksmith; tr. V.R.C. March 15, '64; m. o. July 29, '64. 
James Allen, b. Canton; 22; s.; shoemaker; k. B. B. 
Edmund C. Arnold, b. res. cr. Uxbridge; 21; s.; painter; lost arm B. B.; 

dis. April 12, '62. 
Nathan S. Arnold, b. Uxbridge, res. cr. Sutton; 24; s.; stove-maker; dis. 

April 27, '62. 
Henry Baker, b. unknown, jes. Needham, cr. Dana; m. i. March 22, '64; 

18; s.; laborer; dis. June 30, '64. 
Charles E. Barnes, b. unknown, res. cr. Brookfield; m. i. Jan. 24, '62; 18; 

s.; farmer; dis. Oct. 21, '62. 
O. W Batchelor, b. res, cr. Sutton; 18; s.; machinist; k. Ant. 
William H. Batchelor, b. Millbury; ig; s.; wheelwright; wd. foot '62; 

dis. Dec. 26, '62. 
Charles E. Beaman(Braman), b. Grafton, res. cr. Uxbridge; 21; s.; carder; 

wd. hand June 27, '62; dis. Dec. 20, '62. 
William Bixby, b. unknown; m. i. July 25/61; 23; s.; butcher; q. m. 

sergt. May 1, '62; 1st lieut. and q. m. July 5, '63; m. o. 
Edward M. Bliss, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Jan. 13, '62; 22; 

s.; farmer; wd. lungs Ant.; dis. Dec. 22, '62. 
Dexter Brown, b. Providence, R. I.; 23; s.; shoemaker; d. Dec. 16, '62. 
Joseph Brown, b. unknown; m. i. July 29, '62; 18; s.; farmer; tr. V.R.C. 

March 15/64; m. o. July 12, '64. 
James Burgess, b. Providence, R. I.; m. i. July 25, '61; 42; m.; boot-treer; 

dis. Jan. 31, '62. 
C. P. B. Burrows, b. Providence, R. I.;,2o; s.; clerk; dis. Aug. 25, '61. 
Jonathan C. Burrows, b. unknown; m. i. Dec. 2, '61; 30; m.; bootmaker; 

dis. Dec. 31, '61 ; reen. Co. A, 34th Regt., Dec. 8, '63; tr. to 24th Regt. 

June 14, '65, as corp.; des. Dec. 5, '65. 
William F- Carpenter, b. Providence, R. I.; res. cr. Sutton; m. i. July 25, 

'61; 20; s.; student; dis. June 4, '62. 
Alvin L. Carr, m. i. July 25, '61; 25; s.; machinist; m. o. 
Jerome M. Carr, b. Blackstone; 20; s.; machinist; m. o. 
James H. Chadwick, b. unknown, res. cr. Webster; m. i. July 29, '62; 23; 

m.; machinist; wd. legs Ant.; dis. Oct. 25, '62. 
Winsor Chamberlain, res. cr. Upton; 18; s.; bootmaker; wd. breast Gett.; 

tr. V.R.C. Feb. 15, '64; m. o. July 26, '64. 
Henry Chapman, b. Ireland, res. cr. Uxbridge; 23; s.; spinner; m. o. 
John Clancy, b. Ireland; res. cr. Upton; 23; s.; bootmaker; pris. B. B.; 

dis. Oct. 20, '62. 
William J. Cole, b. Columbia, Texas; res. cr. Uxbridge; 22; s.; machinist; 

wd. leg B. B.; d. May 10, '64. 
Adin A. Colvin, b. unknown; m. i. July 29, '62; 23; 5.; shoemaker; wd. 

side Ant.; wd. arm Gett.; m. o. as ab. sick, G. O. 28. 



COMPANY H. 395 

J. G. Cummings, b. Sutton; 36; s.; carder; wd. finger '62; dis. Jan. 15, '63. 
D. L. Dana, b, Webster, res. cr. Sutton; 21; s.; shoemaker; wd. foot B. 

B.; dis. '62; d. Nov. 4, '62, on way home. 
Francis M. Davis, b. unknown, res, cr. Webster; m. i. July 29, '62; 39; m.; 

school-teacher; tr. V.R.C. July I, '63; m. o. July 21, '64, G. O. 28. 
Richard Dowling, b. Ireland, res. cr. Brookfield; m. i. Jan. 20, '62; 21; s.; 

farmer; wd. shoulder Ant.; tr. V.R.C. Sept. 11, '63. 
Elbridge Donovan, b. Norwich, Ct.; 20; s.; machinist tr. V.R.C. March 

15, '64; m. o. 
Reuben S. Dorr, b. res. cr. Sutton; 18; s.; shoemaker; tr. V.R.C. Jan. 15, 

'64; m. o. July 20, '64. 
Henry W. Dunn, b. unknown, res. cr. Charlton; m. i. July 30, '62; 19; s.; 

farmer; wd. head Ant.; wd. leg May '64; d. May 21, '64. 
James F. Dunn, b. unknown; m.i. July 29, '62; 18; s.; farmer; d. Feb. 7, '63. 
Samuel Emerson, b. unknown, res. cr. Webster; m. i. July 29, '62; 30; m.; 

blacksmith; wd. neck Ant.; d. wds. Sept. 26, '62. 
Henry M. Engly, b. Waterford, R. I.; res. cr. Uxbridge; m. i. Jan. 24, '62; 

22; s.; farmer; d. July 3, '62. 
James Ennis, b. Ireland; 24; s.; harnessmaker; dis. Aug. 25, '61. 
Daniel R. Farris, b. unknown, res. cr. Uxbridge; m. i. Dec. 2, '61; 43; m.; 

farmer; dis. March 16, '62. 
William Ferris, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 7, '62; 23; oper- 
ative; wd. breast '62; dis. March 30, '63. 
James S. Flanigan, b. Ireland; 44; m.; machinist; pris. Ant.; m. o. 
John W Foster, b. Taunton; 21; s.; machinist; pris. B. B.; dis. July 29/62. 
John Francher, b. St. Johnsboro, N.Y.; res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Jan. 24, '62; 

23; m.; machinist; dis. Nov. 25, '62. 
Patrick Finegan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Jan. 20, '62; 18; s.; 

operative; k. Ant. 
Michael Gallavan, b. Ireland, res. Cambridge, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. 

Aug. 1, '63; 31; s.; gardener; des. Sept. 5, '63. 
John S. Gates, b. Worcester; 37; dis. Oct. 1, '61. 
Frank Graichen. See Co. C. Dis. Co. H May 2, ,62. 
Lewis Hairl, m. i. July 25, '61; 20; s.; currier; wd. shoulder B. B.; d. Nov. 

5, '61. 
Edgar Hall, b. res. cr. Willimantic, Ct.: m. i. Jan. 18, '62; 23; s.; painter. 
Francis Hanley, b. Ireland, res. cr. Northboro: m. i. July 27, '62; 27; m.; 

yeoman; wd. shoulder F O.; d. July 5, '62. 
Franklin L. Hayden, b. Bellingham, res. cr. Uxbridge; m. i. Jan. 21, '62; 

18; s.; farmer; wd. chest Ant.; d. wds. Sept. 27, '62. 
Edward G. Hewitt, res. cr. Sutton; 20; s.; painter; pris. B. B.; wd. face 

F O.; dis. Feb. 18, '63. 
Benjamin S. Hill, b. unknown, res. cr. Upton; m.i. July 30. '62; 25; s.; 

farmer; m. o. G. O. 28, as ab. sick. 
John Hirst, b. England; 22; s.; machinist; pris. B. B.; m. o. 
Thomas Horn, b. New Brunswick, res. cr. Upton; 22; s.; shoemaker; 

pris. B. B.; pris., wd. leg Ant.; k. Gett. 
Charles Johnson, b. Worcester; 26; m.; miller; tr. Signal Corps, Jan. 12, 

•64. 
Levi F. Jose, b. Saco, Me.; res. cr. Upton; 23; m.; shoemaker; dis. Nov. 

3- '62. 
Damon C. Judd, b. Glen Falls, X. Y.; res. cr. Sutton; 18; s.; shoemaker; 

wd. leg B. B., shoulder Ant.; dis. Jan. 8, '63. 
Eugene Keith, 21; s.; machinist; k. B. B. 



396 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Timothy Kennedy, b. Ireland; 18; s.; d. Nov. 4, '62. 

Theodore Lawton, b. Mainjoink, Penn.; 28; s.; machinist; dis. Sept. 18, '62. 

Peter Luck, b. Germany, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Jan. 6, '62; 38; s.; 

soldier; tr. V.R.C. Oct. 7, '63; m. o. Jan. 9, '65. 
Thomas Magomery, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 22, '62; 19; 

machinist; wd. Ant.; d. wds. Oct. 4, '62. 
John Mahoney, b. res. cr. unknown; sub.; m. i. July 17, '63; 22; laborer; 

des. 
William Mann, b. Blackstone, res. cr. Sutton; 19; s.; shoemaker; k. B.B. 
Isaac E. Marshall, b. Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; 20; s.; machinist; k. Ant. 
Archibald McLean, b. res. Scotland, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 1/63; 

28; s.; planter; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. as on det. serv. 
Alfred McGinnis, b. unknown, res. cr. Blackstone; 22; s.; spinner; dis. 

Sept. 1, '62. 
David J. Messenger, b. Upton; 22; s.; carpenter; pris., wd. B. B.; d. as 

pris. from amputation of leg soon after B. B. 
James C. Moor, b. New Brunswick, res. cr. Milford; m. i. Jan. 24, '62; 

19; s.; farmer; wd. back Ant.; des. hospital, '62. 
John F. Moor, b. New Brunswick, res. cr. Milford; m. i. Jan. 24, '62; 21; 

s.; farmer; wd. thigh Ant.; des. hospital, '62. 
John Morath, b. Germany, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. Aug. 1, '63; 19; m.; 

sailor; wd. May '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. as ab. sick. 
Arnold Mowry, b. res. cr. Uxbridge; m. i. Jan. 20, '62; 25; s.; farmer; 

d. April 24, '62. 
Dennis Murphy, b. Ireland, res. cr. Upton; 21; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. 

B.; dis. May 8, '63. 
Jonathan E. Nichols, m. i. July 20, '61; 37; m.; shoemaker; dis. March 

6, '62. 
Henry J. Nourse, b. Boston, res. cr. Marlboro; m. i. July 25, '61; 19; s.; 

machinist; m. o. 
John J. O'Connell, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Rockport; sub.; m. i. 

Aug. 5/63; 21; s.; seaman; pris. June 22/64; tr - Co. G, 20th, as pris.; 

d. Nov. 27, '64, as pris. 
Joseph O'Neill, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Ashfield; sub.; m. i. July 5, 

'63; 22; boiler-maker; wd. May '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. 0. 

as ab. wd. 
Timothy O'Sullivan, b. unknown; m. i. Aug. 4,'62; 40; m.; fireman; m. o. 
Ira H. Parker, b. Uxbridge; m. i. Aug. 6, '62; 21; s.; clerk; wd. thigh 

Ant.; tr. V.R.C. Nov. 15, '63; m. o. Aug. 13, '64. 
John W- Peabody, b. Massachusetts, res. Middleboro, cr. Gloucester; 

sub.; m. i. Aug. 4, '63; 19; s.; farmer; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 

29th, as pris.; dis. May 29, '65. 
William H. Perkins, b. unknown, res. Canada, cr. Amherst; sub.; m. i. 

July 30, '63; 24; s.; lithographer; des. Aug. 20, '63. 
J. L. Pierce, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 25, '61; 22; wd. 

fingers B. B.; dis. Oct. 9, '62. 
E. B. Pitts, b. Millville; 23; s.; mechanic; wd. thigh B.B.; dis. Nov. 30, '62. 
George W Pitts, b. res. New Brunswick, cr. Taunton; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 28; m.; book-binder; tr. Co. G, 20th, as on det. serv 
Frederick Pontius, b. Germany, res. New York City, cr. Somerset; sub.; 

m. i. July 29, '63; 29; m.; chair-maker; pris. June '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, 

as pris.; d. Oct. '64, as pris. 
Nelson L. A. Pratt, b. res. cr. Clinton; m. i. Aug. 7, '61; 21; s.; stone- 
cutter; m. o. dishonorably Oct. 24, '63. 



COMPANY H. 397 

Ebenezer Prest (Priest), b. England; 23; s.; machinist; wd. hand Ant.; 

dis. Dec. 29, '62. 
Jerome Prince, b. Woonsocket, R.I. ; 19; s.; shoemaker; wd. finger B.B.; 

dis. Feb. 28/62; reen. Co. E, 42d Regt., Sept. 30/62; m. o. Aug. 20/63. 
Nathaniel Putnam, m. i. July 24, '61; 20; s.; shoemaker; d. Oct/10, '62. 
James Quinn, b. Albany, N. Y.; res. Greenfield, cr. Berlin; sub.; m. i. 

July 30, '63; 23; s.; carriage-trimmer; tr. Co. G, 20th, as piis. d. July 

29, '64, as pris. 
Peter Quinn, b. unknown, res. cr. Greenfield; sub.; m. i. Aug. 5, '63; 20; 

seaman; des. 
Charles Raphel, b. res. Prussia, cr. Sandwich; sub.; m. i. July 31/63; 23; 

m.; tinsmith; wd. May 12, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. 
James Ray, b. Canada, res. cr. Abington; sub.; m. i. Aug. 5/63; 21; s.; 

laborer; wd. May 6, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.: m. o. as ab. wd. 
Charles A. Reed, b. Grafton, res. cr. Upton; m. i. Jan. 20, '62; 19; s.; 

shoemaker; wd. hand Ant.; k. Gett. 
George Riley, b. res. Canada, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 16, '63; 26; s.; 

sailor; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
Charles Ritter, b. Germany, res. cr. North Bridge water; sub.; m. i. Aug. 

5, '63; wd. May '64; tr. Co. G. 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. as ab. wd. 
James Roach, b. New York City, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. 

Aug. i, '63; 21; s.; laborer; wd. arm May '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab. 

wd.; m. o. June 15, '65. 
John Roberts, b. New Brunswick, res. unknown; cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. 

July 28, '63; 21; s.; blacksmith; des. Sept. 3, '63; shot for des. Oct. 

3°. '63- 
Richard Rogers, b. Fall River; 21; s.; moulder; dis. Oct. 25, '61. 
Alfred Rolle, b. France, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 18, '63; 27; s.; 

sailor; wd. May, '64; tr. Co. H, 20th, as ab. wd. 
Stephen W. Russell, b. unknown, res. cr. Webster; m. i. July 29, '62; 37; 

m.; mechanic; wd. arm May '64; m. o. G. O. 28. 
John Ryan, b. Ireland, res. N. S.; cr. Charlestown; sub.; m. i. July 29, 

'63; 30; s.; laborer; wd. May 6, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. as ab. wd. 
Willard W Sawyer, b. Auburn, res. cr. Uxbridge; 18; s.; painter; wd. 

lung B. B.; dis. Aug. 7, '62. 
George F. Seaver, b. Brandy Hill, Ct.; 21; s.; machinist; k. B. B. 
Charles N. Shumway, b. unknown, res. cr. Webster; m. i. July 29, '62; 22 

s.; mechanic; wd. foot Gett.; m. o. G. O. 28. 
Samuel Sibley, b. Oakham, res. cr. Sutton; 40; m.; miller; wd. leg B. B. 

d. wds. Nov. 6, '61. 
Charles D. Smith, b. Farmington, Me.; res. cr. Sutton; m. i. July 25, '61 

24; s.; bootmaker; wd. leg Ant.; d. Sept. 27, '62, wds. 
George N. Smith, b. Waterford, R. I.; 19; s.; machinist; k. Ant. 
Stephen W Smith, b. res. cr. Mendon; 24; m.; shoemaker; tr. V.R.C. 

Jan. 15, '64. 
Thomas Snow, b. Schaghticoke, N. Y.; res. cr. Douglas; 18; s.; axe- 
maker; tr. V. R. C. Sept. 3, '63; reen. V.R.C. April 14, '64; m. o. Nov. 

10, '65. 
Thomas A. Southwick, b. Uxbridge, res. cr. Douglas; 22; m.; mechanic; 

wd. thigh B. B.; dis. for wds. 
George H. Spring, b. Grafton; 21; s.; carder; dis. April 29, '62. 
Charles H. Stone, b. Coventry, R. I.; res. cr. Upton; 42; m.; laborer; wd. 

shoulder B. B.; dis. March 1, '62. 
Simon Sullivan, b. Farmington, M.; res. cr. Milford; m. i. July 23, '61; 20; 

s.; bootmaker; wd. hand Ant.: dis. Oct. 21, '62. 



398 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

George A. Tanner, b. unknown, res. cr. Webster; m. i. July 29, '62; 22; 
m.; mechanic; dis. Oct. 8, '62. 

J. P. Thurber, b. Thompson, Ct.; 26; s.; spinner; dis. Feb. 28, '63. 

Ferrill Toomey, b. Ireland, res. cr. Uxbndge; 23; s.; laborer; dis. Aug. 
27, '61. 

B. F Underwood, b. New York City; res. cr. Stony Creek, Ct.; 22; s.; 
stone-cutter; pris. B. B.; dis. Oct. 4, '62. 

George L. Vibbert, b. West Boylston, res. cr. Uxbridge; 20; s.; porter; 
wd. groin Nov. 27/63; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. May 22, '65. 

Thomas Wately, b. New York City; 21; s.; machinist; wd. leg B.B.; dis. 
Oct. 23, '62, to reen. 6th Cav., Oct. 27, '62. 

Franklin Waterman, b. New Bedford; 19; s.; machinist; d. June 11, '62. 

George F Wellington, b. res. cr. Upton; m. i. Jan. 20/62; 18; s.; shoe- 
maker; wd. Ant.; tr. Co. K, 20th; m. o. Jan. 20, '65. 

Lorenzo S. Wheelock, b. Grafton, res. cr. Mendon; m. i. Jan. 24, '63; 25; 
s.; farmer; wd. leg Ant.; tr. V.R.C. Sept. 6, '63; m. o. Jan. 24, '65. 

Henry C. Whipple, b. Woonsocket, R. I.; 21; s.; machinist; dis. April 
23, '62. 

J. S. Williams, b. Boston, res. cr. Bolton; m.i. July 25/61 ; 28; m.; farmer; 
pris. B. B.; wd. hand Ant.; dis. Feb. 4/63. 

Silas H. Wiliams, b. Suffield, Vt.; m. i. Jan. 22, '62; 27; m.; bootmaker; 
wd. elbow Ant.; dis. Jan. 24, '63. 

William Burns, b. res. cr. unknown; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 27; des. be- 
fore joined regt. 

William H. Williams, m.i. July 25, '61; 25; s.; machinist; dis. Nov. 4/62. 

Franklin Wilson, b. Worcester; m.i. Feb. 25/62; 19; s.; machinist; des. 
Nov. 1, '62. 

COMPANY I. 

The members of this company were natives of Webster, and were 
credited on the quota of that town unless it is otherwise stated in 
each particular. For the history of this company before the date of 
muster, see pages 27-29. This company was mustered August 5, 1861, 
unless otherwise stated. The muster-in roll, however, has no date but 
August 8. 

James R. Young, capt. in Slater Guards, never m. into the serv. of U. S. 
George C. Joslin. See Field Off. Capt. Co. I until Feb. 6, '63. 
Adoniram J. Bradley, p.; m. i. Oct. 16, '61; b. unknown, res. cr. Russell; 

34; m.; farmer; 2d lieut. May 21, '62; 1st lieut. Sept. 19/62; capt. Jan. 

22/63, m. March 1/63; wd. Ant.; wd. face Dec. 15/62; re. Nov. 21/63. 
James May. See Co. B. Capt. Nov. 22, '63, ass. Co. I. 

Amos Bartlett, 1st lieut.; 25; s.; teacher; capt. May 21, '62, ass. Co. H; 

wd. Ant.; re. Jan. 7, '63. 
Frank S. Corbin. 2d lieut.; b. Dudley; 20; s.; shoemaker; 1st lieut. May 

21, '62; k. Ant. 
Joshua Freeman. See Co. C. 1st lieut. Co. I April 28, '64. 
Charles H. Stevens. See Co. A. 1st lieut. Co. I April 10, '63. 

David M. Earle. See Co. F. 2d lieut. Co. I April 16, '63. 

Pliny M. George, Corp.; b. Cambridge; 22; s.; shoemaker; 1st ser^t.; 2d 

lieut. Sept. 28/62; 1st lieut. Jan. 22, '63, ass. Co. G; wd. Ant.; re. 

April 15, '64. 



COMPANY I. 399 

Alexander Bryson, p.; b. Malone, N.Y.; 26; s.; 1st sergt.; wd. side Gett.: 
tr. 20th as on det. serv. 



William Brandes, p.; b. Hanover; 18; s.; shoemaker; sergt.; k. Gett. 
C. W. Briggs, p.; b. Windham, Ct.; 19; s.; jeweller; Corp. Dec. 19/61; 

sergt; wd. head Ant.; dis. March 7, '64. 
Patrick Harty, p.; b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; 18; s.; wire-drawer; 

Corp.; sergt; wd. foot Ant; wd. thigh Gett; reen. Feb. 21, '64; pris. 

June 22, '64; tr. Co. F, 20th, as pris.; m. o. June 2, '65. 
Avery N. Hathaway, p.; b. unknown, res. cr. Windsor; m. i. Oct. 18, '61; 

28; s.; farmer; sergt. '63; wd. hip, side Gett.; d. July 24, '63. 
Patrick C. Lanning, p.; b. Ireland; 26; s.; moulder; sergt.; wd. arm Ant; 

dis. March 12, '63. 
Robert F. Laverty, p.; b. Newport, R. I.; res. cr. Worcester; 40; s.; boot- 
maker; sergt.; wd. head Ant; dis. Jan. 13, '63. 
George W Lewis, b. Plainfield, Ct.; 30; m.; laborer; pris. B. B.; m. o. 

Aug. 6, '64. 
William H. Palmer, sergt.; 30; m.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; d. May 6, '64. 
Edwin L. Parmenter, corp.; b. Boston; 25; s.; operative; pris. B. B.; wd. 

head Ant; d. Oct. 15, '62. 
Rufus F Raymond, b. Dudley; 25; s.; shoemaker; dis. Aug. '61. 
Moses J. Warren, sergt; b. England; 33; m.; spinner; wd. B. B.; d. Oct. 

25, '61. 

Edson D. Bemis, p.; b. res. cr. Middlefield; 21; s.; farmer; m. i. Oct. 14, 
'61; corp.; wd. hand Ant; reen. Feb. 2, '64; wd. abdomen May '64; 
tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. July 13, '65. 

Thomas Blasland, corp.; b. Boston; 31; s.; operative; wd. leg Ant.; d. 
Dec. 25/63. 

Whitman W Bosworth, corp.; b. Woodstock, Ct; 22; s.; painter; pris. 
B. B.; m. o. Aug. 6, '64. 

Joseph Holland, corp.; b. Cambridge, res. cr. Thompson, Ct.; 21; s.; la- 
borer; m. in a. Oct. 21, '61 ; d.. Nov. 21, '62. 

Henry Rusack, corp.; b. Hanover; 27; m.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; wd. 
Gett; tr. V.R.C. Jan. 15/64. 

S. A. Slocum, b. unknown, res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Dec. 2, '61; 21; s.; stu- 
dent; corp.; dis. Jan. 22, '63. 

Albert H. Snow, p.; b. Tolland, Ct; m. i. March 7, '62; 19; s.; farmer; 
wd. head Ant.; k. Gett. 

John Sullivan, corp.; b. res. England; cr. Marblehead; sub.; m. i. July 
30, '63; 21; s.; baker. 

Joseph H. Wood, corp.; b. Uxbridge; 24; m.; shoemaker; des. Nov. '63. 

Henry S. Dealing, wagoner; b. New Haven, Ct.; res. cr. Oxford; 32; m.; 
teamster; dis. '62. 

Privates. 

Marcus M. Aldrich, b. unknown; m. i. Aug. 8, '61; 29; s.; dis. Dec. 14, '62. 
Henry L. Amidon, b. Cumberland, R. I.; 19; s.; operative; k. Ant. 
Isaac G. Bachelder, b. Eaton, N. H.; res. Denmark, M.; cr. Georgetown; 

m. i. April 15/64; 35; m.; farmer; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 

as ab. sick. 
Philetus Ballou, b. Canada, res. cr. Fitchburg; 39; m.; carpenter; pris. 

B. B.; dis. Dec. 11/62. 
Oscar Baltey, b. unknown, res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Dec. 2/61; 27; m.; 

bootmaker; dis. Oct. 8, '62. 



400 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

James Barker, b. Ireland; 20; s.; laborer; dis. Aug. io, '62. 

Charles W. Bean, b. res. Brentwood, N. H.; cr. Yarmouth; m. i. March 

10, '64; 21; s.; farmer; wd. foot May '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd. 

m. o. 
Jacob Bender, Jr., b. Prussia; 23; s.; wheelwright; wd. hand, leg Ant.; 

dis. March 5, '63. 
Kennedy Benway, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 29, '62; 25; 

operative; dis. Feb. 2, '64. 
Elisha T. Bigelow, b. Griswold, Ct.; 18; s.; shoemaker; d. July 7, '62. 
Frank S. Bixby, b. res. unknown, cr. Poolesville, Md.; m. i. Dec. 19, '61; 

21; volunteered for Western Flotilla Feb. 17, '62; dis. Dec. 2, '62. 
George H. Bliss, b. unknown, res. cr. Windsor; m. i. Oct. 14, '61; 20; s.; 

wagon-maker; dis. June 11/62. 
Lucius H. Briggs, b. Providence, R. I.; 18; s.; printer; k. Ant. 
Charles Buck, b. Douglas; 18: s.; laborer; d. Sept. 27, '62. 
Joseph Burdsley, b. unknown, res. cr. Grafton; m. i. July 28, '62; 37; m.; 

spinner; wd. leg Ant.; k. Gett. 
Hiram Burnham, b. unknown, res. cr. Windsor; m. i. Oct. 14, '61; 41; m.; 

farmer; dis. Sept. 26, '62. 
George Butler, b. Ireland; 19; s.; shoemaker; k. Ant. 
Henry Butler, b. Vermont; 20; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; wd. leg Ant.; 

d. Nov. 14, '62. 
Dyer D. Cady, b. Dudley; 18; s.; shoemaker; wd. Gett.; tr. Co. E, 20th, 

as on det. serv.; m. o. Aug. 6, '64. 
Thomas Cassidy, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; 38; s.; operative; k. B. B. 
Orsemas G.' Chapman, b. unknown, res. cr. Russell; m. i. Oct. 17, '61; 35; 

m.; farmer; wd. Ant.; d. Sept. 22, '62. 
William S. Chapman, b. unknown, res. cr. Russell; m. i. Oct. 17, '61; 28; 

m.; farmer; k. Ant. 
Henry H. Clapp, 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. 

April 28, '65. 
Merrick L. Clark, b. unknown, res. cr. Peru; m. i. Oct. 29, '61; 18; s.: 

farmer; k. May 12, '64. 
Elmon D. Clemonts, b. unknown; 19; shoemaker; dis. Nov. 22, '62. 
Milo S. Converse, b. Schroon, N.Y.; 19; s.; operative; wd. leg, hand F. 

O.; reen. U. S. A. Jan. 5, '63. 
William F Converse, b. Schroon, N.Y.; 20; s.; operative; pris. B. B.; d. 

rebel prison. 
Morgan Cooley, b. unknown, res. cr. Russell; m. i. Oct. 22, '61; 44; m.; 

farmer; dis. March 20, '63. 
Rufus E. Corbin, b. Dudley; m. i. July 12, '61; 19; s.; laborer; pris. B. B.; 

wd. hand Gett; tr. V.R.C. March 15, '64; m. o. Nov. 15, '65. 
Luman H. Cummings, b. res. unknown, cr. Thompson, Ct.; 22; m. o. 
Michael Cunningham, b. Ireland; 21; s.; teamster; wd. leg Ant.; dis. 

Feb. 23, '63. 
Edward Daley, b. Northampton; 18; m.; operative; m. o. Aug. 5, '64. 
Gustave H. Darbers, b. Germany; 37; m.; operative; dis. April 25, '62. 
Edward L. Day, b. unknown, res. cr. Windsor; m. i. Oct. 16, '61; 42; m.; 

farmer; wd. leg Ant.; d. Ant. Sept. 20, '62. 
Daniel R. Dorr; b. Ireland; res. unknown, cr. Worcester; never left state. 
Joseph C. Dowd, b. Ireland, res. Boston, cr. Taunton; m. i. March 10, '64; 

21; s.; laborer; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. o. as 

pris. 
C. P Dustin, b. unknown, res. cr. Russell; m. i. Dec. 5, '61 ; 41 ; m.; farmer; 

dis. April 18, '62. 



COMPANY I. 401 

Charles G. Foster, b. unknown; m. i. July 29, '62; 18; s.; shoemaker; k 

Ant. 
Charles F. Gage, b. Franklin, N. Y.; m. i. March 10, '62; 18; s.; boot- 
maker; wd. leg Ant.; dis. Jan. 10, '63. 
James Gardner, b. England; 38; m.; weaver; wd. leg '62; dis. Nov. 11, '62. 
John J. Geary, b. Ireland; 21; m.; operative; tr. Signal Corps Aug. 20/63. 
Francis Geelin, b. Ireland, res. cr. Millbury; 28; m.; spinner; wd. leg B. 

B.; dis. May 2, '62. 
Josiah Gleason, b. res. Sudbury, cr. Marshfield; m. i. April 14, '64; 38; s.; 

farmer: wd. June 22, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th; m. o. July 20, '65. 
John Grady, b. Ireland; 19; m.; shoemaker; k. Gett. 
Edward F Green, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 31, '62; 28; 

s.; bootmaker; dis. Nov. 17, 62. 
Lucius H. Green, b. Canterbury, Ct.; res. cr. Worcester; 22; m.; laborer; 

wd. hand Gett.; tr. Y.R.C. Nov. 15, '63. 
Ezra L. Greenleaf, b. Northwood, N. H.; res. Pittsfield, N. H.; cr. Marsh- 
field; m. i. April 14/64; 26; s.; shoemaker; wd. May '64; tr. Co. G, 

20th, as ab. sick; m. o. as ab. sick. 
Henry Groh, b. Germany; 21; m.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.: dis. Feb. 4, '63. 
Daniel Guilfoyle, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. March 31, '64; 32; 

s.; boot-treer; tr. Co. G, 20th; d. Dec. 15, '65, as pris. 
William F Hardy, b. unknown; m. i. July 29, '62; 18; s.; operative; wd. 

hand Ant.; dis. Nov. 29, '62. 
George Hatfield, b. England; m. i. Aug. 1, '61; 36; m.; spinner; pris. B. 

B.; des. Nov. 2, '62. 
Henry Hathaway, b. unknown, res. cr. Windsor; m. i. Oct. 14, '61; 23; s.; 

farmer; wd. leg Ant.; d. Ant. Sept. 20, '62. 
Napoleon Haven, b. cr. unknown; m. i. Dec. 12, '61; 20; s.; weaver; no 

further record. 
George A. Hawley, b. Springfield, res. cr. Windsor; m. i. Oct. 15, '64; 27; 

s.; farmer; wd. Nov. 27/63; tr. Co. G, 20th: m. o. Dec. 10, '64. 
Patrick Healey;b. Ireland; 18; m.; operative; pris. B. B.; tr. 20th. 
Alfred B. Heath, b. Suffield, Ct.; res. cr. Russell; m. i. Dec. 5, '61; 36; s.; 

farmer; pris. June 22, '64; wd. April '62; tr. Co. G, 20th, as pris.; m. 

o. May 26, '65. 
Thomas Henry, b. Ireland; 30; m.; shoemaker; wd. Ant.; wd. arm, 

breast Gett.; tr. V.R.C. 
Alfred F Hinckley, b. Stephentown; N.Y.; res. cr. Windsor; m. i. Oct. 14, 

'61; 22; s.; farmer; d. wds. Oct. 14, '63. 
John Hollin, b. Scotland; 21; m.; painter; pris. B. B.; ex.; no further 

record. 
John Irving, b. Ireland; 25; m.; laborer; des. Aug. 11, '61. 
Peter Johnson, b. Sweden; 25; m.; sailor; wd. hand Ant.; tr. V.R.C. Aug. 

23. '63- 
Emory W. Joy, b. Thompson, Ct.; 18; m.; clerk; wd.; reen. Feb. 8/64; 

tr. Co. G, 20th, as on det. serv.; m. o. 
William H. Joy, b. England; 26; m.; machinist; wd. foot '62; dis. Aug. 

15, '63, as of Co. E. 
John Kelley, b. Ireland; 24; s.; spinner; pris. B. B.; wd. Gett.; tr. V.R.C. 

Feb. 15, '64. 
Oliver King, b. unknown; 19; never left state. 
James O. Ladd, b. unknown, res. cr. Windsor; m. i. Oct. 16/61; 18; s.; 

farmer; wd. arm Ant.; dis. Jan. 10, '63. 
Otis K. Ladd, b. unknown, res. Hinsdale, cr. Orange; m. i. Aug. 12, '62; 

27; m.; farmer; tr. V.R.C; m. o. Aug. 19, '64. 



402 INDIVIDUAL kECORI). 

Edward Lanigan, b. Ireland; res. cr. Millbury; 18; s.; operative; wd. 

neck F O.; dis. Sept. u, '62. 
Mike Lanigan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Millbury; 18; s.; operative; wd. breast 

Gett.; tr. V.R.C. Nov. 25, '63; m. o. Nov. 16, '65. 
Andrew Laverty, b. Great Falls, N.Y.; res. cr. Millbury; 25; m.; carpen- 
ter; d. March 8, '62. 
William H. Laverty, b. Great Falls, N. H.; res. cr. Worcester; 32; m.; 

machinist; tr. V.R.C. Feb. 15, '64; m. o. Aug. 6, '64. 
John McGuire, b. Ireland; 20; s.; shoemaker; wd. foot F. 0.; tr. V.R.C. 

April 10, '64. 
John Magee, b. Lubeck, Me.; res. cr. Uxbridge; 26; s.; shoemaker; dis. 

June 12, '63. 
Patrick Mahar, b. Ireland; 20; weaver. Never left state. 
James Mahoney, res. cr. Oxford; 30; m.; shoemaker; dis. Nov. 1, '62. 
James Maley, b. unknown; 23; s.; printer; pris. B. B.; m. o. Aug. 6, '64. 
Charles H. Mellen, 21; s.; shoemaker; wd. Gett.; wd. May '64; m. o. 

Aug. 6, '64. 
George W Mirick, b. Princeton, res. cr. Worcester; 18; s.; clerk; tr. Co. 

I, 20th; m. o. Aug. 5, '64. 
William H. Mitchell, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 29, '62; 

42; operative; dis. Jan. 20, '63. 
Patrick Mulvaney, b. Ireland, res. Worcester, cr. Dana; m. i. April 9/64; 

22; s.; hostler; pris. June 22, '64; d. Dec. 10, '64, as pris.; tr. Co. G, 

20th, as pris. 
Charles Murray, b. Canada East; 19; s.; drawer; wd. hand Gett.; dis. 

Feb. 20, '64. 
Vernon Negur, 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; wd. thigh Gett.; wd. hand 

May '64; m. o. Aug. 6, '64. 
Thomas O'Connor, b. Ireland; 39; s.; spinner; pris., m. in a. B. B. 
Elbridge Parks, b. res. cr. Dudley; 19; s.; shoemaker; des. Aug. 28, '62. 
Antoine Phillips, b. Italy; res. cr. Oxford; 44; m.; cook; d. as pris. 
Patrick Pendergast, b. Ireland; 19; s.; operative. Never left state. 
Albert T. Pomeroy, b. res. cr. Swanzey, N. H.; 24; s.; laborer; dis. Aug. 

25, '61. 
Michael Powers, b. unknown, res. cr. Oxford; 18; s.; laborer. Never left 

state. 
Jackson Prool, b. Ossipee, N. H.; res. cr. Millbury; 30; m.; operative; 

tr. V.R.C. Feb. 15, '64; m. o. Aug. 9, '64. 
Hiram J. Raymond, 18; s.; shoemaker; pris. B. B.; wd. leg Ant.; dis. 

Dec. 11, '62. 
Thomas Redfern, b. England; 30; s.; weaver; dis. 
Godfried Reidman, b. Germany; 44; m.; mason; wd. leg. Ant.; d. wds. 

Ant. Sept. 30, '62. 
Lewis O. Reilly, b. Ireland; 24; operative; dis. Nov. 14, '62. 
Alpheus Remick, b. Maine, res. cr. Grafton; m. i. Feb. 10, '62; 28; m.; 

ship-builder; wd. hand F O.; d. Feb. 27, '64. 
Augustus Remick, b. res. unknown, cr. Worcester; wd. breast B. B.; dis. 

April 7, '62. 
Levi Remick, b. unknown, res. cr. Sutton; m. i. Feb. io,'62; 26; m.; shoe- 
maker; m. o. Feb. 13, '65. 
Terrence Riley, b. Ireland, res. Boston, cr. Rochester; m. i. March 11, '64; 

26; s.; carpenter; wd. May '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 

No record after May 24, '64. 
Charles H. Rugg, b. unknown, res. cr. Uxbridge; 39; m.; laborer; dis. 

Aug. 24, '61. 



COMPANY I. 



403 



Thomas Ryan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Thompson, Ct.; 28; m.; laborer; dis. 

Aug. 24, '61. 
Joseph Sandback, b. England; 31; s.; operative; pris. B. B. 
Abram Sargent, b. unknown; m. i. July 29/62; 31; m.; shoemaker; k. Ant. 
Thomas Say, b. New York, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 17, 

'63; 27; s.; laborer; wd. chin, shoulder Oct. 14, '63; tr. navy Aprii 

23, '64. 
John Schesler, b. Germany; 20; s.; operative; dis. Dec. 8, '62. 
George Scott, b. Canada, res. unknown, cr. Belchertown; sub.; m. i. July 

29, '63; 22; s.; clerk; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
William Scott, b. England; 37; m.; spinner; k. B. B. 
John Shaffer, b. Germany, res. unknown, cr. Ashburnham; sub.; m. i. 

July 28, '63; 26; s.; laborer; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Joseph Shaffer, b. Germany, res, unknown, cr. Weymouth; sub.; m. i. 

July 29, '63; 36; s.; baker; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Samuel Sherburn, b. Vermont, res. unknown, cr. Athol; sub.; m. i. July 

23, '63; 24; s.; farmer; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Patrick Sheridan, b. Ireland, res. Boston, cr. Georgetown; m. i. April 15, 

'64; 21; s.; sailor; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as pris.; m. o. 
Martin Sherman, b. unknown, res. cr. Worthington; m. i. Aug. 19/61; 28; 

m.; farmer; wd. finger Ant.; des. Nov. 17, '63. 
Daniel Sherwood, b. Massachusetts, res. unknown, cr. South Danvers; 

sub.; m. i. Aug. 4/63; 22; s.; laborer; wd. Oct. 14/63; wd. elbow May 

6, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. as ab. wd. 
Sidney S. Shurtleff, b. unknown, res. cr. Russell; m. i. Oct. 21, '61; 19; s.; 

farmer; wd. arm Ant.; dis. Nov. 10, '62. 
Braman Sibley, b. res. cr. Brimfield; 24; s.; shoemaker; wd. hand Ant.; 

m. o. March 17, '64. 
William Sigil (Streidel), b. res. unknown, cr. Athol; m.i. July 25/63; 26; s.; 

farmer; des. Sept. 13, '63; d. Feb. 17, '64, as pris. 
Charles Simpson, b. New York City, res. unknown, cr. Beverly; sub.; m. 

Aug. 5, '63; 19; s.; paper-stainer; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Francis X. Sinzinger, b. Austria, res. cr. Woonsocket, R. I.; 28; s.; dyer; 

des. Nov 2, '62. 
Albert H. Slater, b. Dudley; 18; s.; carpenter; wd. face Ant.; dis. June 

4. ,'64. 

William Slatterly, b. North Adams, res. cr. Boston; 22; s.; teamster. 
James S. Slocum, b. unknown, res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Dec. 2, '61; 20; s.; 

clerk; k. Gett. 
Bernard Smith, b. Ireland, res. cr. Auburn; 20; s.; shoemaker; dis. Nov. 

20, '62. 
James Smith, b. Albany, X. Y.; res. New York, cr. Bolton; sub.; m. i. 

July 31, '63; 21; s.; moulder; d. July 14, '64. 
Joseph T. Smith, b. res. England, cr. Dorchester; sub.; m. i. July 30, '63; 

30; clerk; m. o. Dec. 31, '63. 
John Smith, b. Portland, Me.; res. New Bedford, cr. Fairhaven; m.i. March 

14, '64; 28; s.; seaman; wd. side May 6, '64; d. July 14, '64. 
John G. Smith, b. New Jersey, res. unknown, cr. Beverly; sub.; m. i. Aug. 

5, '63; 27; s.; waterman; wd. May 6, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab. wd.; 
m. o. as ab. wd. 

Thomas Smith, b. res. cr. unknown; sub.; m. i. July 17, '63; 24; des. Oct. 

4, '63. 
William Smith, ist, b. Germany, res. unknown, cr. Raynham; sub.; m. i. 
Aug. 5, '63; 26; s.; blacksmith; des. Aug. 28/63. 



404 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

William Smith, 2d, b. Germany, res. unknown, cr. Attleboro; sub.; m. i. 

July 2g, 1 '63; 29; s.; farmer; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Frederick Soder, b. Switzerland; 27; s.; rope-maker; m. in a. B. B. 
William Squires, b. res. Canada East, cr. Dartmouth; m. i. March 14, '64; 

38; s.; farmer; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as pris.; m. o. 
Francis Stantor, b. unknown; m. i. Dec. 12, '61; 26; s.; farmer; k. Gett. 
George H. Stephens, b. unknown, res. cr. Oxford; 18; s.; shoemaker; m.o. 
James Stevens, b. England; 21; s.; carpenter; pris., m. in a. B. B. No 

further record. 
Henry Stolz, b. Germany, res. New Jersey, cr. Weymouth; sub.; m. i. 

July 31, '63; 23; s.; machinist; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
George R. Stone, b. Sutton, res. cr. Dudley; 20; butcher; k. Ant. 
William Streidell, b. Germany, res. unknown, cr. Taunton; sub.; m. i. 

July 31, '63; 35; s.; confectioner; d. Feb. 17, '64. 
Patrick Sullivan, b. Ireland, res. Boston, cr. Beverly; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 27; m.; currier; d. Aug. 11, '64, as pris. 
Timothy Sullivan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Worcester; 39; m.; laborer. Never 

left state. 
Robert B. Swain, b. Ireland, res. Chelsea, cr. Gloucester; sub.; m. i. Aug. 

4/63; 29; m.; painter; wd. ankle May 11, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th; des. 

May 23, '65. 
Riley Thayer, b. Thompson, Ct.; 40; s.; operative; pris. B. B. No further 

record. 
John Timmins, b. unknown, res. New York City, cr. Charlton; m. i. April 

15, '64; 35; m.; butcher; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as pris.; 

m. o. June 22, '65. 
Charles Timon, b. Fitchburg, res. cr. Worcester; 18; s.; groom; dis. April 

12, '62. 
Alfred Tourtellott, b. unknown; m. i. July 29, '62; 24; m.; carpenter; wd. 

leg Ant.; d. wds. Oct. '62. 
William M. Trescott, b. res. Royalston, cr. Yarmouth; m.i. March 10/64; 

22; s.; farmer; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as pris.; d. Sept. 6/64, 

as pris. 
Morris D. Tucker, b. unknown, res. cr. Windsor; m. i. Oct. I5,'6i; 26; s.; 

farmer; wd. hip Gett.; dis. Jan. 7, '65. 
Elias B. Wakefield, 18; s.; shoemaker; dis. Dec. 7, '62. 
George Walker, b. Nova Scotia, res. cr. 'Springfield; 43; m.; teamster; 

pris. B. B.; dis. April 8, '62. 
Hiram Ward, b. Thompson, Ct.; res. cr. Douglas; 20; s.; shoemaker; 

wd. arm Ant.; dis. Feb. 23, '63. 
Francis M. Watkins, b. unknown, res. cr. Hinsdale; m. i. Oct. 30, '61; 21; 

s.; farmer; wd. hand, arm Ant.; dis. Dec. 5, '62. 
Henry A. Webster, b. unknown; m. i. Aug. 24, '62; 18; s.; book-keeper; 

tr. Signal Corps Dec. 5, '63. 
John Whalen, b. Ireland, res. cr. Thompson, Ct.; 23; m.; teamster; tr. 

20th. 
Moses Wood, 26; s.; laborer; k. Ant. 
Frank R. Young, b. unknown, res. cr. Webster; 20; dis. Dec. 5, '62. 



COMPANY K. 



COMPANY K. 



405 



The members of this company were natives and citizens of Blackstone, 
and were credited on the quota of that town unless it is otherwise stated in 
each particular. For the history of this company before the date of 
muster, see pages 30-31. 

Moses W. Gatchell, capt.; b. Smithfield, Ct.; 25; s.; mechanic; k. B. B. 
Leonard Wood. See Co. A. Capt. Co. K Dec. 20, '61-Aug. 1, '62. 
Church Howe. See Field and Staff Officers. Capt. ass. Co. K Jan. 17/63. 
Edwin P. Woodward, ass. Co. K as capt. July 21, '63. Never m. 
George W Brown. See Co. A. Capt. Co. K Oct. 22/63; m - °- 

Elisha G. Buss. See Co. C. 1st lieut. Co. K, com. March 15, '63. 
David M. Earle. See Co. F. 1st lieut. Co. K Nov. 16, '63-Dec. 10, '63. 
I. Harris Hooper. See Field and Staff Officers. 2d lieut. Co. K Oct. 8, 

'61; 1st lieut. (com.) June 9, '62. 
D wight Newbury. See Field and Staff Officers. 1st lieut. Oct. 23/63- 

Nov. 27, '63. 
Edwin B. Staples, 1st lieut.; b. Providence, R. I.; 20; s.; bookkeeper; re. 

July 18, *62. 

Caleb H.Arnold, sergt.; b. Uxbridge; 20; m.; painter; 1st sergt. Sept. 1, 
'62; 2d lieut. Jan. 3, '63; never m.; wd. breast Gett.; d. wds. July 20/63. 

George W Bolster, sergt.; b. Uxbridge; res. cr. Mendon; 22; m.; boot- 
maker; 1st sergt. Aug. 3, '61; 2d lieut. June 9, '62; 1st lieut., com. 
Nov. 17/62, ass. Co. C; re. March 18, '63. 

Hans P. Jorgensen. See Co. A. 2d lieut. Co. K Jan. 8, '62-Feb. 4, '62. 

Thomas Furnald, Corp.; b. Dixfield, Me.; 23; s.; bootmaker; 1st sergt. 

March 17/62; k. Ant. 
Melvin Howland, 1st sergt.; b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; 23; teacher; 

d. Aug. 28, '61. (First death in regiment.) 
Samuel J. Simmons, p.; b. res. cr. Boston; 19; s.; machinist; corp.; sergt.; 

1st sergt. Oct. 16, '63; wd. foot Gett.; wd. hand May '64; m. o. 

Patrick Elliott, wagoner; b. Ireland, res. cr. Oxford; m.i. Aug. 8, '62; 24; 

s.; operative; sergt. Jan. 9. '63; lost leg Ant.; dis. Sept. 28, '63. 
Richard Flaherty, p.; b. Ireland; 18; operative; wd. arm May '64; reen. 

Feb. 16/64, as of Millbury; sergt.; tr. Co. E, 20th. 
Henry W Freeman, b. Smithfield, R. I.; 31; m.; painter; sergt. Jan. 9, 

'63; pris. B. B.; d. April 8, '63. 
Charles H. Howard, p.; b. res. cr. Uxbridge; 20; s.; farmer; corp. Oct. 

29, '61; sergt. July 12, '62; dis. Feb. 18/63. 
Daniel McGovern, Corp.; b. Fall River; 23; s.; operative; sergt. Oct. 12, 

'63; pris. B. B.; wd. thigh Ant.; pris. May 12/64. 
John Mullen, sergt.; b. England; 18; s.; spinner; corp.; sergt.; wd. 

shoulder May '64; m. o. 
Oscar Shore, sergt.; b. res. cr. Mendon; 22; m.; bootmaker; des. Oct. 

17, '62. 
George Williams, p.; b. Ireland; 19; s.; operative; sergt.; reen. Feb. 16, 

'64; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. 

William H. Burnham, p.; b. res. cr. Oakland, Ct.; 23; s.; operative; corp. 
Oct. '61; pris. B. B.; m. o. 



406 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

James Burns, p.; b. Ireland; 25; s.; operative; Corp.; pris. B. B.; d. wds. 

Sept. 9, '63. 
John B. Burns, corp.; b. England; 27; m.; weaver; pris. B. B.; wd. hand 

Ant.; dis. Oct. 27, '62. 
James H. Day, corp.; b. Bristol, R. I.; res. cr. Smithfield, R. I.; 21; s.; 

machinist; dis. Sept. 8, '62. 
Charles Gammage, corp.; b. England; 32; m.; weaver; pris. B. B.; dis. 

May 15, '62. 
James Hart, b. Ireland; res. cr. Holyoke; m. i. Aug. 8/62; 22; moulder; 

wd. leg May '64; m. o. 
Munroe Hoyle, p.; b. Thompson, Ct.; res. cr. Putnam, Ct.; 18; s.; farmer; 

corp. Sept. '62; wd. leg Ant.; m. o. 
Michael Keating, corp.; b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; 21; wd. thigh 

Ant.; dis. May 16, '64. 
Patrick Kelley 2d, p.; b. unknown; 20; s.; operative; corp. '62; wd. arm, 

breast Ant.; m. 0. March 18, '64. 
John Maguiness, corp.; b. England; 23; s.; operative; dis. Oct. 6, '62. 
Thomas Powers, b. New Brunswick; 21; m.; weaver; corp. Oct. 21, '61; 

dis. July 12, '62. 
Eli Syminster, p.; b. England; 23; m.; weaver; corp. '62; k. May 31, '62. 
John E. Valentine, p.; b. Cape Vincent, N.Y.; res. N.Y., cr. Ashburnham; 

sub.; m. i. July 15, '63; 27; engineer; corp. July 3/63; m. o. April 

14, '64, to accept prom. 
Andrew J. Bellows, musician; b. Mendon; 17; s.; farmer; pris. June 14, 

'63; m. 0. 
John E. Pharnes, musician; b. Palmer, res. Providence, R. I.; 23; m.; 

operative; tr. V.R.C. June 3, '63; reen. Jan. 4, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. 
Hersey Estes, wagoner; b. Milford; 28; s,; carpenter; dis. March 30/63. 

Privates. 

Adam N. Baker, b. Philadelphia, Pa.; res. cr. Orange; m. i. July 31, '62; 
26; soldier; k. Ant. 

Joshua Blackburn, b. England; 30; m.; weaver; wd. breast B. B.; m. o. 

William M. Black, b. Scotland; 23; s.; operative; des. Sept. 21, '61. 

Peter Bowlett, b. Whitehall; N.Y.; 25; s.; farmer; m. o. 

Patrick Bresnahan; b. unknown; m. i. July 31, '62; 38; m.; laborer; dis. 
Jan. 5, '64. 

Thomas Brown, b. Ireland; 20; s.; operative; wd. foot Gett.; m. o. 

Edward W. Bryant, b. Quincy; 25; s.; bootmaker; pris. B. B.; m. o. 

Michael Buckley, b. New Brunswick, res. Boston, cr. Rochester; m. i. 
March 11, '64; 21; s.; teamster; pris. June 22, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as 
ab.; m. o. 

Cincinnatus A. Buffum, b. Nova Scotia, res. cr. Burrillville, R. I.; 19; s.; 
operative; drowned B. B. 

E. R. Buffum, b. Salisbury, res. cr. Burrillville, R. I.; 21; s.; k. Ant. 

John R. Burns, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. July 23, '62; 28; la- 
borer; pris. B. B.; wd. Ant.; dis. Sept. 19, '62. 

Charles Callahan, b. res. cr. Burrillville, R. I.; 19; s.; farmer; wd. bow- 
els B. B.; m. o. 

Patrick Campbell, b. Ireland; 24; s.; operative; wd. Ant.; dis. May 13/63. 

Owen Canty, b. Ireland; 21; s.; laborer; pris. June 22, '64; reen. March 
9, '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. 

Peter Carr, b. Ireland; 37; s.; operative; wd. hand Gett.; tr. V.R.C. Sept. 
30/63; dis. Aug. 27, '63. 



COMPANY K. 



407 



Charles Clark, b. Ireland, res. Salem, cr. Fairhaven; m. i. July 8/64; 30; 

m.; farmer; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick; d. Dec. 21, '64, as pris. 
George \V. Colvin, b. unknown; m. i. Dec. 9, '61; 35; s.; farmer; dis. 

June 16, '62. 
Michael Cosgrove, 18; s.; operative; d. Sept. 3, '62, wds. 
John Costello, b. Ireland; 22; s.; farmer; wd. eye, nose B. B; dis. Dec. 

18, '63. 
Patrick Coyle, b. Ireland; 31; s.; spinner; pris. B. B.; k. Gett. 
William T. Dame, b. Lawrence; 26; seaman; dis. April 9, '63. 
Hersey Estes, b. unknown; 28; dis. March 30, '63. 

David Farrar, b. England; 22; s.; operative; pris. B.B.; des. Sept. 28/62. 
William Farrell, b. Cumberland, R. I.; 20; m.; mason; wd. side May '64; 

m. o. 
Henry Ford, b. Providence, R. I.; res. cr. Cumberland, R. I.; 19; s.; 

spinner; pris. B. B.; wd. hand Gett.; tr. V.R.C. Nov. 4, '63. 
Adin Fuller, b. Burrillville, R.I. ; m. i. Aug. i,'6i; 23; s.; painter. Never 

left state. 
George Georghegan, b. Ireland; m. i. March 22, '62; 26; s.; wool-sorter; 

tr. Co. K, 20th. 
William Gilbert, b. Ireland; 20; s.; spinner; k. Oct. 30, '63. 
William Gleason, b. Ireland; 21 ; s.; spinner; wd. leg Ant.; dis. Oct. 30, '63. 
Thomas Grace, b. Ireland; 20; s.; farmer; tr. R. I. Art. Feb. 7, '63. 
Albert C. Greene, b. Chesterfield, Ct.; res. cr. Burrillville, R. I.; 20; s.; 

farmer; wd. shoulder Ant.; m. o. 
Patrick Gray, b. Ireland, res. cr. Cumberland, R. I.; 22; s.; spinner; tr. 

V.R.C. June '64; m. o. 
Augustus Grobitz, b. Germany; 34; s.; weaver; pris., wd. leg B. B.; m.o. 

May 7, '62; d. June 14, '62. 
John Hancock, 22; m.; farmer; dis. April 10, '63. 
Peter Hansen, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 9, '62; 20; des. 

July 9, '63. 
Edward Hanson, b. Mendon, res. cr. Milford; 20; s.; bootmaker; wd. 

thigh F. O.; dis. Nov. 4, '63. 
Thomas Hargraves, b. England; 29; s.; operative; dis. 
Edward Henderson, b. Ireland, res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Aug. 8, '62; 29; 

mason; wd. hand Gett.; dis. Dec. 23, '63. 
Richard Hixon, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Millbury; 24; bootmaker; 

pris. B. B.; wd. Ant.; reen. Feb. 16, '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; 

m. o. as ab. pris. 
Henry Horton, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 8, '61; 18; dis. 

Aug. 24/61. 
James Howarth, b. England, res. cr. Grafton; 31; s.; farmer; dis. Dec. 

15, '63. 
Adolphus Howe, b. res. cr. Leominster; 39; m.; farmer; dis. Oct. 29, '62. 
Patrick Hoyt, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; 31; k. Gett. 
John Ivory, b. Watertown; res. cr. Millbury; 23; s.; bootmaker; m. o. 

Jul} 28, '64. 
Alonzo M. Jones, b. res. cr. Boston; 18; s.; caulker; lost leg May '64; d. 

June 5, '64, wds. 
Thomas Keating, b. Ireland; 21; s.; operative; wd. breast B. B.; des. 

Dec. 3, '63. 
James Keelan, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; 21; pris. June 22, '64; re- 
leased May 12, '65; m. o. June 12, '65. 
Daniel Kelley, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; m, i. July 22, '62; 19; 

painter; wd. '62; dis. April 1, '63, 



408 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Michael Kelly, b. res. cr. Millbury; m. i. Feb. 5, '62; 21; s.; shoemaker; 

wd. June 25, '63; tr. V.R.C. March 15, '64; m. o. Jan. 4, '65. 
Patrick Kelley 1st, b. Ireland; 19; s.; spinner; d. Oct. 15/61. 
Thomas Kelley, b. Ireland, res. cr. Chicopee; m. i. July 6, '62; 25; s.; 

laborer; d. wds. Ant. 
Timothy B. Kennedy, b. Ireland; 21; s.; spinner; dis. Jan. 11, '65. 
Samuel B. King, b. unknown, res. cr. New York; 18; s.; spinner; wd. 

thigh B. B.; tr. V.R.C. Feb. 15, '64. 
William J. Knight, b. Adams, res. cr. Holyoke; m. i. Aug. 8, '62; 23; 

moulder; wd. leg May '64; m. o. 
Walter E. Lester, b. West Brookshire, Vt.; res. cr. Worcester; m. i. Aug. 

1, '62; 27; baker; des. Sept. 17, '63. 
David Livingstone, b. Scotland; 39; s.; operative; wd. shoulder F. O., 

back Gett; dis May 14, '63. 
Edwin J. Locke, b. Norwich, R.I.; res. cr. Allendale, R.I.; 20; s.; spinner; 

wd. shoulder Ant.; reen. U.S.A. Oct. 28, '62. 
Martin McBride (McBridge), b. Uxbridge, res. cr. Worcester; 26; s.; 

operative; d. wds. April 27, '62. 
Alfred Maguiness, b. England, cr. unknown; 22; s.; mule-spinner. 
Patrick McElroy, b. Ireland; 23; m.; weaver; dis. Nov. 2, '62. 
Patrick McGahy, b. Ireland; 21; s.; bootmaker; pris. B. B.; dis. navy. 
Thomas McGlynn, 18; s.; m. o. 
Michael McKenzie, b. Elizabeth, N. J.; 19; s.; bootmaker; pris. B. B.; 

m. o. 
William Miller, b. Germany; 20; s.; box-maker; m. o. 
William Murphy, b. England; 20; s.; wool-sorter; dis. Dec. 23, '63. 
Christopher Nolan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Holyoke; m. i. Aug. 8, '62; 36; 

moulder; dis. Feb. 18, '63. 
Luke Nolan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Milford; 22; s.; bootmaker; wd. '62; tr. 

V.R.C. July 27, '63; reen. U.S.A. 
Edward Olney, b. res. cr. Uxbridge; 26; s.; operative; pris. B. B.; dis. 

Oct. 8, '62. 
Adam Peacock, b. England, res. cr. Slatersville, R. I.; 39; m.; iron- 
worker; pris. B.B.; wd. Oct. 14/63; reen. Feb. 12/64; tr. Co. G, 20th; 

m. o. 
Oscar S. Perry, b. Pittsburg, Vt.; res. cr. Yarmouth; m. i. March 10, '64; 

18; s.; farmer; wd. hand May '64; tr. Co. G, 20th, as ab. wd.; m.o. 
E. F. Pond, b. res. cr. Milford; 23; s.; bootmaker. 
Rufus A. Rhodes, b. Worcester, res. cr. Grafton; 19; s.: farmer; wd. hand 

B. B.; wd. Ant.; dis. Jan. 19, '63, to reen. U.S.A. 
Dexter Richardson, b. unknown, res. cr. Burrillville, R. I.; m. i. Dec 11, 

'61; 24; s.; farmer; dis. Feb. 17, '63. 
Thomas Riley, b. unknown, res. cr. Lawrence; m. i. Dec. 5, '61; 37; op- 
erative; des. May 2, '62. 
David Rodgers, b. res. cr. Woodstock, R.I.; 20; s.; farmer; wd. shoulder 

Ant.; d. wds. Dec. 27, '62. 
James Shay, b. unknown, res. cr. Providence, R. I.; m. i. Nov. 26, '61; 17; 

s.'; spinner; k. Ant. 
Andrew F. Simmons, b. Ireland; 34; s.; operative; pris. B. B.; drowned 

April 22, '62. 
Albert O. Smith, b. Foster, R.I.; 18; s.; operative; wd. thigh May '64; m.o. 
Joseph T. Smith, b. Sutton; 19; s.; spinner; wd. leg Ant.; d. wds. Ant 
Manley S. Smith, b. Rockland, Me.; res. unknown, cr. Worcester; m. i. 

Aug. 12/62; 34; seaman; des. Oct. 23/63. 



COMPANY K. 4O9 

Thomas Smith, b. Ireland; 21; s.; operative; dis. Dec. 8, '61. 

Henry Snell, b. unknown, res. cr. Medway; m. i. Jan. 30, '62; 25; m.; 

painter. No further record. 
John L. Starrett, b. Ireland; 24; m., weaver; k. Ant. 
James Stringer, b. England; 28; s.; soldier; k. B. B. 
James Sullivan, b. Ireland, res. cr. Uxbridge; 19; s.; spinner; dis. Aug. 

18, '62. 
Jeremiah J. Sullivan, b. unknown, res. cr. Milford; m. i. March 17, '64; 

24; m.; bootmaker; wd. breast May '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab. wd.; 

m. o. 
George F. Sweatland, b. Attleboro; 21; m.; hostler; dis. Oct. 28/62; reen. 

U. S. A. 
William Taylor, b. Ireland, res. cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 22, '63; 33; 

seaman; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
William Tell, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Chatham; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 29; s.; saddler; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 
Edward Thompson, b. res. England, cr. Swampscott; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 28; s.; ship-carpenter; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Stephen Thompson, b. Douglas, res. cr. Worcester; 29; m.; operative. 
John F. Thornton, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; 20; d. wds. 
John G. Thornton, b. res. cr. Grafton; 20; m.; clerk; pris. Ant.; m. o. 
Edward Toy, b. Ireland, res. cr. Weymouth; sub.; m. i. Aug. i,'63; tr. 

V.R.C. March 23, '64; m. o. Sept. 8, '65. 
John F. Tozier, b. res. cr. Amesbury; sub.; m.i. July 15/63; 21; s.; shoe- 
maker; d. wds. April 27, '64. 
William H. Trowbridge, b. Camden, N. J.; res. cr. Northbridge; 24; s.; 

painter; m. o. 
C. E. Tucker, b. Uxbridge; 23; s.; farmer; dis. Feb. 23, '63. 
W, A. Tucker, b. Mendon, res. Woonsocket, R. I.; 21; s.; shoemaker; 

pris.; wd. 
Jules Vivarez, b. England, res. Athol, cr. Greenfield; sub.; m. i. July 30, 

'63; 24; s.; cook; tr. Co. K, 20th, and m. o. as ab. sick. 
Thomas Waif, b. Persia, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 22, 

'63; 23; s.; sailor; tr. Co. K, 20th, as m. in a.; d. Aug. 2, '64. 
William Walters, b. res. cr. unknown; sub.; m. i. July 29, '64; 27; s.; 

laborer; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Fred Warner, b. Germany; 32; s.; weaver; dis. Jan. 27, '63. 
John Warner, b. Scotland, res. unknown, cr. Sandwich; sub.; m. i. July 

30, '63; 28; s.; mariner; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
Maxon R. Weatherby (Wetherell), b. Hardwick, res. cr. Athol; sub.; m. 

i. July 1 4/64 ; 27; m.; mechanic; wd. foot May '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as 

m. in a.; m. o. June 13, '65. 
Robert Welsh, b. unknown, res. cr. Holyoke; m.i. Aug. 7,'62; 22; mouldei ; 

wd. foot Ant., knee May '64; m. o. 
Thomas Welch, b. Ireland; 28; m.; yeoman; pris. Ant.; wd. hand May 

13, '64; reen. Feb. 16, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as ab. wd. 
John Whalon, b. Ireland, res. unknown; 22; s.; operative; k. B. B. 
James White, b. unknown, res. cr. Worcester; 24; m. o. 
Joseph White, b. Burrillville, R. I.; 23; s.: hostler: m. o. 
Joseph White, b. Canada, res. unknown, cr. Rockport; sub.; tr. navy 

April 24, '64. 
Joseph White, b. Canada, res. unknown, cr. Boston: sub.; m. 1. July 22, 

'63; 23: sail-maker; tr. 20th: d. Aug. 2, '64, as pris. 
Noah Wilcox, b. Rowe, res. cr. Uxbridge; 39; m.; farmer; dis. (town 

record). 

27 



410 INDIVIDUAL RECORD. 

Charles Wilder, b. New York, res. cr. Boston: sub.; m. i. July 21,; '63 tr. 

navy April 23, '64. 
Charles Williams, b. England, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 

16, "63; 22; sailor; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Charles Williams, b. unknown, res. Boston; ni. i. March 10/64; 26; m.; 

seaman; tr. navy April 23, '64. 
George Wilson, b. England, res. cr. Boston; sub.: m. i. July 31/63; 24; 

s.; tanner; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. sick; m. o. 
John Wilson, b. Wayne Co., N.Y.; res. unknown; cr. Rockport; sub.; 

m. i. Aug. 4, '63; des. Aug. 2% '62. 
William Wilson 1st, b. England, res. Pennsylvania, cr. Boston; sub.; m. 

i. July 16, '63; 27; s.; sailor; tr. Co. E, 20th, as ab. wd.; m. o. as ab. 

sick. 
William Wilson 2d, b. res. New York, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 22, '63; 

20; s.; laborer; des. Aug. 23, '63. 
Martin Windsor, b. res. cr. Gloucester, R. I.; 19; s.; spinner; dis. Feb. 

18, '63. 
Charles Wood, b. Lansingburg, N.Y.; res. Greenfield, cr. Bernardston; 

23; s.; pedler; pris. May 12, '64; tr. Co. K, 20th, as pris.; m. o. as ab. 

pris. 
Thomas Wood, b, unknown; res. cr. Holyoke; m. i. Jan. 22/62; 24; tr. 

Co. K, 20th. 
J. S. Wright, b. Ireland, res. unknown, cr. Boston; sub.; m. i. July 16, '63; 

23; s.; laborer; dropped as m. in a. Dec. 2, '63. 
F. F. Young, b. res. cr. Burrillville, R. I.; 18; machinist; wd. thigh Ant.; 

d. wds. Nov. 7, '62. 



UNASSIGNED RECRUITS. 

Records doubtful. The birthplace is unknown unless stated. 

Jerry W. Bishop, p.; b. res. cr. Russell; m. i. Nov. 22,'6i; 18; s.; farmer; 

tr. 20th; m. o. Dec. 4, '64. May have been ass. Co. I. 
Thomas Cane, p.; b. Canada, res. Boston, cr. Maiden; m.i.; May 20, '64; 

21; s.; farmer; tr. Co. E, 20th; m. o. 
Joseph Hunt, res. Boston, cr. Newton; m. i. May 29, '64; 23; s.; seaman; 

pris. May '64; tr. Co. E, 20th, as pris.; m. o. as pris. 
Hiram Lafflin, res. cr. West Boylston; m. i. Feb. 19/62; 34; m.; boot- 
maker; pris. June 22, '64; m. o. Feb. 8, '65. In several companies 

for a short time each. 
Robert Mallory, p.; res. Tarry town, N. Y.; cr. Abington; 24; s.; seaman; 

tr. Co. G, 20th, July 27, '64. m. o. July 16, '65, as ab. pris. 
Lysander Martin, p.; res. cr. Sutton; 26; farmer; d. Deep River, Va., 

June 19, '63, wds. 
John Miller, p.; res. cr. Cambridge; m.i. Nov. 22/62: 23; merchant; des. 

Sept. 13, '63. 
John Moore, p.; res. Danville, Ct.; cr. Newton; m. i. May 19/64; 29; s.; 

bootmaker; tr. Co. G, 20th, July 27, '64; m. o. July 16, '65, as abs. pris. 
Amos G. Plimpton, p.; res. cr. Worcester; m.i. July 31, '62; 19; yeoman; 

k. Ant. Sept. 17/62. 
Richard Rockery, m. i. July 12, '61; 21; dis. Aug. 25, '61. 
Edward Smith, p.; res. cr. Warren; m. i. April 16/64; 26; laborer; tr, 

navy July 27, '64. 



BAND. 411 

Jeremiah Sullivan, p.; res. Springfield, cr. South Danvers; m. i. Aug. 5, 
'63; 28; m.; painter; d. Dec. io, '63. Was he Jeremiah Sullivan, 
Co. I? 

The men whose names are contained in the following list were 
apparently mustered into the service of the United States and assigned 
to the Fifteenth Regiment, but none of them have an record of service 
with that organization: 

William Abbott, George Allen, Henry Allen, Peter Agnew, Joseph 
Ariand, Martin Armstrong, George August, Alfred Bachelor, Andrew 
Ball, William Blute, Kennedy Brennatt, Alfred Bryon, George H. Bul- 
lard, James Burke, John Carmody, Samuel Church, Joseph Crossman, 
Owen Connelly, John R. Davis, George DeMott, Alonzo Dewing, 
Henry Dowe, Albert Duprey, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Matthew Graham, 
Anselm Hammond, Patrick Hayes, George Hearn, Thomas Hill, Charles 
J. Hodges, Andrew J. Inman, John Jones, Jeremiah E. Kanaly, John 
Kelley, John Kelley, Charles Kline, Thomas Lynch, James McCauley, 
John McCauley, Maurice McDonald, Philip McGuire, Patrick McRyre, 
William Mackey, Samuel H. Marsh, John Miller, Luther C. Moore, 
Samuel A. Morey, George W. Parker, Aurelius G. Pease, John Pepinian, 
William Quinn, John F Raymond, Frank Richardson, James Ross, John 
Ryan, George Smith, Peter Smith, Francis St. Marney, Frank H. Thomp- 
son, John Walter, Louis Wells, John W. Whitney, Harlow H. Willard, 
Peyton Willoughby, Jacob Winter, John Woods. 

BAND. 

The members of the band were residents of Worcester, and credited 

to that city, and musicians by occupation, they were all mustered in 

August 5, 1861, and were mustered out August 8, 1862, unless otherwise 

stated in each particular. 

N. P. Goddard, leader; b. Millbury; 32; m. 

Clark R. Bancroft, b. Plainfield, Vt.; 27; m. 

Paul Bauer, b. Germany; 21; s.; wire-drawer. 

Andrew Fischer, b. Bohemia; 22; s. 

William Fischer, b. Bohemia; 28; m. 

William H. Folger, b. Albany, N. Y.; 37; m. 

Hollis J. Haven, b. Bolton; 23; m. 

Albert W Kelley, b. Millbury; 21; s.; pistol-maker. 

T. O. Lucas, b. Webster; 34; m.; machinist. 

Chauncy B. Mattoon, b. Northfield; 22; painter. 

Robert Meade, b. Russia; 28; s. 

Henry J. Murray, b. Worcester; 24; s.; carpenter. 

Charles H. Odlin, b. Anson, Me.; m.; carriage-maker. 

Frederick Page, b. Stoughton; 23; s. 

Henry M. Peckham, b. Petersham; 25; m.; machinist. 

John Reidl, b. Bohemia; 25; s. 

Joseph Reidl, b. Bohemia; 22; s. 

Benjamin D. Ryan, 35; m. 

Joseph Sauer, b. Germany; 22. 

George H. Smith, b. Thompson, Ct,; 22; s. 

Christopher Specht, b. Bohemia; 24; s. 

Edwin H. Spring, b. Sterling; 21; s.; blacksmith. 



APPENDIX. 



The following account of the services of the men from 
the Fifteenth in the Twentieth, by Captain Henry T. Dud- 
ley, who commanded them, is appended: 

"On the 27th of July, 1864, I joined the Twentieth Mass- 
achusetts, and had command of the remnant of the Fifteenth, 
consisting of men whose time had not expired, and those 
who had reenlisted. I do not think there could have been 
over twenty-five or thirty men present for duty, but there 
were many times that number still carried on the rolls of the 
Fifteenth. I proceeded to consolidate them into three com- 
panies, dividing them alphabetically. As we were on the 
move most of the time, I, being detailed to sit on board of 
inquiry, had not at the time of my capture, August 25, the 
rolls completed. 

"The Twentieth, which included the men of the Fifteenth, 
was on the front line at Petersburg but once, I think. They 
were, most of the time, being moved from one point to 
another, and on one occasion we were employed in con- 
structing a military road just in the rear of our line. The 
colored troops of Burnside being on our right, the Johnnies 
continually peppered them, but let us alone. We took part 
in both Deep Bottom expeditions. Our first Deep Bottom 
movement, of July 26th, seemed to us of the line and rank- 
to be made with a view to draw the enemy from Petersburg. 
We marched in the night, along Butler's line, and it seemed, 
by the large number of fires on our route, that Grant wanted 
the enemy to discover us and imagine us as being a larger 



DEEP BOTTOM. 413 

body than we really were, and thereby deplete his lines at 
Petersburg, preparatory to the explosion of the mine. We 
did nothing of account, except lay in line of battle. We re- 
turned to Petersburg in time to have taken part in the grand 
coup if the mine assault had been properly conducted. 

"On the second expedition we were sent to City Point. 
We took a large steamer and dropped down the river before 
dark, and during the night steamed up to Deep Bottom. 
Our regiment passed over several smaller boats to get 
ashore. We took a little more active part than at the former 
movement, feinting considerably and engaging in one charge, 
losing but few men, however. We suffered fearfully from 
the heat, much of our marching being along narrow roads 
hemmed in by tall pine trees. We remained here a few 
days, and returned to Petersburg to take part in the Reams 
Station affair a few days later. 

"We arrived at Ream's Station early on the 25th of 
August, 1864, and the Twentieth was thrown forward west of 
the Weldon railroad and about in front of the only buildings 
I remember seeing, three hundred yards, or perhaps more, 
into some woods as a heavy line of pickets. In the mean- 
time other parts of the corps were tearing up the railroad in 
our rear. We saw no sign of infantry while we remained 
out. I should say about two p m. we were drawn in east, or 
behind the railroad, and were shifted from point to point. 
At about the time the battle opened, we were in a field of 
broom-corn, which was ten feet high, and we seemed to 
catch all the bullets that were fired at a line in front of us 
on the railroad cut, which, along south of the station was, 
for some hundreds of yards, ten feet deep or more. While 
in the corn-field we faced south, from which direction 
Hampton's cavalry and artillery were sending their fire into 
our faces, and troops of Hill's corps from the west were 
enfilading our lines. The regiment had not fired a shot. 
Just before we were assigned the position where we were 
captured, we were moved into the railroad cut, being in the 



414 APPENDIX. 

meantime under enfilade fire of Hamptons artillery lie 
seemed to concentrate his fire in the cut, undoubtedly to 
demoralize us, preparatory to Hill s advance from the west, 
which was made within the next half-hour. From the cut 
we were moved back, perhaps fifty yards or less, to some 
rifle-pits across the railroad to the east. About five p. m. the 
enemy advanced on our front in line of battle, capturing the 
troops located there before they fired more than one or two 
vollies. All the time Hampton had been shelling down the 
cut. 

"Previous to the assault, the enemy had concentrated in 
our front eighteen guns, and before the infantry assaulted, 
they had poured a furious fire into us. The Twentieth was 
unable to fire as the enemy advanced, on account of the 
troops in our front, the ground the)' occupied being quite as 
elevated as that which we occupied. The enemy swept 
through the cut and on to us in less time than it takes to 
write it, and captured the Twentieth, including the little 
remnant of the Fifteenth which had been connected with it." 

When Carleton M. Deland was released from prison and 
exchanged, he was mustered as first lieutenant and given 
command of all the former members of the Fifteenth who 
remained in the Twentieth. On the muster out rolls which 
were dated July 16, 1865, these men made a brave showing, 
but very few of them had ever been in the ranks, and a still 
smaller number had been present for duty during any con- 
siderable portion of their teim of service. 



INDEX OF PERSONS AND PLACES. 



Some names that occur very frequently, such as Virginia, Potomac River and the like, 

are omitted. 



A CKERMAN, Charles,336. 1 
■* Adams, Charles H., 143. ' 

Capt., 337- 

George, 208. 

John Q., 210. 

William L., 209. 
Adams House, 162, 165. 
Adamstown, Md., 138. 
Addison, Andrew, 209. 
Ainsworth, Henry \\ ., 209. 
Alden, Captain, 95. 
Aldie, Va., 25g. 
Alexandria, Va., 49, 14S-9. 182, 

186, 256, 299. 
Alexandria & Orange R. R., 

185, 3°i- 
Alger, Warren H., 340. 
Allen, James, 99. 

Rev. Joseph, 203. 
Allyn's Point, Ct., 46. 
Amidon, Henry L., 209. 
Amptaeur. Conrad, 209. 
Anderson, Mai. Robert, 14. 

General R. H., 266. 271, 273, 



324, 326. 
rider 



3", 



Andersonville, Ga., 1 

334. 335-4 '• 
Andrew, Gov. John A., 14, 

16-17, 21. 29, 31, 36, 73, 101, 

168, 279, 293, 317, 342-3- 
Andrews, Arthur J., 209. 
Annapolis, Md., 38, 124-125. 
Antietam, Md., 181, 183, 184, 

185, 211, 215-6, 218, 222, 

230, 237, 238-9, 244, 254, 

258, 277, 327, 335. 
Antietam Creek, Md., 286. 
Aquia Creek, Va., 182, 221, 

256. 
"Argo" (Boat), 148. 
Arlington Heights, Va., 49. 
Armington, S. W., 339. 
Arnold, Caleb H., 284, 
Ashburnham, Mass., 15. 
Ashby's Gap, Va., 213-214, 

258, 288. 
Auburn, Mass., 25. 
Auburn, Va., 296, 302. 
Auburndale, Mass., 205. 
Austin's Church, Va., 158. 



Ayers, Gen. R. B., 266. 
DAIRD, Major T. W.,235. 
1J Baker, Adam N., 209. 

Colonel E.D., 54, 75, 80, 

82,87,96, 126, 135. 
Balcolm, Gilbert E., 335. 
Baldwin, George W., 141,167, 

184. 
Ball, H. C.,232,283, 335. 

Simeon E., 143. 
Ballard, Eliphas, no. 
Ball's Bluff, 36-143, and fre- 
quently elsewhere. 
Baltimore, Md., I14, 20, 23, 

26, 47, 48, 188, 201, 281. 
Baltimore & Ohio R. R., 137, 

140. 
Banks, General N. P., 16, 53, 

58, 66, 73, 83, i37, 138, 161. 
Banks' Ford, Va., 250, 291. 
Bardsley or Burdsley, Joseph, 

284. 
Barlow, General Francis A., 

324, 327- 
Barnard, George E., 334, 336. 
Barnes, General James, 266. 
Barnett's Ford, Va., 303. 
Bartholomew , Nelson,38,63-4, 

142. 
Bartlett, Amos, 38, 90, 208, 

238, 278, 281. 
C. H., 335. 
Batchelder, CM., 288. 
Batchelor, O. W., 209. 
Bates, Joseph N., 37, 93, 104, 

143, 167, 184, 230. 
Batherie, Nelson T., 336. 
Batterson, Zadoc C, 208. 
Battletown, Va., 1.39. 
Baxter, Colonel D. W. C, 

176, 292, 301, 308. 
Bauer, Paul, 46. 
Bealton Station, Va., 294-5, 

301. 
Beaumont, Lieutenant, 132. 
Belknap, Alonzo R., 99. 
Belle Isle, Va., 310, 339. 
Beloit, Wis., 203. 
Bemis, Henry N., 183. 
Benjamin, George F., 99. 



Benson, Edward W., 183. 
Bergen, William H., 336. 
Berlin, Md., 138. 
Berry, Lieutenant! William, 

202, 210. 
Berryville, W. Va., 139-140. 
Benner Hull, Pa., 264. 
Big Bethel, Va., 53, 148, 150, 

182. 
Bigelow, Elisha T., 184. 
Henry G., 141. 
Colonel Timothy, 45, 46. 
Birney, General D. B., 227, 

265, 266, 270, 324-5, 327. 
Biscoe, Rev.ThomasC, 27. 
Bixby, John T., 335. 
Blackburn's Ford, Va., 295, 



301. 
Blackstone, 



Mass., 13, 14, 30, 



31, 38, 100-1 
Blake, Edwin, 183. 
Blasland, Thomas, 335. 
Blenker, General Louis, 144, 

148. 
Bliss, David, 183. 

Henry R., 209. 
Blodgett, William M, 183. 
Blood, William L., 209. 
"Bloody Lane," Md., 197. 
Bloomfield, Va., 287-8. 
Blue Ridge, Va., 212, 214, 254, 

258. 
Bogue Island, 122. 
Bolivar, W. Va., 139-40, 198, 

204, 211-2, 217, 279. 
Bolton, Mass., 29. 
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 150. 
Bonner, Joseph, 337. 
Bonney, James A., 336. 
Boonsboro, Md., 190, 201. 
Boss, George L., 91, 283. 
Boston, 18, 19, 37, 38, 56, 146, 

182, 230, 236, 263, 291, 293. 
Bottom's Bridge, Va., 159. 
Bowen, R. E., 339. 
Bowers, Rev. CM., 278. 
Bowling Green, Va., 248, 329. 
Bowman, Henry, 22, 37, 112, 

115, 117-8, 124, 142, 184. 
Boyden, Lucius £>., 184. 



416 



INDEX OF PERSONS AND PLACES. 



Brace, Dr., 104. 

Bradley, Adoniram J., 229, 

238. 
Bramhall, Lieut. W. M., 84. 
Brandes, William, 284. 
Brandy Station, Va., 255, 294- 

5, 303, 3°5- 308. . 
Brick House, Fredericksburg, 

Va., 220. 
Briggs, Lucius H., 209. 
Brinley Hall, Worcester, 

Mass., 2\. 
Bristoe Station, Va., 296-301. 
Broad Run, Va., 295, 299, 301. 
Brock Road.Va., 323, 324,326. 
Brooks, General John R.,266. 
Brookfield, Mass., 13. 
Brookfields, Mass., 22. 
Brooklyn^ N. Y., 293. 
Brooks' Farm, Worcester, 

Mass., 32. 
Brown, Adelbert L., 183. 
Dexter, 336. 

George W., 306, 318, 319- 
Shepard, 209. 
Bryant, Asa T., 209. 
Buell, General D. C, 142. 
Buffum, Cincinnatus A., 99. 

E. R., 209. 
Buford, Gen. John, 261-2,295. 
Bullock, Gov. A. H., 21, 23, 

132. 
Bull Run, Va., 42, 108, 114, 

121, 256, 299, 301. 
Burgoyne, General John, 46. 
Burns, George E., 209 
James, 336. 
General W. W., 139, 145, 

158, 172, 176. 
Burrell, Abram F., 284^ 
Burnside, General A. E., 123, 

137, 187, 198, 211, 217-20, 

228, 233-5, 237, 243. 253, 

320, 322, 326, 331. 
Buss, Elisha G., 277-8, 284. 
Butler, General B. F., 319-20, 

„33i- 

breorge, 209. 

Henry, 209. 
Butters, John F., 337. 
PADY, Curtis, 337. 
^ Caldwell, Gen. J. C, 266, 

296, 298, 304. 
California, 82. 
Cambellites, 82. 
Camps. "Advance," 150. 

■'Bivouack," 160. 

"Confidence," 187. 

"Defiance." 188. 

"Falmouth," 232, 236, 238. 

"Foster," 55, 127. 

•'Griffin," 67. 

"Hamilton, 149. 

"Kalorama," 48, 49. 

"Lincoln,' 42, 169-70. 

"Mayo," 159. 

"Misery," 150. 

"Scott," 20, 25, 29, 30,32-33, 
35, 42, 46, 5o. n 

"Sorghum," 338. 

"Welcome," 158. 
Campbell, Donald A., 340. 



John, 20S. 
Candy, Capt., 73. 
Carey St., Richmond, Va., 

109. 
Carlisle, Pa., 258. 
Carpenter, Daniel, 208. 
Carroll, Gen. S. S., 228, 271, 

296, 324, 326. 
Carter, William, 183. 
Casey, Gen. Silas, 162. 
Cashtown, Pa., 261. 
Cassidy, Thomas, 99. 
Caswell, Charles L., 229. 
Catlett House, 295. 
Cedar Mountain, Va., 185. 
Cemetery Hill, Gett., Pa., 

262-4. 
Cemetery Ridge, Gett., Pa., 

264, 271-2. 274. 
Centreville, Va., 186, 257-8, 

295-6. 
Centreville Turnpike, Va., 

214. 
Cerro Gordo, Mex., 82. 
Chain Bridge, Va.-Md., 186-7. 
Chambers, Hiram A., 208. 
Chambersburg, Pa., 257-8, 

261-2, 264 
Chancellorsville, Va., 153,245- 

9, 251-252, 254, 322, 326 
Chantilly, Va., 186. 
Chapin, Edward, 284. 
Chapman, William S., 209. 
Charleston, S. C, 311, 338. 
Charlestown, W. Va., 38, 139, 

140, 142,312. 
Charlton, Mass., 25. 
Chenery, Corp. James P., 277, 

283. 
Chesapeake Bay. 149. 
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal,55. 
Chickahominy R., 159-62,170- 

1, 178,182,314,333. 
Christenson, Peter, 340. 
City Point, Va., 176. 
Clark, Charles, 341. 
Clark, Merrick L., 337. 
Clark, William H., 209. 
Clarksburg, Md., 189. 
Clegg, Joseph, 340. 
Clinton, Mass., 13, 15, 21, 37, 

112-3, 211, 278. 
Clipp's farm, Ant., Md., 195, 

197- 
Clisbee, Harrison J., 209. 
Coates, James, 340. 
Cobb, Andrew S., 184. 
Codori house, Gett., Pa., 267, 

280. 
Cogswell, Col. Milton, 84, 87- 

90, 93, 106, 117, 126. 
Colburn, A. V. A.A.G., 97. 
Cold Harbor, Va., 160, 331. 
Cole, William J., 336. 
Columbia, S. C.,338. 
Collar, H. A., 135, 209. 
"Commodore," hospital ship, 

153- 
Coney, Barney, 268. 
Connecticut, 146, 314. 
"Connecticut, steamer, 46. 
Connecticut Valley, n. 



Conrad's Ferry, Md.-Va., 54, 

55, 69, 71,80. 
Converse, William F., 119. 
Cook, W. A., 132. 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 278. 
Copeland, Joseph, 340. 
Corbin, Lieut. Frank S., 38, 

202, 208, 209. 
Cornish, T. 0., Asst. Surg., 

308. 
Cosgrove, Michael, 184. 
Cotton, Ward M., 19. 
Couch, Gen. D. M., 162, 164, 

178, 199, 218-9, 228, 245, 

253, 258, 292. 
Coulter, Lieut. W. J., 47, 57, 

61, 89, 128, 130, 135, 211, 

213-4, 217, 269, 277, 285, 

287-8, 332, 337. 
Courtney house, F. O., Va., 

165. 
Cowan, John H., 336. 
Cowdry, Andrew W., 78, 99, 

103. 
Coyle, Patrick, 284. 
Crampton Pass, Md., 189,286. 
Cross, George W., 283. 
Crosby, Surg. A. B., 143. 
Cross, Maj. R. E., 266. 
Culpeper Court House, Va., 

289, 294-5, 254-5- , 
Culpeper Mine rord, Va., 

303. 
Culp's Hill, Gett., Pa., 262, 

264, 271-2. 
Cumberland, 257. 
Cummings, Stillman L., 99. 
Curran, John H., 209. 
Curtis, Gen., 217. 
Cushing, Rev. Christopher, 

94. 
Lieut. A. H., 274. 
Cutler, George W., 99. 
pvAKOTA, 248. 
l - J Dalghren, Admiral J. A., 

312- 

Dana, Gen. N.J. T., 145,158, 

164, 175, 191, 194. 
Daniels, George, 80. 
Danville, Va., 337-9. 
Darnestown, Md., 53, 58, 66. 
Davis, Alfred W., 209. 
Davis, Benjamin, 209. 

Engineer, 32. 

Charles, 143. 

George A., 300. 

George P., 337. 

Isaac, 43, 45, 152. 

James H., 209. 

Jefferson, C.S.A.,47, 60,120. 

Orin L., 209. 

William M., 143. 

William S., 96. 
Day, Edward L., 208. 
Dearing, Henry L., 37. 
Dedham, Mass., 31, 229. 
Denmark, 278. 

Derby, Richard, 37, 48, 59-60, 

92, 127, 129-31, 142-3, 156, 

178, 181. 189, 202-3, 208. 

Devens, Colonel Charles, 13, 

30, 37-8, 43, 44, 46-9, 54, 60- 



INDEX OF PERSONS AND PLACES. 



417 



1, 65, 67-9, 70, 72-8, 80, 84, 

88-92, 96-7, 101. 112, 127, 

128, 130, 132, 141, 145, 153, 

155. 158, 180, 181, 184, 198, 

199, 200, 206, 215. 239, 268, 

281-3, 291, 3°9- 
Devil's Den, Gett., Pa., 266. 
DeTrobriand, General P R., 

265, 266. 
DeWitt, Alexander, 24. 
Dexter, Ferdinand, 99. 
Dickison, Francis, 99. 
Doane, Lyman, 142. 184. 

SUvanus, 335. 
Dodge, Lieut. J. G. C, 94. 
Donelson, Fort, 137. 
Doubleday, Gen. Abner, 192. 
Douglas, Mass., 28. 
Douglass, James, 95. 
Dranesville, Va., 66, 67, 80. 
Drewry's Bluff, Va., 160. 
Dry Tortugas, 291. 
Dudley, Mass., 208. 

H.T., 279. 
Duff, Capt. W L., 72. 
Dugan, Michael, 340. 
Dumfries, Va., 256. 
Dunker (Dunkard) Church, 

Ant., Md., 192, 194. 
Dunn, James F., 336. 
CAGER, Charles H., 37, 90, 
^ 158, 23J, 238, 305, 3i7- 
Eagle" (boat), 157. 
Eames, Walter A., 91. 
Earle, David M., 232,234,235, 

240, 242-5, 247, 250, 255, 

257, 261, 277, 280, 285,291. 
Early, Gen. J. A., 192,309, 334. 
East Woods, Ant., Md.. 192, 

194. 
Eaton, Calvin J ., 283. 

Francis W., 340. 
Eccles, William, 335. 
Edmands, J. E., 310. 
Edward's Ferry, Md., Va.. 

55, 59, 67, 68, 70, 72-4, 80-3, 

87, 88, 90, 258-9. 
Ellingwood, Lyman H., 37, 

73, 142, 238, 241, 289, 293, 

306. 
Elliott, Benjamin R., 209. 
Ellis, Reuben A., 119. 
Ellsworth, Fort, 125. 
Eltham, Va., 158. 
Ely's Ford, Va.,308, 322. 
Emack, 115-16. 
Emerson, Samuel, 209. 
Emmettsburg or Emmitts- 

burg, 260-1. 
Emmettsburg Road, 262, 264- 

8, 272-3- 
England, 41, 82. 
Engly, Henry M., 184. 
Europe, 88, 229. 
Evans, Fort, Leesburg, Va., 

81. 
Gen. N. G., 67, 84, 106. 
Ewell, Gen. R. S., 192, 195, 

254, 258, 261, 263, 271, 296, 

CA?RFA 3 xfv'a., 186. 
A College, 49. 



Station, Va., 256. 
Fairfield, Pa., 261, 286. 
Fairmount, Va., 140. 
Fair Oaks,Va., 153, 161-2, 166- 

170, 172, 178, 183, 184, 216, 

230, 299. 
Falmouth, Va., 215, 220, 221, 

234, 247 257, 292. 
Farnsworth, Franklin H.,183. 
Fauquier Street, Fredericks- 
burg. Va., 225. 
Fay, Rev. Eli, 279. 
Fayetteville, Va., 261. 
Fellows, Joseph E., 340. 
Finch, William. 337. 
Finegan, Patrick, 209. 
Finney, R. T., 13;. 
Fisher's Bridge, "N.C., 339. 
Fitchburg, Mass., 13, 15, 20, 

21, 37, 40, 112, 113, 121, 202. 
Fitchburg & Worcester R.R., 

19- 
Fitch, George O., 208. 
Flat Run Church, Va., 303. 
Fletcher, George F., 284. 

James B., 209. 
Florence, S. C, 340. 
Flynn, Michael, 283. 
Folger, William H., 143. 
Forehand, Walter, 27. 37, 71, 

278, 281. 
Foster, General, 312. 
Albert H., 24. 
Charles G., 209. 
Gen. Dwight, 55. 
Fox, W. F. 200. 
Franklin, Gen. W B.. 189, 

198, 224, 227. 
Frazer. Charles, 197, 279, 281. 

[Error Charles R.J 
John, 208. 
Frederick City, Md., 188, 189, 

201, 260, 286. 
Fredericksburg, Va., 147, 153, 

161,182, 220, 230, 232, 234-5, 

237, 239-41, 244-9, 251-2, 

254, 293, 3°2. 
Freeman, Henry W., 336. 

Joseph, 337. 
Fremont, Gen. I. C, 148. 
French, Lieut. Frank S., 84. 
Gen. William H., 144, 190-1, 

195, 197-8, 226-7, 260, 296, 

302, 304. 
Fretts, Joseph C, 209. 
Frissle, Henry A., 340. 
Frost, Albert C, 283. 
Fuller, Andrew L., 37, 63, 142, 

278, 281. 
Herbert N., 340. 
Furnald, Thomas, 209. 
RAINES MILL, Va., 170. 
^-J Gainesville, Va., 257. 
Gale, Walter, 141, 204, 238, 

278, 332. 
Gallup, George H., 183. 
Gannett, William, 340. 
Gardner, Franklin, 208. 
Garside, Andrew W., 340. 
Gatchell, Moses W., 30, 38, 

99, 100, 142. 
Gates, Gen. Horatio, 46. 



Geary, Gen. J. \V., 272. 
Georgetown, D. C. 51 



Georgia, 121, 269, 311*. 
" rd,Va., 

3,22 



Germanna Ford 



303, 3o5, 



201, 
299, 



243, 



Getchell, Harlow D., 208. 
Getty. Gen. G. W., 226, 323, 

325- 
Gettysburg, Pa., 29, 198, 
' 251, 253-84, 287, 292! 

320,328,338. 
Oibbon, Gen. John, 227, 

245, 247-8, 256, 259, 267-7I; 

274, 292^ 321, 324-7, 331- 
Gnchristj George S., 121. 
Gillan, Father, 64. 
Givan, John, 338. 
Gleason, Charles A., 340. 
Glendale, Va., 171. 
Goddard, J. Myron, 37. 
N. P., 37,42, 109, 278. 
Godwin, Parke, 89. 
Goff, Charles H., 99. 
Golding farm, Va., 171. 
Goldsboro, N. C, 123. 
Goodwin, Alfred M., 340. 
Goose Creek, Va., 55, 67, 83. 
Gordon place, Fr. Va., 224. 
Gordonsville, Va., 185, 309. 
Gorman, Gen. Willis A., 54, 

67, 72-3, 80, 81, 132, 137, 

139, H5, 147, 149, '52, 159, 

164, 167-8, 171-2, 191, 194- 
197, 199, 212-4, 217-8, 240, 
279-80. 

Gott, Pearl S., 142. 

Gough, John B., 42. 

Governor's Island, 123. 

Grady, John, 284. 

Grafton, Mass., 13, 26, 27, 37. 

Graham, Gen. W. M., 265,266. 

Grapevine Bridge, 162. 

Grant, Gen. U. S., 177, 311, 

„ 321-2,330-1,333- 

Greene, J. Evarts, 37, 105-7, 

115, 117, 120, 124-5, 142, 

193, 195, 271-2. 
Greenfield, Mass. 38. 
Green, William, 184. 
Greenwich, Va., 296, 302. 
Greenwood, Henry, 105, 107, 

no, 112-3. 
Gregg, Gen. D. M., 287, 295-6. 

298, 322. 
Gregory's Gap, Va., 212. 
Griffin, Gen,, 226, 228. 
Grob, John, 340. 
Grobitz, August, 184. 
Groton. Mass., 202, 203. 
Grout, John William, 24, 38, 

99, 101, 142. 
Jonathan, 101. 
Guiney's Station, Va,, 329. 
Guilfoyle, Daniel, 338. 
Gum Spring, Va., 80, 82, 258, 

AGGERS-TOWN, Md., 
192-4, 206-7. 
Turnpike, 190. 
Hairl, Lewis, 99, 103-4. 



H 



Hale, Maj., 207, 244. 
1 Hall, Gen. John S., 141, 1 



53. 



4iS 



INDEX OF PERSONS AND PLACES. 



222, 228, 274. 

Halleck, Gen. W. G., 178, 185- 
8, 221, 255, 260, 302. 

Hallstown, W. Va., 139. 

Hampton, Va., 149. 

Hancock, Gen. Winfield, 213, 
226-7, 247, 251-2, 264, 268, 
270, 292, 320, 323-4. 32b, 



Holbrook, Charles E., 208. 



Holden t Newell K.,37, 184. 
ieph, 336. 
I B.. 

195, 265, : 



Holland, Joseph, 331 
Hood, Gen. J. B., 
5, 266. _ 



330-1. 
.nle 



Harney, Francis, 183. 
Hanover, Va., 109, 261. 
Hardwick, Mass., 64. 
Harper's Ferry, W Ya., 48, 

53, 137-8. 188-9, 198, 212, 

253, 260, 287. 
Harrington, Edw. R., 336. 
Harrisburg, Pa., 258. 
Harris, Daniel, 184. 
Harrison's Island, 54, 59, 68-9, 

74-6, 80, 91-3, 95, 131- 
Harrison's Landing, 172, 177, 

180. 
Harrow, Gen. Wm., 251, 252, 

259, 264, 267-8, 274-5, 277, 

292. 
Hart, William, 340. 
Harvard, Mass., 29. 
Hastings, Thos. J., 208, 270, 

322, 355, 333, 337-8. 
Hathaway, Avery N., 284. 
Hathaway, Henry, 209. 
Hatteras Inlet, 123. 
Haven, Surg. S. Foster Jr., 

37- 49, 5o, 52, 93-4, 131, 137, 

139, 143, 152, 155, 178, i»7, 

201, 212, 220, 225, 229, 232. 

Hawkins, Gen. H. J., 223. 
Hayden. Franklin L., 209. 
Hays, Gen. Alexander, 257, 
259, 274, 304- 
Gen. H. 1 ., 192. 
Gen. William, 247, 292, 296. 
Haywood, Surg. Nathan, 94. 
Hazzard, Capt. George W., 

144, 228, 274. 
Heath, Gen. D. C, 292. 
Hebard, Capt. Daniel, 177. 
Hedford, Ire., 291. 
Heintzleman, Gen. S. P., 149. 
Henry House, Bull Run, 108. 
Heth, Gen. John W., 209, 261- 

2, 273, 296, 300. 
Hicks, Adj. George A., 37, 42, 

141. 
Higgmson, Rev. T. W., 11. 
Hildreth, Frank A., 64. 
Hill. Alonzo, D. D., 35, 43. 
Gen. A. P., 162, 185, 254, 
257-8, 261, 263-5, 273, 296, 
304, 323-4. 
Camp, 139. 
Gen. D. H., 195. 
Grove, Va., 212. 
J. Henry, 38. 
Hillman, John H., 209. 



Hilton's Head, S. C, 312. 
Hilton, James, 99. 
Hinckley, Albert E., 300. 
Hinks, Col. E. W., 93-4. 
Hixon, Richard, 251. 
Hoar, George F., 38, 43 
153-4, 206. 



190, 192, 



Hooker, Gen. Joseph, 146, 

! 162, 166, 178, 192, 195, 224, 

235-6, 241, 243, 244, 247, 

250, 252-3, 255, 257-8, 260, 
322. 

Hooper, I. Harris, 38, 115. 117, 

119, 142, 199, 229, 232, 235, 

237, 250, 277, 288-9, 293. 

I 310,332-3, 335- 

Horn, Thomas, 284. 

Howard, Gen. Oliver O., 144, 

194, 196, 199, 200, 218. 220- 

I 2, 223, 225-6, 240, 243, 246, 

! 263, 271. 

Howe, Church, 32, 37, 42, 68. 

: 70, 71, 73, 75, 84, 141, 173. 
176, 199, 278, 281, 283. 

Howe, Hollis H., 184. 

Joseph M., 336. 
Howland, Mefvin, 51. 
i Hughes, James, 209. 
! John A., 335. 
I Humphreys, Gen. A. A., 226, 

228, 265, 2665 267, 270. 
Hunton, Col. Eppa, 86, 106. 
Huston, Lieut .-Col. James, 

268, 269. 
Hyattstown, N. V., 189. 
ILLINOIS, 82. 
1 Independence, Fort, 20.'!. 
Indiana, 147. 
Indians, 248, 292. 
Ingalls, Joseph S., 210. 
Ireland, 291. 
Island No. 10, 142. 
JACKSON, Gen. T. J., 161, 
J 169, 171, 185, 192, 227, 246-7, 

250, 254. 
Jackson house near Leesburg, 

Va., 70, 81. 
Jacob's Mill Ford, Va., 303. 
James River, 109, 147, 148,161, 

171,173,177,181,185,333-4. 
James, Rev. Horace, 35. 
Jefferson, Va., 296. 
Jennifer, Lieut.-Col. W. H., 

72, 79, 86. 
Jerusalem Plank Road, near 

Petersburg, Va.. 334. 
Johnson, Elisha F., 209. 
James N., 37, 142, 271, 272, 

304- 
Joseph P., 208. 
Gen. Edward, 327. 
Johnston, Gen, Jos. E., 156, 

160, 160, 164, 166, 168-9. 
Jones, Alonzo M., 337. 
Jones, Gen. J, K., 102, 193, 

195. 
Johnsville, Md., 261. 
Jordan, E. D., 208. 
Jorgensen, Hans Peter, 20, 77, 

133, 142, 224, 238, 276, 278- 

9, 281, 283- 
Joshn, Mai. Elias, 239. 
George C, 30, 38, 42, 208, 

217, 232, 237-40, 248, 250-1, 



267, 271, 275-6, 285, 288-9, 
291, 293, 295, 298-9, 301, 
305-6, 308-12, 317-8. 

I/'ALORAMA, Camp, 50-2. 

^ Kansas. 146. 

Kearney, Stephen L„ 37, 142, 
162-3. 

Keedysville, Md., 190, 201. 
286. 

Keffer, Capt., n7. 

Keith, Eugene, 99. 

Kelley, Thomas, 209. 
William, 336. 

Kelly 1st, Patrick, 64. 
Gen. Patrick, 266. 

Kelly's Ford, Va., 245, 302. 

Kennedy, Timothy, 336. 

Kentucky, 142. 

Kettle Run, Va., 298, 302. 

Keyes, Gen. E. D., 162. 

Kilburn, Sumner R., 336. 

Kilpatrick, Gen., 338. 

Kimball, Alpheus, by error 
in text Alpheus K. Kim- 
ball, 40. 
Amasa, 223. 

John White, 20, 37, 40, 47, 
51, 74, 76, 78, 89, 92, 104, 
129, 145,155, 15S, 167,172-4, 
177, 180, 192, 196, 197, 199, 
202, 207, 210, 214-6, 227, 
232, 240, 279, 293, 309. 
Gen. Nathan, 183, 190. 

King, paymaster, 245. 
Gen. Rufus, 48, 50. 

Kirby, Lieut., 163-5, i°7> I %9- 

Kirchner, John, 99. 

Kossuth, Louis, 15. 

Konch, Henry, 337. 

I ACV HOUSE, opposite 

L Fredericksburg, Va., 222, 
241-2, 248-50. 

Laffiin, Col. Byron, 248. 

Lamb, Charles A., 119. 

Lancaster, Mass., 22, 29. 

Lander, Gen. F W., 54, 73, 
81, 137, 145. 
Francis L., 335. 

Langley, Va., 53, 66. 

Larkin, John P., 208. 

Laverty, Andrew, 143. 

Law, Gen. E. M., 264, 265. 

Lawrence, Mass., 240. 
Academy, 203. 
Willard R., 99. 

Law School, University of 
Indiana, 147. 

Lawton, Gen. A. R., 192. 

Lee, Col. Robert E., 59, 69, 
70, 72, 73, 90, 93, ii7, 169- 
71 ,185, 188-90, 198, 234,246, 
247, 250, 252, 254, 257-9, 
261,265,272-3,275,285-7,289, 
293-6, 301, 302-3, 319,320-2, 
324, 326, 335. 

Leesburg, Va., 51, 54, 66, 68, 
70, 77, 80, 82, 83, 84, 95, 96, 
99, 105, 106, 113, 117, 119. 

Leland, Edson T., 335. 

Leominster, Mass., 13, 15, 19, 
20, 37, 56, 103. 239, 278-9, 
299. 



Index of persons and places. 



419 



Lewis, Francis A., 283. 
Lexington, Mass., 46. 
Libby Prison,Richmond,Va.. 

x . 1 3io, 3I3.3I5. 337- 
Liberty, Md., 261. 
Liggon's Tobacco House, 
Richmond, Va., 115. 117, 
118. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 14, 17, 28, 

. 38, 49. 147. 212, 234, 291. 
Lincoln House, Worcester, 

Mass., 105, 134. 
Lincoln, Hon. Waldo, 236. 
Litchfield, Albert, 80. 
Little Round Top, Gett., Pa., 

262, 265-6, 292. 
Livermore, Albert W., 335. 
Lockwood, Gen. H. H., 271. 
Long Island, Boston Harbor, 

Mass., 291. 
Longstreet, Gen. James 162, 
192, 196, 227, 254, 258, 264- 
5.2/2,273289,324. 
Lord, Alexander, 283. 
Loudon County, Va., 289. 
Heights, Va., 212. 
Valley, Va., 281. 
Lowell, H. C, 80. 
Lucca Place, near Sharps- 
burg, Md., 205. 
Luke ( Capt., 119. 
Lynchburg, Va., 337. 
Lynnfieldj Mass., 145. 
MACON, Ga., 311,338. 
1,1 Macy, Major, G. N., 237. 
Magomery, Thomas, 209. 
Magruder, Gen. J. B., 167,171. 
Mahlone, Gen. William, 335. 
Main Street, Worcester, 

Mass., 46. 
Malvern Hill, Va., 171, 178, 

179. 
Malverton, Va., 177. 
Manassas, Va., 121, 186, 200, 
255. 258, 301. 
Gap, Va., 288, 289. 
Gap R. R., Va., 288. 
Junction, Va.,53, 107-8, 136, 
301. 
Manchester, Pa., 261. 
Mann, William, 99. 
Mansfield, Charles P., 184. 

Gen. J. K. F., 193, 195, 200. 
Maple Street, Worcester, 

MasSy 134. 
Marble, Francis H., 209. 
Marcy, Gen. R. B., 173. 
Markham Station, Va., 288-9. 
Marshall, Isaac E., 209. 

Joseph A., 36. 
Marsh, John, 283. 
Creek, Pa., 262. 
Silas D., 209. 
Martin, Lysander, 336. 
Martinsburg, W. Va., 257. 
Marye's Heights, Fredericks- 
burg, Va., 227. 
Maryland Heights, 188, 
Matthews. William, 229. 
May, C. F., 59. 
James, 337- 
Rev. S. J., 11. 



Maybury, Jesse, 291. 

Maynard, Waldo B., 121, 208. 

Mayo's Tobacco Factory, 
Richmond, Va., 109, 113, 
158. 

Murkland, John, 225. 

McBridge, or McBnde, Mar- 
tin, 184. 

McCall, Gen. George A., 53, 
66-7, 80, 83, 169-70. 

McCambridge, F., 184. 

McClellan, Gen. G. B., 50, 53, 
54, 63, 66-8, 83-4, 96, 106, 
126, 136-8, 144,147-50, 151, 
153-7, 161, 163, 169-71, 177, 
178, 185-90, 198, 212, 214, 
217, 220, 237, 333. 

McDowell, Gen. Irwin, 53, 108, 
136, 148, 156, 161, 169. 

McGilvery, Lieut.-Col. Free- 
man, 273. 

McHenry, Fort. 38, 48. 

McKeen, Col. H. B., 328. 

McLaws^ Gen. L., 196,247,266. 

Meade, Gen. George G., 147, 
192, 227, 255, 260-1, 263. 
265, 271, 285-7, 289, 293-5, 
3oi 7 3, 305, 319-22. 

Meadville, Pa., 41. 

Meagher, Gen. T. F., 144, 242, 

Mechanics Hall, Worcester. 
Mass., 281. 

Medfield, Mass., 203. 

Mediterranean. 49. 

Megan, Albert, 336. 

Meridian Hill, near Washing- 
ton, D. C, 49. 

Merriam, C. I., 209. 

"Merrimac," (boat) 160. 

Messenger, David J., 99, 116. 

Middletown, Md., 190, 258. 

Milan, Ga., 340. 

Miles, Col. D. S., 188-9. 

Miles, Gen. N. A., 247, 304. 

Millbury, Mass., 25, 31. 

Millerstown, Gett., Pa., 262, 
265. 

Milroy, Gen. R. H., 255. 

Miner, Joseph E., 214, 221, 
242. 

Mine Run, Va., 303, 304, 310. 

Mines, Rev. J. F., 114. 

Minnesota, 147, 203, 248, 319. 

Mirick, George W., 60, 198. 

Mississippi, 124. 
Steamer, 182. 
Valley, 287. 

Missouri, 217, 

Mitchell, Charles L., 209. 

Money, A., error for Mowry, 
A., 152. 

"Monitor," 160. 

Monmouth, N. J., 43. 

Monocacy River, 138, 262. 

Monroe, Surg. F L. B., 235, 
243- 
Charles D., 99, 119- 

Montgomery County, Md„5i, 

Moody, J. L., 121. 

Moore, Lewis H., 209. 

Morehead, Col. T. G., 250. 
Morgan, Col. G. N., 229, 300. 



Morrisey, John, 336. 
Morris Island, 311. 
Morrisville, Va., 289-90, 292, 

293- 
Morse, William E„ 209. 
Morton's Ford, Va,, 319, 
Mosby, Gen. J. S., 288, 
Moses, Robert R., 208. 
Mott, Gen. Gershom, 324. 
Moulton, Harrison, 340. 
Mowry, Arnold, 152, 184. (By 

error, A. Money.) 
Mullett, VV. A., 337. 
Mulvaney, Patrick, 340. 
Munroe, Fortress, 112, 121, 

148, 181. 
Munyan, Thomas P., 208. 
Murkland, John, 222, 224, 235, 

238, 276, 278-81, 283. 
Murray, Sergt,, 287. 
Myer, Col. A. J., 142. 
IVJELSON'S farm, Va., 175. 
1 ' New Baltimore, Va., 296. 
Newbern, N. C, 123. 
New Braintree, Mass., 26, 
New Bridge, Va., 160. 
Newbury, Dwight, 306, 308. 
Newcomb, George B., 340. 
New England, 10, 11,39, 125, 

203. 
New HopeChurch.Va., 303-4. 
New Kent Court House, Va., 

New Orleans, La., 122. 
Newport News, Va., 121, 182. 
Newton, Elmer N., 99. 
Newton, George F., 183. 
New Verdierville, Va., 307. 
New Worcester. Section of 

Worcester, Mass. 
New York, 47, in. 117, 182, 

218, 259, 292, 312. 
Nichols, Charles, 335. 
Norfolk, Va., 160. 
Northboro, Mass., 22, 203. 
Northbridge, Mass., 13, 27-9, 

North Brookfield, Mass., 12, 

13, 2$, 26, 37, 94, 335- 
North Carolina, 119, 121, 177. 
Northfield, Mass., 38, 
Norwich, Ct., 42, 46. 
Noyes, Francis H., 209. 

OAKES, Sylvester, 229. 
Oak Hill, Pa., 263, 

Oakley, William D., 283. 

O'Connell, John J., 340. 

O'Connor, Thomas, 99. 

Ohio, 319. 

Old Point Comfort, Va., 149. 

Old South Church, Worces- 
ter, Mass., 39. 

Orange & Alexandria Rail- 
road, 147, 185, 286, 301-2. 

Orange Court House, Va., 309. 

Orange Plank Road,Va., 323. 

Oregon, 82. 

O'Rorke, Col. P. H., 266. 

Osborne, J Ai, 80, 99, 119. 

Osgood, George F. , 283. 

Owens, Gen. J. T., 209, 223, 
225, 227-8, 250, 259, 324, 



420 



INDEX OF PERSONS AND PLACES. 



hing- 



326. ! 

Oxford, Mass., 13, 24-5, 27, 36, | 
38, 64. 

pAINE, Nathaniel, 65. 

1 Palmer, William H., 337. 

Pamunkey River, 158, 161,171, 
315. 

Paris, Va., 213, 214, 288. 

Parmenter, Edwin L., 209. 
Marcus M., 210. 

Parr's Ridge, 260. 

Patterson, Gen. Robert, 53. 

Peabody, John W.. 338. 

Peckham, Anson P., 340. 
Thomas J., 336. 

Pender, Gen. W. D., 273. 

Pennsylvania Ave., Washi 
ton, 48. 

Percy, Baron, 230. 

Perry, Charles, 209. 
James, 337. 

Petersburg, Va., 121, 335, 337. 

Pettigrew, Gen. J. J., 261, 
273-4. 

Philadelphia, 47, 64, 82, 117, 
259. 

Philbrick, Lieut. Chase, 29, 
37, 68-72, 74, 83, 131. 138. 
155, 167, 199, 204, 205, 217, 
222, 224, 229, 232. 238-40, 
245. 

Phillips, Antoine, 340. 
George G., 99. 
House, opp. Fredericks- 
burg, Va., 250. 

Phipps, Lyman, 119. 

Pickett, Gen. G. E., 264, 273, 
274-6, 285, 289. 

Pierce, Lieut. F E., 333. 
G. O., 184. 

Plank Road, Va., 304, 325. 

Pleasanton, Gen. Alfred, 247, 
255, 258. 

Pleasant Valley, 287. 

Plummer's Basin, North- 
bridge, Mass., 28. 
Corner, Northbridge, Mass , 

28. 
Quarries, Northbridge, 
Mass., 28. 

Plum Run, 262, 267^ 270. 

Plympton, Amos. G., 210. 

Po River, 326. 

Point of Rocks, Md., 53, 138. 

Polley, Frank W., 37, 142, 281. 

Pontius, Frederick, 340. 

Poolesville, Md., 51-138, 141, 
143, 259-60. 

Pope, Gen. John, 185, 187. 
Francis C, 336. 
Horace T., 336. 

Porter, Gen. F. J., 160, 170, 
198. 

Port Hudson, La., 216. 
Royal, S. C, 141, 312. 

Powhatan, 315. 

Pratt, Samuel E., 183. 

Prichard, J ohn H., m, 121. 

Prince, Albert, 142, 235, 238. 

Prince of Wales, 15. 

Princess Ann Street, Fred- 
ericksburg, 224, 225, 228. 



Prouty, Edward'W., 283. 
Providence, R. I., 28. 
Puffenberger, J., 198. 
Putnam County, N. V., 218. 
Nathaniel, 336. 

QUEBEC, 46. 
Quinn, James, 340. 
DALEIGH, N. C., 121, 123. 
•^ Randolph, Lieut., 313. 
Rapidan River, 245 , 294, 302, 

303, 308, 312, 319, 322. 
Rappahannock River, 220, 
245, 248, 253, 289, 293-5,302. 
Rappahannock Station, Va., 

293, 2Q4- 
Raymond, George O., 283. 
Rectortown, Va , 214. 
Reed, Charles A., 284. 
Reidman, Godfred, 209. 
Remick, Alpheus, 336. 
Revere, Major P J.. 69, 75, 

117. 
Surgeon E. H. R., 75. 
Reynolds, Gen. J, F., 247,255, 



258, 262, 264. 
lode r 
lodes 

304; 



258. . . 

Rhode Island, 31, 59, 100. 
Rhodes (Rode's), Gen. R. E. 



Rice, Abner, 337. 
W. W.,282. 

Richmond, Va., 98, 105, 107, 
109, in, 113, 117, 120, 132, 
136, 147, i54, 156, 160-1, 
166, 169, 173, 177-8, 180, 
185, 188, 202, 221, 242, 255, 
188-9,293, 300, 311, 319, 321, 
326, 337-8, 340-1. 
Jail, 117. 

Richardson, Gen. I. B., 144, 
146, 158, 163, 168, 170, 175, 
191, 195, 197-8, 213, 252. 
Rev. Merrill, 35. 

Ricketts, Gen. J. B., 192. 

Rindge, Edwin E., 209. 

Robbins, Elliott H., 337. 
William E., 335. 

"Robert Morris" (boat), 157. 

Roberts, John, 291. 

Robertson's Tavern, Va.. 

„ 303712,337- , , 
Rock Creek, Pa., 262, 264. 
Rockville, Md., 51, 188. 
Rockwood, C. A., 337. 
George W., 19, 37, 71, 115, 

117, 124-5, 142, 232, 235, 

237-8. 
Rodgers, David, 210. 
Roe, A. S., 282. 
Rohrersville, Md., 286. 
Rollins, Edward B., 277, 283. 
Roper's Church, Va., 159. 
Ross, Major, 299. 
Roulette's Farm, Ant., Md., 

195, J97- 
Round Top, Gett., Pa., 262, 

265, 271. 
Ruger, Gen. T. H., 272. 
Russell, Alfred L., 209. 
Benjamin B., 291. 
E. J., 5i, 52, 103, 126, 128, 

150, 221-3, 228, 237-8, 244, 

256. 



Russia, 206. 

CALEM, Va., 214. 

^ Salem Heights, Va., 250. 

Salem St. Church, Worces- 
ter, Mass., 281. 

Salisbury, N. C, 121-3, 125, 
340-1. 

Sandy Hook, Va., 140, 143, 
287. 

Sangster's Station, Va.. 256. 

Saratoga, N.Y., 43. 

Sargent, Dr., 207. 
Aaron, 209. 
James E., 209. 

Saunders, Capt. John, 145. 
202, 210, 244. 

Savage Station, Va„ 162, 173. 

Savannah, Ga., 116. 

Sawyer, George W. B., 208. 

Scandlin, Rev. Wm. G., 27, 
37, 41, 49, 5i, 62, 76,94,96, 
103, 104, 131-3, 148, 155, 157, 
167, 169, 180-1, 184, 251. 

Schmidt, Bernard A 337. 

Schouler, Adjt.-Gen. Wm.. 
117, 279. 

Schurz, Gen. Carl, 271. 

Scolly, Thomas, 335. 

Scott, Elijah M.. 09. 
William, 99. 
Gen. Winfield, 32. 

Seaver ; George F., 99. 

Sedgwick, Gen.John, 132, 137- 
8, 144-50, i59, 163, 165-6, 
173-4,176,178, 191, 193, 195- 
200,218, 233, 246-7, 250-1, 
302, 304, 320, 323, 326. 

Seminary Ridge, Gett., Pa., 
262, 263, 264. 

Seven Pines, \ a., 162. 

Shaler, Gen. Alexander, 272. 

Sharpsburg, Md., 190, 198,205. 

Shaw, Charles L., 340. 
Walter S., 184. 

Shay, James, 210. 

Shenandoah Valley, 126, 139, 
161, 188, 212, 254, 287, 320. 

Sherbino, Felix, 337. 

Sheridan, Gen. P. H., 322. 

Sherman, J. D., 99. 
Surg. 230. 
Gen. W.T.,339. 

Sherwin, Thomas Jr., 29. 

Sholes, William L. 209. 

Shore, G. 0., 135. 

Shortsleeve, George, 337. 

Shumway, A. H., 135, 209. 

Sibley, l*red H., 91, 99, 104, 
130. 

Sickles, Gen. D. E., 263, 265, 
266, 270, 272, 312. 

Sigil, William, 340. 

Sigel, Gen. Franz, 320. 

Simonds, Alvan A., 91. 
Clark S., 37, 78, 80, 105, 110- 
12, 115, 119, 132, 202-3, 208, 



George B., 76. 79, 327, 337 



r: 



279, 327- 

eorge B., . 
Singleton, Capt. Otho R., 107. 
Skerrington, John, 183. 
Sloan, Sardus S., 26, 37, 142. 
Slocum, Gen. H.W., 198, 264, 



INDEX OF PERSONS AND PLACES. 



421 



271-2. 284- 
Smart's Mill, Ball's Bluff, Va. 

14, 75, 76, 85, 87-8, 90. 
Smith, Charles D., 209. 

Francis E., 183. 
Smith, George N., 209. 

James, 336. 

John, 337. 

John W., 99.335- 

Joseph T., 210. 

Col. R. P., 305, 306. 



St. Louis, Mo., 217. 
Stoneman, Gen. George, 246, 

338. 
Storer, William B., 141. 158. 
Stow, J. P., 209. 
St. Paul. Minn., 147. 
Stradell, William, 341. 
Stringer, James. 99. 
Strong & Martin, 210. 
Stuart, Gen. J. E. B., 192,255, 



Sidney, 99. 

Gen. W. F.. 162. 170. 

191, I97-S. 252. 

nith, S; 



258, 296, 301. 
Studle " " 



172- 



avannah privateer, 



Smi( 

116. 

Smoketown, Md. ,201. 
Snicker's Gap, Va., 212. 2S7. 
Snow, Albert H., 284. 
Alfred, 209. 
John G., 335. 
Warren, 210. 
Soder, Frederick, 99. 
South Amboy, N. J., 47. 
South Carolina, 14. 141 2, 154. 

177, 207, 31 1- 
South .Mountain, \ a., 188-9, 

260-1. 
South Worcester, Mass., 32. 
Spaulding, George H.,34. 
Spofford, George A., 1S3. 
Spooner, George J., 335. 
Spottsylvania, Va., 200,326-S. 
Sprague, Gen. A. B. R., 39, 

282. 
Spurr, Gen. John, 206. 
Col. Samuel D., 266. 
Thomas J., 142. 149, 160, 

173-5, 201-2, 206, 209, 244. 
Stafford Court House. Va., 

255. 
Stafford, John F., 99. 
Stannard, Gen. G. J., 274. 
Stanton, E. M., Sec'y of War. 

161. 
Stantor, or Stanton, Francis, 

284. 
Staples, Edwin B., 38, 278. 
"Star of the West," 14, 300. 
Starrett, John L., 210. 
State Mutual Building, Wor- 
cester, Mass., 24. 
Stearns, S. J., 300. 
Steele, Wm. R., 37, 199. 
Sterling, Mass., 278. 
Stetson, Walter H., 340. 
Stevensburg, Va., 309. 
Stevens, Charles H., 299. 
Egbert M.,335. 
James, 99. 
Orman. 283. 
Stewart, Charles A. A. G., 74. 
St. John, Rev. T. E., 281. 
Stone Bridge, Ant., Md., 198. 
Stone, Gen. Charles P., 51, 53, 

55, 57-9, 67-9, 72-5, 80, 83-4, 

126, 131, 134, 141, 217. 
Edward M., 336. 
George R.. 209. 
Stone, Camp. 81. 
Stone house, Bull Run, Va., 

jo8. 



Studley, John M., 24, 28, 38, 

74, 112, 115, 119, 132. 
Sturbridge, Mass., 26. 
Sturgis, Gen. S. D., 226, 228. 
Sugar-Loaf Mt„ Md., 259. 
Suiter, Col. James A., 145, 

171, 175- 

Sullivan. Jeremiah, 336. 

Sullivan, Patrick, 341. 

Sully, Gen. Alfred, 145, i7j, 
217, 223-4. 228, 229, 248. 

Sulphur Springs, Va., 295. 

Sumner, Gen. Edwin V., 144, 
146, 152. 157, 161, 163-4, 
171 -2, 174 6, 178, 188, 193, 
195-6, 218-9, 221, 232-4, 
252, 292. 

"Sumner's Bridge,'' 164. 

Sumter, Fort, 14,22,28,293,311. 

Susquehanna River, 261, 262. 

Sutton, Mass., 25, 27, 28. 

Sykes, Gen. George, 226, 296. 

Syminster, Eli, 183. 

Syracuse, N.Y., 235. 

TAFT, Benjamin, 340. 
1 H. S., 27, 37. 141. 
James, 142, 281. 

Taneytown, Md., 260-1, 264, 
286. 

Tarboro, N. C, 123. 

Tar River, 123. 

Taylor's Building, Rich- 
mond, Va., 113. 

Taylor, Father, 41. 
George C, 79,99. 
Thmoas P., 119. 

Teche Country, La., 216. 

Telegraph Road, 227. 

Tenallytown, Md., 187. 

Terry, Gen. A. H., 304. 

Thompson, Alexander, 209. 
George H., 209. 

Thompkins, Col. G. W B., 
145. 

Thomson, Samuel, 143. 

Thoroughfare Gap, va., 259. 

Tilden, Col.,313. 

Todd's Tavern, Va.. 323, 326. 

Tompkins, Col. C. H., 132, 
145,189. 

Ponar, Owen, 335. 

Toomey, Corp. John, 183. 

Torrey, Luther C, 183. 

Tourtellott, Alfred, 209. 

Tower, Conrad M., 209. 

Towsley, Leonard M., 208. 

Tozier, John F., 336. 

"Transport" (boat), 47. 

Trenton, N. J., 43. 

Trescott, W. M.,441. 

Trimble, Gen.I.R., 192,273-4. 



Turner's Gap, Md., 1S9-90. 
Turner, Luther G., 99, 103-4. 
Tuscaloosa, 122. 
Two Taverns, Pa., 261,286. 
Tyler House, near F.O., Va., 
159-60. 
Gen. R. O., 32S. 
J JPHAM, Charles W., 119. 
*-> Upton, Mass., 28. 

Col. Edwin, 21. 
Crbana, Md., 189, 260. 
U. S. Ford, Va., 234, 245-6. 
"Union" Steamship, 122. 
Uniontown, Md., 261, 264. 
Uxbridge, Mass., 28-9. 
VALLEY FORGE, Pa., 43. 
v Vaneaver, William E., 209. 
Van Moll, Richard A., 210. 
Vassal, Bernard A.. 38, 115, 

124, 142. 
Vaughn, Capt. T. F., 54, 94, 

95, 98, 182. 
Vicksburg, Miss., 286. 
Vincent, Col. Strong, 265. 
\X/ADSWORTH, Gen. J. 
vv S., 263, 271,324. 
Waif, Thomas, 341. 
Walker, Amasa, 233. 
Gen. Francis A., 12, 37, 41, 
j 146, 153, 163, 196, 214, 218, 
j 228, 300, 328. 
I Gen. J. G., 196. 
I Gen. John K., 99. 
j Melville, 209. 
! Wallace, D. O., 338. 
Ward, George H., 32, 34-7, 39, 
40, 48, 238-40, 244, 250-1, 
256, 259-60, 264, 267-9, 278, 
280, 282-3, 309. 
Gen. J. H. H., 265, 266. 
Henry C, 244, 288. 
Ware, Edward F., 64. 
Warner, James G., 99. 
Warren, Gen. G. K., 265, 292, 
295, 296-8, 300, 303-5, 320, 
323, 326, 328. 
Charles E., 208. 
Moses J., 99. 
Warrenton, Va., 214, 289, 295. 
Junction, Va., 220, 295. 
Railroad, Va., 302. 
Warwick Court House, Va., 

148. 
Washburn, Henry S., 102. 
Washington, D. C, 23, 26, 45, 
46, 48-50, 53, 54, 65, 66, 73, 
97, 123, 127, 132, 136, 140, 
142, 147-8, 159, 178, 185, 
188, 201, 239, 241, 244, 250, 



n 25 cY 58 - 311 - 



, 123- 

Waterman, Franklin, 184. 
Waters, William G., 37. 
Watson, Charles H., 25, 38, 90, 

104, 222, 237-8. 
Webb, Gen. A. S., 274, 276, 

292, 296, 298, 304, 306-7, 

321, 324-6, 328. 
Webster, Mass., 13, 30, 38, 43, 

208. 
Weed, Gen. S. H., 266. 
Welsh, David, 335. 



42: 



INDEX OF PERSONS AND PLACES. 



Weldon & Petersburg R. R., 

Wellington, Justus C, 209. 
West Brookneld, Mass., 26. 
Westminster, Mass., 260. 
West Point, 53, 146, 157, 218, 

252, 292, 315. 
West Woods, Ant., Md„ 192, 

194. IQ5- 
Whalon, John, 99. 
Wheelock, Charles H., 209. 

George N., 283. 
Whipple, Gen. A. W., 226. 
White House, Va., 158, 161. 

Washington, D. C, 49. 
White, Joseph, 341. 

Mountains, 10. 

Oak Swamp, Va., 162, 171. 

Plain, Va. , 289. 
Whitinsville, Mass., 29. 
Whitney, William L., 335. 
Whittemore, George, 210. 
Wilbraham Academy, 100. 
Willcox, Gen. C. M., 273-5. 
Wilder, Cassius M., 184. 

George E., 336. 

George O., 337. 



Wilderness. Va., 322-5,334,337. 

Tavern, 322, 323, 326. 
Willard, Col. G. L., 259, 270. 
Williams, Gen. A. S., 174, 

193. 195. 27°, 271,272. 
George S., 336. 
Williamsburg, Va., 157, 162, 

164, 182. 
Williamsport.Md., 53,286,287. 
Wilmington, N. C, 339. 
Willoughby's Run, Gett., 

Pa., 262, 263. 
Wilson, Henry, 244. 
Winchendon, Mass., 14, 21, 

121. 
Winchester, W. Va., 139-40, 

253. 255- 
Winder, Gen. John H., 116. 
Wirtz., Sergt., m. 
Wisconsin, 49, 203. 
Wistar, Lieut.-Col. I. J., 85. 
Wolf Run Shoals, Va., 256. 
Wood, Leonard, 37, 130, 233-4, 



27^, 33, 



337, 
, Va., 



Grove 



Moses, 209. 



287. 



Woods, Charles B., 143. 
Woodward, Edwin P., 38, 141, 

142. 
Thomas N., 119. 
Woonsocket, R.' I., 100. 
Worcester, Mass., 13, 22, 23, 

24, 25, 27, 28, 32-46, 61, 65, 

101, 102, 112, 121, 124, 130, 

132-5, 141, 154, 206, 229- 

30, 236-9, 278, 281, 312,342. 
County, Mass., 10-15, 43, 

45-6, 65, 96-7, 104, 119, 121, 

127, 134, 188. 
Worden, Lafayette, 336. 
Wright, Lafayette, 336. 

Gen. A. R., 269. 
Wyman, Dr. Morrill, 230. 
VALE COLLEGE, 64. 
1 Yeomans, A. B., 186-7, 214, 

286-7, 291-2, 294, 201, 303, 

308,319,338-a, 
Young, Francis F., 210. 

James R., 30. 
York River, Va., 147, 148, 171. 
York River Railroad, Va., 

161. 
Yorktown, Va., 43, 148-57,182,